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Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine.

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Presentation on theme: "Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine College of Veterinary Medicine

2 2006 Avian Influenza This presentation is about Avian Influenza as it affects birds Clinical Symptoms of Avian Influenza

3 2006 Avian Influenza A contagious viral infection and/or disease of many avian species including poultry, wild and exotic birds, ratites, shore birds and migratory waterfowl. The highly pathogenic form of the disease is characterized by severe depression, decrease in egg production, high mortality, edema, hemorrhage, and frank necrosis. All H5 and H7 infections are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Dennis Senne 2005

4 2006 Avian Influenza Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) –Associated with mild illness in poultry –Can evolve into highly pathogenic viruses –Associated with poultry outbreaks worldwide High pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) –Causes high mortality in domestic poultry –Subtypes H5 and H7

5 2006 Avian Influenza H5N1 virus electron micrograph of avian influenza H5N1 virus

6 2006 Avian Influenza Host Range Host Range Exotic BirdsExotic Birds Domestic PoultryDomestic Poultry

7 2006 Avian Influenza Peri-domestic species Occasional isolations of avian influenza virus from starlings and house sparrows (in contact with infected poultry) Replication of some avian influenza virus in these species (experimental)

8 2006 Avian Influenza Natural Reservoirs of Influenza A Viruses Wild aquatic birds Majority are represented by two Orders: by two Orders: 1. Anseriformes (ducks, 1. Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) geese, and swans) Dennis Senne 2005

9 2006 Avian Influenza Natural Reservoirs of Influenza A Viruses 2.Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) Usually show no Usually show no clinical disease clinical disease Dennis Senne 2005

10 2006 Avian Influenza The Muscovy Ducks Natural Reservoir

11 2006 Avian Influenza How are these viruses transmitted and maintained in these species? Transmission: Fecal/Oral route Heavy fecal shedding by infected ducks Long term persistence in water Isolation of AIVs from surface water Maintenance: Bird to bird Persistence in environment

12 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Incubation period 3-5 days Severe depression Decreased food and water consumption Drastic decline in egg production Many birds affected

13 2006 Avian Influenza Turkeys with Avian Influenza Many birds are depressed and huddling cvm.umn.edu

14 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs DehydrationHuddling Subcutaneous swelling of the head and neck area Nasal and oral cavity discharge

15 2006 Avian Influenza Note swollen head, and discharges. Wattle is cyanotic and necrotic.

16 2006 Avian Influenza

17 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Huddling

18 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Ruffled feathers Swollen, cyanotic (blue) combs and wattles Conjunctivitis with respiratory signs

19 2006 Avian Influenza Ruffled feathers Respiratory Symptoms

20 2006 Avian Influenza

21 2006 Avian Influenza Swollen blue, cyanotic combs and wattles

22 2006 Avian Influenza Swollen blue, cyanotic combs and wattles

23 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Edema/necrosis of comb/wattle Cyanosis

24 2006 Avian Influenza Swelling of the wattles

25 2006 Avian Influenza HPAI - Cyanotic comb of an infected chicken on the left compared to a normal chicken on the right.

26 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Subcutaneous hemorrhage of shanks of shanks

27 2006 Avian Influenza Subcutaneous hemorrhage of shanks

28 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhage of the shanks and hocks

29 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Neurological signs (Nervous signs) Similar to Exotic Newcastle Disease

30 2006 Avian Influenza

31 2006 Avian Influenza Neurological signs

32 2006 Avian Influenza Neurological signs Cyanosis Ruffled feathers

33 2006 Avian Influenza Neurological signs Hemorrhages on shanks Ruffled feathers

34 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs CoughingSneezingDiarrhea Sudden death

35 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Huddling Sinusitis Respiratory signs D. Halvorson I. Capua D. Halvorson

36 2006 Avian Influenza

37 2006 Avian Influenza Clinical Signs Sudden onset and high mortality Birds found dead Dennis Senne, 2005

38 2006 Avian Influenza Post Mortem Lesions Post Mortem Lesions Lesions may be absent with sudden death

39 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Head and neck edema Swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles Petechial hemorrhages on internal membrane surfaces

40 2006 Avian Influenza

41 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Excessive mucous exudate in the lumen of the trachea, or severe hemorrhagic tracheitis Petechiae on the inside of the sternum, on the serosa and abdominal fat, serosal surfaces and in the body cavity

42 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions HPAI - Opened swollen wattle.

43 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhages and edema

44 2006 Avian Influenza Edema

45 2006 Avian Influenza Petechial hemorrhages on internal membrane surfaces

46 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Hemorrhages of the trachea

47 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhages of the trachea

48 2006 Avian Influenza

49 2006 Avian Influenza Lung hemorrhage and edema

50 2006 Avian Influenza Note hemorrhages and edema around the heart

51 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Hemorrhages on the mucosal surface of the proventriculus, particularly at the juncture with the gizzard Hemorrhages and erosions of the gizzard lining Hemorrhagic foci on the lymphoid tissues in the intestinal mucosa

52 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhages of the intestine

53 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhages on the mucosal surface of the mucosal surface of the proventriculus, particularly at the juncture with the gizzard

54 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhage in intestinal serosa, mucosa

55 2006 Avian Influenza Hemorrhagic foci on the lymphoid tissues in the intestinal mucosa

56 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Severe congestion of the musculature

57 2006 Avian Influenza Lesions Severe kidney congestion, sometimes with urate deposits in the tubules Hemorrhages and degeneration of the ovary

58 2006 Avian Influenza Differential Diagnosis Clinically indistinguishable from virulent Newcastle Disease Suspect with: Sudden death Drop in egg production Facial edema, cyanotic combs and wattles Petechial hemorrhages

59 2006 Avian Influenza Differential Diagnosis Velogenic Newcastle disease Acute fowl cholera Acute fowl cholera Respiratory diseases, especially infectious laryngotracheitis, Avian pneumovirus, Infectious bronchitis ChlamydiaMycoplasma

60 2006 Avian Influenza Differential diagnosis Water deprivation Heat exhaustion Toxins – food or water borne

61 2006 Avian Influenza Disease Summary Avian influenza is a contagious viral disease of birds characterized by respiratory signs, depression and reduced feed and water intake. In egg laying birds there is a decline in egg production and quality. There are two pathotypes of Avian Influenza virus: the most common is low pathogenic AI (LPAI) and the other is highly pathogenic AI (HPAI).

62 2006 Avian Influenza Disease Summary The most virulent form (HPAI) was once called fowl plague. At the 1981 International Symposium on Avian Influenza, the term fowl plague was replaced with the term "highly virulent" influenza virus infection. The Avian Influenza epidemic of required yet new terms to describe relative pathogenicity of different isolates of the same serotype (nonpathogenic, low-pathogenic, highly pathogenic).

63 2006 Avian Influenza Disease Summary Avian Influenza outbreaks have occurred throughout the world. LPAI is common in large turkey-producing areas, particularly where semi- confinement or range-rearing is still widely practiced. Outbreaks are more sporadic in other areas of the United States. AI can occur in most, if not all, species of birds. In the United States, most outbreaks have been in turkeys. A few outbreaks have occurred in chickens. Humans, horses, pigs, and some wildlife species may be infected with influenza viruses, and a cycle between birds and swine exists.

64 2006 Avian Influenza Disease Summary A chicken outbreak of LPAI in 1983 mutated into HPAI in resulting in a federal-state eradication program that required the depopulation of 17 million birds. Similar outbreaks of LPAI in Mexico in 1992 and Italy in 1999 also mutated into HPAI causing severe losses.

65 2006 Avian Influenza Disease Summary Influenza viruses vary widely in pathogenicity and ability to spread among birds. Two pathotypes are recognized: LPAI and HPAI. These pathotype designations are derived from laboratory inoculation of 8 susceptible chickens; LPAI isolates cause death in 0 to 5 of 8 chickens and HPAI isolates cause death in 6 or more. Although most H5 and H7 isolates are low path viruses, so far all HPAI outbreaks have been due to H5 or H7 viruses.

66 2006 Avian Influenza Special thanks to the staff at Plum Island Animal Diagnostic Center, Dr Corrie Brown and Dr John El-Attrache for the use of images from their presentations. Also, thanks to the Pohler family and to Elisabeth Bush for allowing me to photograph their birds. SUZANNE BURNHAM


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