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SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Reflux & the Voice.

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Presentation on theme: "SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Reflux & the Voice."— Presentation transcript:

1 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Reflux & the Voice

2 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko What is reflux?

3 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Reflux = “Backflow”  7% of US population have daily complaints of heartburn (Talley 1992).  18 million self-medicate with antacids at least twice weekly

4 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) vs. Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR)  GERD involves lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction  LPR involves both upper and lower esophageal sphincter dysfunction  Until recently, LPR often considered to be under- diagnosed/under-treated  Koufman (1991, 2000) reports LPR present in 4-10% of attendees of otolaryngology clinic (Koufman, 1991) LPR present in 55% of patients with hoarseness (Koufman, 2000)

5 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Conditions reported to be associated with reflux  Reflux laryngitis (posterior)  Subglottic stenosis  Carcinoma of the larynx  Carcinoma of esophagus  Contact ulcers and granulomas  Laryngospasm  Paradoxical Vocal Cord Motion  Globus pharyngeus  Vocal nodules  Reinke’s edema  Recurrent leukoplakia  Recurrent pneumonitis  Pharyngitis  Asthma

6 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Why is LPR not recognized?  Patients with LPR usually deny symptoms of heartburn or regurgitation (silent reflux)  Findings of LPR on laryngeal exam vary considerably  Traditional tests for GERD lack both sensitivity and specificity for LPR  Therapeutic trials using traditional antireflux therapy often fail (false negatives)

7 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko How is LPR Identified?  Patient symptoms  Vocal and Laryngoscopic signs  Ambulatory 24 hour double/triple probe pH monitoring Considered by some to be diagnostic “Gold Standard”  Multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII) measures presence of liquid and gaseous events in upper aerodigestive tract  Barium esophagram  Esophagoscopy  Esophageal manometry  Trial period of acid suppression treatment (PPI for at least three months) NOTE: Signs and symptoms are not pathognomonic

8 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Symptoms of LPR Koufman (1991)  Chronic dysphonia (92 %)  Intermittent dysphonia  Vocal fatigue  Nocturnal choking  Chronic throat clearing  Excessive throat mucus  Chronic cough (44%)  Dysphagia (27%)  Globus pharyngeus (33 %) Book et al. (2002)  Throat clearing (98%)  Persistent cough (97%)  Globus pharyngeus (95%)  Hoarseness (95%)

9 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Reflux Symptom Index The Reflux Symptom Index A score > 10 may indicate significant reflux A score > 13 definitely abnormal

10 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Typical GI Patient vs. Typical ENT Patient (Koufman, 1991) GIENT Symptoms heartburn and/or regurgitationYN hoarseness, dysphagia, globus, throat clearing, cough etc. NY Findings endoscopic esophagitisYN laryngeal inflammationNY

11 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Laryngoscopic Signs

12 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko The Reflux Finding Score (Belafsky et al. 2002) ‘Groove’ along the full margin of the vocal fold Diminished size of the ventricle revealed by a swelling of the ventricular bands Erythema (redness) Hyperemia (increased blood flow to tissue) Edema localized in the vocal folds Edema throughout the larynx Granuloma or granulation tissue anywhere in the larynx Thick, white endolaryngeal mucus on the vocal folds or elsewhere in the endolarynx. Score of 7 or greater: likely to have LPR

13 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko LPR: Tissue Changes Interarytenoid bar Vocal fold edema Interarytenoid granuloma Granulomas

14 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko LPR: Tissue Changes

15 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko From Vavricka et al. (2007) (A) posterior pharyngeal wall cobblestoning (B) interarytenoid bar with erythema (C) posterior commissure with erythema and surface irregularity (D) posterior cricoid wall edema (E) arytenoid complex with apex edema, erythema, and medial wall erythema (F) true vocal folds with edema (G) false vocal folds erythema, (H) anterior commissure erythema (I) epiglottis erythema (J) aryepiglottic fold edema.

16 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Diagnostic value of laryngeal signs? Vavricka et al. (2007)

17 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Diagnostic value of laryngeal signs? Hicks et al. (2002)

18 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko GIENT Diagnostic tests Abnormal esophageal radiographyY sometimes Esophageal pH monitoringYY Pharyngeal pH monitoringNY Pattern of reflux Supine (nocturnal)Ysometimes Upright (awake) sometimesY Typical GI Patient vs. Typical ENT Patient (Koufman, 1991)

19 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko pH monitoring +/- MII  “Gold standard” for GERD  Some problems for diagnosing LPR Problems  Double/triple probe is required  Probe placements effects measures  Disagreement about threshold values  There can be both liquid and gaseous refluxate – gas can be more problematic for LPR but not well monitored  Non-acid (alkaline) refluxate

20 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Are we good at diagnosing LPR? Issues  Which signs, which symptoms?  Specificity and sensitivity  Examination procedures  Differential diagnosis

21 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Clinical Decision Making From Ford (2005)

22 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Treatment

23 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Common anti-reflux Meds Antacids  buffers pH  e.g. Tums, Rolaids  Not considered very effective with LPR H 2 antagonists  Blocks histamine action which decreases acid production  e.g. Tagamet, Ranitidine, Zantac  Not preferred for LPR Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI)  Blocks action of proton pump  Most potent acid suppression medication  e.g. Omeprazole (Prilosec), Nexium, Prevacid  Drug of choice for LPR

24 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko From Ford (2005)

25 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Conventional treatment for suspected LPR  Dietary modification No eating/drinking within 3 hrs of bedtime Avoid overeating or reclining after meals Avoid fried foods and adhere to low fat diet Avoid coffee, tea, chocolate, mints and soda (refluxogenic) Avoid caffeine of all kinds Avoid alcohol especially in the evening Avoid spicy, tomato based products, fruit juices  Lifestyle modification Elevate head of bed 4-6 inches Avoid wearing tight fitting clothing or belts Cease tobacco use  Medication Omeprazole (PPI) 20 mg b.i.d. (am and pm) Treatment should continue for at least 3 months (up to 6 mos.)

26 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko GIENT Response to treatment Dietary or lifestyle modificationYsometimes Rate of success with H 2 blockers85%65% Rate of success with omeprazole99%99% Assuming adequate dosage and duration of therapy Typical GI Patient vs. Typical ENT Patient (Koufman, 1991)

27 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Cochrane Database From Cochrane Reviews (2005) Also Williams et al. (2004)Williams et al. (2004)

28 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Fundoplication (Nissen)  tightens LES by wrapping the upper part of the stomach around the lower part of the esophagus.  Procedure may Be open (external incisions) Use endoscopy (small external incisions)  reports of 90 % of patients undergoing the endoscopic Nissen fundoplication are symptom free after surgery.  Suggestions that Tx is more effective for GERD vs. LPR

29 SPPA 6400 Voice Disorders - Tasko Case Illustrations


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