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Blood Vessels. Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Extracellular.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood Vessels. Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Extracellular."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood Vessels

2 Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Intracellular Fluid (ICF): Fluid located within the cell; cytosol Extracellular Fluid (ECF): Fluid outside of body cells; plasma and interstitial fluid Extracellular Fluid (ECF): Fluid outside of body cells; plasma and interstitial fluid Interstitial Fluid (IF): The portion of extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissues; tissue fluid Interstitial Fluid (IF): The portion of extracellular fluid that fills the microscopic spaces between the cells of tissues; tissue fluid

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4 Bulk Flow Filtration and reabsorption of fluids due to pressure (osmotic/hydrostatic) differences Filtration and reabsorption of fluids due to pressure (osmotic/hydrostatic) differences Balance of pressures = net filtration pressure (NFP) Balance of pressures = net filtration pressure (NFP) Starling's Law of the Capillaries - movement of fluid between plasma and the interstitial fluid is in a state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary Starling's Law of the Capillaries - movement of fluid between plasma and the interstitial fluid is in a state of near equilibrium at the arterial and venous ends of a capillary

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6 Blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP)= pressure of blood acting against the capillary walls forcing fluids out of capillaries Blood hydrostatic pressure (BHP)= pressure of blood acting against the capillary walls forcing fluids out of capillaries Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) = pressure acting outside the capillaries pushing fluid in Interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (IFHP) = pressure acting outside the capillaries pushing fluid in Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)= pressure as a result of moving fluid into capillaries due to attraction to non diffusible solutes (i.e. plasma proteins) Blood colloid osmotic pressure (BCOP)= pressure as a result of moving fluid into capillaries due to attraction to non diffusible solutes (i.e. plasma proteins)

7 Edema - filtration exceeds reabsorption resulting in increased interstitial fluid volume; causes include: Edema - filtration exceeds reabsorption resulting in increased interstitial fluid volume; causes include: Increased blood hydrostatic pressure in capillaries (cardiac failure, blood clots) Increased blood hydrostatic pressure in capillaries (cardiac failure, blood clots) Decreased concentration of plasma proteins (burns, malnutrition, kidney dis.) Decreased concentration of plasma proteins (burns, malnutrition, kidney dis.) Increased permeability of capillaries Increased permeability of capillaries Increased extracellular fluid volume Increased extracellular fluid volume Blockage of lymphatic vessels (radical mastectomy) Blockage of lymphatic vessels (radical mastectomy) Edema is not detectable in tissues until IF is increased 30% above normal Edema is not detectable in tissues until IF is increased 30% above normal

8 Blood flows from high pressure (arterial) to low pressure (venous). Arteries-arterioles-capillaries-venules-veins Pressure: aorta: mmHg arteries: arterioles: capillaries: venules: veins: 5-10 vena cava: 0-5

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10 NFP = (BHP+IFOP) - (BCOP+IFHP) Arterial end: NFP=(35+1)-(26+0)=(36)-(26)=10 mmHg Venous end: NFP=(16+1)-(26+0)=(17)-(26)= -9 mmHg

11 Definition of Terms Resistance =the opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels. Resistance =the opposition to flow and is a measure of the amount of friction blood encounters as it passes through vessels. Blood viscosity Blood viscosity Total blood vessel length Total blood vessel length Blood vessel diameter Blood vessel diameter.

12 Blood Pressure =the force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the blood contained within it (expressed in mm Hg). Blood Pressure =the force per unit area exerted on a vessel wall by the blood contained within it (expressed in mm Hg). Arterial blood pressure Arterial blood pressure Systolic pressure Systolic pressure Diastolic pressure Diastolic pressure Pulse pressure Pulse pressure Mean arteriole pressure Mean arteriole pressure Capillary blood pressure Capillary blood pressure Venous blood pressure Venous blood pressure

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14 Venous Blood Pressure Muscular pump Muscular pump Respiratory pump Respiratory pump

15 Factors affecting Blood Pressure Cardiac Output Cardiac Output Increased CO = increased BP Increased CO = increased BP Decreased CO = decreased BP Decreased CO = decreased BP Peripheral Resistance Peripheral Resistance Increased vasoconstriction = increased BP Increased vasoconstriction = increased BP Increased vasodilation = decreased BP Increased vasodilation = decreased BP Blood Volume Blood Volume Increased blood volume = increased BP Increased blood volume = increased BP Decreased blood volume = decreased BP Decreased blood volume = decreased BP

16 Maintaining BP (Short-term: neural) Vasomotor center Vasomotor center Baroreceptors Baroreceptors Chemoreceptors Chemoreceptors Hypothalamus and cerebral cortex Hypothalamus and cerebral cortex

17 Peripheral chemoreceptors

18 Maintaining BP (Short-term: chemical) Adrenal medulla hormone (Adrenalin) Adrenal medulla hormone (Adrenalin) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) Angiotensin II Angiotensin II Nitric oxide Nitric oxide Alcohol Alcohol Endothelin Endothelin

19 Maintaining BP (Long-term) Renal Regulation Renal Regulation High blood pressure due to increased blood volume causes decreased reabsorption in kidneys resulting in a decrease in blood volume and a lowering of blood pressure. High blood pressure due to increased blood volume causes decreased reabsorption in kidneys resulting in a decrease in blood volume and a lowering of blood pressure. Renin-angiotensin II mechanism=when artery blood pressure drops, renin triggers angiotensin II production which causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure Renin-angiotensin II mechanism=when artery blood pressure drops, renin triggers angiotensin II production which causes vasoconstriction and increased blood pressure

20 Blood flow =the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period Blood flow =the volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period

21 Blood pressure: Blood pressure: Heart pumps blood through vessels. Blood flow is under pressure due to resistance in the system F= P R F= blood flow P= pressure R= resistance Blood flow is directly proportional to changes in blood pressure. Blood flow is inversely proportional to peripheral resistance.

22 Systolic: Ventricles ejecting blood into the aorta Diastole:: ventricles relaxing, pressure drops in aorta Difference between the two is called pulse pressure. What is the pulse pressure on a normal BP of 120/80? 40mm/Hg

23 Pulse pressure is increased in conditions like arteriosclerosis. Pulse pressure is increased in conditions like arteriosclerosis. Total peripheral resistance is controlled by arterioles. BP is controlled by arterioles. Total peripheral resistance is controlled by arterioles. BP is controlled by arterioles.

24 Arteries and veins 1- Tunica intima: inside layer of the vessel. in veins= valves in veins= valves 2- Tunica media: smooth muscle is thicker in arteries and thinner in veins. Can dilate and constrict. - vasoconstriction and vasodilation 3- Tunica adventitia: outer layer. Thicker in veins

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28 Capillaries: - Extensions of the inner layer of the arteriole: endothelium (simple squamous) - Continuous: skin, muscles and blood brain barrier - Fenestrated: openings called pores that permeable to fluid and small solutes. Found in small intestine (absorption), endocrine glands (hormone release) and kidneys (filtration of blood) - Sinusoids: liver, bone marrow and spleen Very leaky.

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30 Capillary Transport Mechanisms

31 Pulse Points

32 Vascular anatomy: Vascular anatomy:Arterial: Major branches off of aorta: Aortic sinus (ascending): right and left coronary artery Arch of aorta: 1- Brachiocephalic trunk which bifurcates into right subclavian a. and the right common carotid a. 2- Left common carotid a. 3- Left subclavian a.

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34 Descending aorta: Descending aorta: Thoracic aorta lies anterior to the vertebral column and above the diaphragm Branches are: pericardial a. esophageal a. esophageal a. posterior intercostal a. Abdominal aorta lies below the diaphragm. Branches are: celiac a. - left gastric a. - hepatic a. - splenic a. (tortuous)

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36 Phrenic a.: diaphragm Superior mesenteric a.: jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon and transverse colon. Inferior mesenteric a.: descending, sigmoid colon and rectum Renal and suprarenal a.: supplies blood to the paired kidneys and adrenal glands supplies blood to the paired kidneys and adrenal glands

37 Gonadal a.: Male: spermatic a. that descend through the inguinal canal to supply blood to the testes. Male: spermatic a. that descend through the inguinal canal to supply blood to the testes. Female: ovarian a. Female: ovarian a. Middle sacral a.: long slender a. descending anterior to the lumbar vertebra and sacrum to supply blood to sacrum and coccyx.

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39 Abdominal aorta will bifurcate into left and right common iliac arteries. - These further divide into: - internal iliac a. - external iliac a. Internal iliac a.: iliolumbar a.: ilium and back muscles superior and inferior gluteal a.: buttocks internal pudendal a.: external genitalia middle rectal a.: rectum

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41 External iliac a.: - main blood supply to lower limb - Between the pubis symphysis and the ASIS it becomes the femoral a. Femoral a.: - superficial circumflex iliac a.: groin - deep femoral a.: muscles of thigh and hip joint - deep geniculate a.: distal end of thigh Popliteal a.: knee joint - Will bifurcate into anterior and posterior tibial a.

42 Posterior a. branches into fibular a. (largest branch) Ant. tibial a. becomes dorsalis pedis a. (pedal pulse)

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44 Arm, head and neck. Arm, head and neck. Subclavian a.: - vertebral a.: through transverse foramina into brain through foramen magnum. - becomes single basilar a. along the ventral aspect of the brainstem - basilar a. divides into two post. cerebral a. - becomes part of the Circle of Willis at base of brain

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46 - thyrocervical a.: thyroid and parathyroid glands pharynx and trachea. Common carotid a.: branch into internal and external carotid a. External carotid a.: - superior thyroid a. - lingual a. - facial a. - occipital a.

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48 Internal carotid a.: - Ophthalmic a. - Post. communicating a. (circle of Willis) Terminate in the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. These vessels supply blood to the motor, sensory and speech cortices of the brain.

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51 Arm: Subclavian a. give rise to axillary a. - humoral circumflex a. Axillary becomes brachial a. (BP) - deep brachial a. supplies triceps At the elbow the brachial a. divides into ulnar and radial a. (pulse).

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54 Major Veins Superior vena cava Superior vena cava braciocephalic braciocephalic external/internal jugular external/internal jugular vertebral vertebral subclavian subclavian axillary axillary cephalic cephalic

55 brachial brachial basilic basilic median cubital median cubital ulnar ulnar Radial Radial inferior vena cava inferior vena cava splenic hepatic splenic hepatic renal renal superior mesenteric superior mesenteric inferior mesenteric inferior mesenteric

56 common iliac common iliac external/internal iliac external/internal iliac femoral femoral great saphenous great saphenous popliteal popliteal anterior/posterior anterior/posterior tibial tibial fibular fibular dorsal digital dorsal digital

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59 Clinical corner Aneurysm - a balloon-like outpocketing of an artery wall that places the artery at risk for rupture Aneurysm - a balloon-like outpocketing of an artery wall that places the artery at risk for rupture Microangiopathic lesion - an abnormal thickening of a capillary basement membrane due to the deposit of glycoproteins Microangiopathic lesion - an abnormal thickening of a capillary basement membrane due to the deposit of glycoproteins Phlebitis - inflammation of a vein accompanied by painful throbbing and redness of the skin Phlebitis - inflammation of a vein accompanied by painful throbbing and redness of the skin Hypotension (low BP) and hypertension (high BP) Hypotension (low BP) and hypertension (high BP) Angiogenesis - formation of new blood vessels Angiogenesis - formation of new blood vessels Claudication - pain and lameness or limping caused by defective circulation of the blood in vessels of the limbs (Intermittant) Claudication - pain and lameness or limping caused by defective circulation of the blood in vessels of the limbs (Intermittant) Occlusion - the closure or obstruction of the lumen of a structure such as a blood vessel Occlusion - the closure or obstruction of the lumen of a structure such as a blood vessel Hypovolemic shock - large-scale blood loss followed by "thready" pulse Hypovolemic shock - large-scale blood loss followed by "thready" pulse White coat hypertension!!! White coat hypertension!!!


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