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Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds

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Presentation on theme: "Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds"— Presentation transcript:

1 Avian Influenza Symptoms in Birds
Texas A&M University College of Veterinary Medicine

2 Clinical Symptoms of Avian Influenza This presentation is about
Corrie This presentation is about Avian Influenza as it affects birds 2006 Avian Influenza

3 Avian Influenza A contagious viral infection and/or disease of many avian species including poultry, wild and exotic birds, ratites, shore birds and migratory waterfowl. The highly pathogenic form of the disease is characterized by severe depression, decrease in egg production, high mortality, edema, hemorrhage, and frank necrosis. All H5 and H7 infections are reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Dennis Senne 2005 Summary by Dennis Senne 2005 2006 Avian Influenza

4 Avian Influenza Low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI)
Associated with mild illness in poultry Can evolve into highly pathogenic viruses Associated with poultry outbreaks worldwide High pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) Causes high mortality in domestic poultry Subtypes H5 and H7 2006 Avian Influenza

5 H5N1 virus electron micrograph of avian influenza H5N1 virus
This is the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza virus that is currently of major concern to domestic bird industry. There is currently no H5N1 infection in domestic poultry at this time although this virus has been cultured from migratory water fowl. electron micrograph of avian influenza H5N1 virus 2006 Avian Influenza

6 Host Range Exotic Birds Domestic Poultry 2006 Avian Influenza

7 Peri-domestic species
Occasional isolations of avian influenza virus from starlings and house sparrows (in contact with infected poultry) Replication of some avian influenza virus in these species (experimental) Ja The ones most likely to be seen in contact with poultry 2006 Avian Influenza

8 Natural Reservoirs of Influenza A Viruses
Wild aquatic birds Majority are represented by two Orders: 1. Anseriformes (ducks, geese, and swans) Dennis Senne 2005 2006 Avian Influenza

9 Natural Reservoirs of Influenza A Viruses
2.Charadriiformes (gulls, terns, and shorebirds) Usually show no clinical disease Dennis Senne 2005 Dennis Senne 2006 Avian Influenza

10 The Muscovy Ducks Natural Reservoir
Waterfowl and shorebirds (wild and domesticated) are the major natural reservoir of influenza viruses. Wild waterfowl are asymptomatic, may excrete virus in the feces for long periods, may be infected with more than one subtype, and often do not develop a detectable antibody response. 2006 Avian Influenza

11 How are these viruses transmitted and maintained in these species?
Transmission: Fecal/Oral route Heavy fecal shedding by infected ducks Long term persistence in water Isolation of AIVs from surface water Maintenance: Bird to bird Persistence in environment ja 2006 Avian Influenza

12 Clinical Signs Incubation period 3-5 days Severe depression
Decreased food and water consumption Drastic decline in egg production Many birds affected 2006 Avian Influenza

13 Turkeys with Avian Influenza
Turkeys with Avian Influenza cvm.umn.edu Many birds are depressed and huddling 2006 Avian Influenza

14 Clinical Signs Dehydration Huddling
Subcutaneous swelling of the head and neck area Nasal and oral cavity discharge 2006 Avian Influenza

15 Note swollen head, and discharges. Wattle is cyanotic and necrotic.
2006 Avian Influenza

16 2006 Avian Influenza

17 Clinical Signs Huddling 2006 Avian Influenza

18 Clinical Signs Ruffled feathers
Swollen, cyanotic (blue) combs and wattles Conjunctivitis with respiratory signs 2006 Avian Influenza

19 Ruffled feathers Respiratory Symptoms 2006 Avian Influenza

20 END Corrie 2006 Avian Influenza

21 Swollen blue, cyanotic combs and wattles
2006 Avian Influenza

22 Swollen blue, cyanotic combs and wattles
2006 Avian Influenza

23 Clinical Signs Edema/necrosis of comb/wattle Cyanosis 2006
Avian Influenza

24 Swelling of the wattles
Dela concha Swelling of the wattles 2006 Avian Influenza

25 HPAI - Cyanotic comb of an infected chicken
on the left compared to a normal chicken on the right. 2006 Avian Influenza

26 Clinical Signs Subcutaneous hemorrhage of shanks 2006 Avian Influenza

27 Subcutaneous hemorrhage of shanks
2006 Avian Influenza

28 Hemorrhage of the shanks and hocks
2006 Avian Influenza

29 Clinical Signs Neurological signs (Nervous signs) Similar to Exotic Newcastle Disease 2006 Avian Influenza

30 EXD Corrie 2006 Avian Influenza

31 Neurological signs 2006 Avian Influenza

32 Neurological signs Cyanosis Ruffled feathers 2006 Avian Influenza

33 Neurological signs Hemorrhages on shanks Ruffled feathers Corrie 2006
Avian Influenza

34 Clinical Signs Coughing Sneezing Diarrhea Sudden death DelaConcha
2006 Avian Influenza

35 Clinical Signs Huddling Sinusitis Respiratory signs I. Capua
D. Halvorson I. Capua D. Halvorson Huddling Sinusitis Respiratory signs 2006 Avian Influenza

36 END Corrie 2006 Avian Influenza

37 Clinical Signs Sudden onset and high mortality Birds found dead 2006
Avian Influenza Dennis Senne, 2005

38 Post Mortem Lesions Lesions may be absent with sudden death
2006 Avian Influenza

39 Lesions Head and neck edema Swollen and cyanotic combs and wattles
Petechial hemorrhages on internal membrane surfaces 2006 Avian Influenza

40 2006 Avian Influenza

41 Lesions Excessive mucous exudate in the lumen of the trachea, or severe hemorrhagic tracheitis Petechiae on the inside of the sternum, on the serosa and abdominal fat, serosal surfaces and in the body cavity 2006 Avian Influenza

42 HPAI - Opened swollen wattle.
Lesions HPAI - Opened swollen wattle. 2006 Avian Influenza

43 Hemorrhages and edema 2006 Avian Influenza

44 Edema 2006 Avian Influenza

45 Petechial hemorrhages on internal membrane surfaces
2006 Avian Influenza

46 Lesions Hemorrhages of the trachea 2006 Avian Influenza

47 Hemorrhages of the trachea
2006 Avian Influenza

48 2006 Avian Influenza

49 Lung hemorrhage and edema
2006 Avian Influenza

50 Note hemorrhages and edema around the heart
2006 Avian Influenza

51 Lesions Hemorrhages on the mucosal surface of the proventriculus, particularly at the juncture with the gizzard Hemorrhages and erosions of the gizzard lining Hemorrhagic foci on the lymphoid tissues in the intestinal mucosa 2006 Avian Influenza

52 Hemorrhages of the intestine
From FAO 2006 Avian Influenza

53 proventriculus, particularly at the juncture with the gizzard
Hemorrhages on the mucosal surface of the proventriculus, particularly at the juncture with the gizzard 2006 Avian Influenza

54 Hemorrhage in intestinal serosa, mucosa
2006 Avian Influenza

55 Hemorrhagic foci on the lymphoid tissues in the intestinal mucosa
2006 Avian Influenza

56 Lesions Severe congestion of the musculature 2006 Avian Influenza

57 Lesions Severe kidney congestion, sometimes with urate deposits in the tubules Hemorrhages and degeneration of the ovary 2006 Avian Influenza

58 Differential Diagnosis
Clinically indistinguishable from virulent Newcastle Disease Suspect with: Sudden death Drop in egg production Facial edema, cyanotic combs and wattles Petechial hemorrhages 2006 Avian Influenza

59 Differential Diagnosis
Velogenic Newcastle disease Acute fowl cholera Respiratory diseases, especially infectious laryngotracheitis, Avian pneumovirus, Infectious bronchitis Chlamydia Mycoplasma 2006 Avian Influenza

60 Differential diagnosis
Water deprivation Heat exhaustion Toxins – food or water borne 2006 Avian Influenza

61 Disease Summary Avian influenza is a contagious viral disease of birds characterized by respiratory signs, depression and reduced feed and water intake. In egg laying birds there is a decline in egg production and quality. There are two pathotypes of Avian Influenza virus: the most common is low pathogenic AI (LPAI) and the other is highly pathogenic AI (HPAI). 2006 Avian Influenza

62 Disease Summary The most virulent form (HPAI) was once called fowl plague. At the 1981 International Symposium on Avian Influenza, the term fowl plague was replaced with the term "highly virulent" influenza virus infection. The Avian Influenza epidemic of required yet new terms to describe relative pathogenicity of different isolates of the same serotype (nonpathogenic, low-pathogenic, highly pathogenic). 2006 Avian Influenza

63 Disease Summary Avian Influenza outbreaks have occurred throughout the world. LPAI is common in large turkey-producing areas, particularly where semi-confinement or range-rearing is still widely practiced. Outbreaks are more sporadic in other areas of the United States. AI can occur in most, if not all, species of birds. In the United States, most outbreaks have been in turkeys. A few outbreaks have occurred in chickens. Humans, horses, pigs, and some wildlife species may be infected with influenza viruses, and a cycle between birds and swine exists. 2006 Avian Influenza

64 Disease Summary A chicken outbreak of LPAI in 1983 mutated into HPAI in resulting in a federal-state eradication program that required the depopulation of 17 million birds. Similar outbreaks of LPAI in Mexico in 1992 and Italy in 1999 also mutated into HPAI causing severe losses. 2006 Avian Influenza

65 Disease Summary Influenza viruses vary widely in pathogenicity and ability to spread among birds. Two pathotypes are recognized: LPAI and HPAI. These pathotype designations are derived from laboratory inoculation of 8 susceptible chickens; LPAI isolates cause death in 0 to 5 of 8 chickens and HPAI isolates cause death in 6 or more. Although most H5 and H7 isolates are low path viruses, so far all HPAI outbreaks have been due to H5 or H7 viruses. 2006 Avian Influenza

66 Special thanks to the staff at Plum Island Animal Diagnostic Center,
Dr Corrie Brown and Dr John El-Attrache for the use of images from their presentations. Also, thanks to the Pohler family and to Elisabeth Bush for allowing me to photograph their birds. SUZANNE BURNHAM Corrie 2006 Avian Influenza


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