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Medical Nutrition Therapy in Pulmonary Disease. Malnutrition and the Pulmonary System Malnutrition impairs Respiratory muscle function Respiratory muscle.

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Presentation on theme: "Medical Nutrition Therapy in Pulmonary Disease. Malnutrition and the Pulmonary System Malnutrition impairs Respiratory muscle function Respiratory muscle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Medical Nutrition Therapy in Pulmonary Disease

2 Malnutrition and the Pulmonary System Malnutrition impairs Respiratory muscle function Respiratory muscle function Ventilatory drive Ventilatory drive Response to hypoxia Response to hypoxia Pulmonary defense mechanisms Pulmonary defense mechanisms

3 Effects of Malnutrition in Pts without Lung Disease Respiratory muscle strength ↓ by 37% Respiratory muscle strength ↓ by 37% Maximum voluntary ventilation ↓ by 41% (1) Maximum voluntary ventilation ↓ by 41% (1) Vital capacity (lung volume) ↓ 63% (1) Vital capacity (lung volume) ↓ 63% (1) Diaphragmatic muscle mass ↓ to 60% of normal in underweight patients who died of other ailments (2) Diaphragmatic muscle mass ↓ to 60% of normal in underweight patients who died of other ailments (2) 1.Aurora N, Rochester, D. Am Rev Respir Dis 126:5-8, Aurora N, Rochester D. J Appl Physiol: Respirat Environ Exercise physiol 52:64-70, 1982

4 Effects of Malnutrition in Pts with Pulmonary Disease Decreased cough and inability to mobilize secretions Decreased cough and inability to mobilize secretions Atelectasis and pneumonia Atelectasis and pneumonia Prolonged mechanical ventilation and difficulty weaning with prolonged ICU stay Prolonged mechanical ventilation and difficulty weaning with prolonged ICU stay

5 Effects of Malnutrition in Pts with Pulmonary Disease Altered host immune response and cell-mediated immunity Altered host immune response and cell-mediated immunity Contributes to chronic or repeated pulmonary infections Contributes to chronic or repeated pulmonary infections Decreased surfactant production Decreased surfactant production Decreased lung elasticity Decreased lung elasticity Decreased ability to repair injured lung tissue Decreased ability to repair injured lung tissue

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7 Normal Lung Anatomy

8 Selected Airway Disorders

9 Chronic Pulmonary Disorders Bronchopulmonary displasia Bronchopulmonary displasia Cystic fibrosis Cystic fibrosis Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Bronchial asthma Bronchial asthma Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

10 Acute Pulmonary Disorders Pulmonary aspiration Pulmonary aspiration Pneumonia Pneumonia Tuberculosis Tuberculosis Cancer of the lung Cancer of the lung Acute respiratory distress syndrome Acute respiratory distress syndrome Pulmonary failure Pulmonary failure

11 Pulmonary Conditions w/ Nutritional Implications Neonate Bronchopulmonary displasia (BPD) Obstruction Cystic fibrosis (CF) Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Emphysema Emphysema Chronic bronchitis Chronic bronchitis Asthma Asthma Tumor Lung cancer

12 Pulmonary Conditions w/ Nutritional Implications InfectionPneumonia Tuberculosis (TB) Respiratory Failure Acute respiratory failure Lung transplantation Neuro- muscular Abnormalities Muscular dystrophy Paralysis

13 Pulmonary Conditions w/ Nutritional Implications SkeletalOsteoporosisScoliosis Cardiovascular Pulmonary edema Endocrine Severe obesity Prader-Willi syndrome

14 Adverse Effects of Lung Disease on Nutritional Status Increased energy expenditure Increased work of breathing Increased work of breathing Chronic infection Chronic infection Medical treatments (e.g. bronchodilators, chest physical therapy Medical treatments (e.g. bronchodilators, chest physical therapy

15 Adverse Effects of Lung Disease on Nutritional Status Reduced intake Fluid restriction Fluid restriction Shortness of breath Shortness of breath Decreased oxygen saturation when eating Decreased oxygen saturation when eating Anorexia due to chronic disease Anorexia due to chronic disease Gastrointestinal distress and vomiting Gastrointestinal distress and vomiting

16 Adverse Effects of Lung Disease on Nutritional Status Additional limitations Difficulty preparing food due to fatigue Difficulty preparing food due to fatigue Lack of financial resources Lack of financial resources Impaired feeding skills (for infants and children) Impaired feeding skills (for infants and children) Altered metabolism Altered metabolism

17 Chronic Lung Disease

18 Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Pathophysiology Chronic lung condition in newborns that often follows respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and treatment with oxygen Chronic lung condition in newborns that often follows respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and treatment with oxygen Characterized by broncheolar metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis Characterized by broncheolar metaplasia and interstitial fibrosis Occurs most frequently in infants who are premature or low birth weight Occurs most frequently in infants who are premature or low birth weight

19 BPD: Signs and Symptoms Hypercapnea (CO2 retention) Hypercapnea (CO2 retention) Tachypnea Tachypnea Wheezing Wheezing Dyspnea Dyspnea Recurrent respiratory infections Recurrent respiratory infections Cor pulmonale (right ventricular enlargement of the heart) Cor pulmonale (right ventricular enlargement of the heart)

20 Growth Failure in BPD Increased energy needs Increased energy needs Inadequate dietary intake Inadequate dietary intake Gastroesophageal reflux Gastroesophageal reflux Emotional deprivation Emotional deprivation Chronic hypoxia Chronic hypoxia

21 Goals of Nutritional Management in BPD Meet nutritional needs Meet nutritional needs Promote linear growth Promote linear growth Develop age-appropriate feeding skills Develop age-appropriate feeding skills Maintain fluid balance Maintain fluid balance

22 Energy Needs in BPD REE in infants with BPD is 25-50% higher than in age-matched controls REE in infants with BPD is 25-50% higher than in age-matched controls Babies with growth failure may have needs 50% higher Babies with growth failure may have needs 50% higher Energy needs in acute phase (PN, controlled temperature) kcals/kg Energy needs in acute phase (PN, controlled temperature) kcals/kg Energy needs in convalescence (oral feeds, activity, temperature regulation) as high as kcals/kg Energy needs in convalescence (oral feeds, activity, temperature regulation) as high as kcals/kg

23 Protein Needs in Babies with BPD Protein: within advised range for infants of comparable post- conceptional age Protein: within advised range for infants of comparable post- conceptional age As energy density of the diet is increased by the addition of fat and carbohydrate, protein should still provide 7% or more of total kcals As energy density of the diet is increased by the addition of fat and carbohydrate, protein should still provide 7% or more of total kcals

24 Macronutrient Mix in BPD Fat and carbohydrate should be added to formula only after it has been concentrated to 24 kcals/oz to keep protein high enough Fat and carbohydrate should be added to formula only after it has been concentrated to 24 kcals/oz to keep protein high enough Fat provides EFA and energy when tolerance for fluid and carbohydrate is limited Fat provides EFA and energy when tolerance for fluid and carbohydrate is limited Excess CHO increases RQ and CO2 output Excess CHO increases RQ and CO2 output

25 Fluid in BPD Infants with BPD may require fluid restriction, sodium restriction, and long term treatment with diuretics Infants with BPD may require fluid restriction, sodium restriction, and long term treatment with diuretics Use of parenteral lipids or calorically dense enteral feeds may help the infant meet energy needs Use of parenteral lipids or calorically dense enteral feeds may help the infant meet energy needs

26 Mineral Needs in BPD Often driven by the baby’s premature status Often driven by the baby’s premature status Lack of mineral stores as a result of prematurity (iron, zinc, calcium) Lack of mineral stores as a result of prematurity (iron, zinc, calcium) Growth delay Growth delay Medications: diuretics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, cardiac antiarrhythmics, corticosteroids associated with loss of minerals including chloride, potassium, calcium Medications: diuretics, bronchodilators, antibiotics, cardiac antiarrhythmics, corticosteroids associated with loss of minerals including chloride, potassium, calcium

27 Vitamin Needs in BPD Interest in antioxidants, including vitamin A for role in developing epithelial cells of the respiratory tract Interest in antioxidants, including vitamin A for role in developing epithelial cells of the respiratory tract Provide intake based on the DRI, including total energy, to promote catchup growth Provide intake based on the DRI, including total energy, to promote catchup growth

28 Feeding Strategies in BPD Calorically dense formulas or boosted breast milk (monitor fluid status and urinary output) Calorically dense formulas or boosted breast milk (monitor fluid status and urinary output) Small, frequent feedings Small, frequent feedings Use of a soft nipple Use of a soft nipple Nasogastric or gastrostomy tube feedings Nasogastric or gastrostomy tube feedings

29 Feeding Strategies in Gastroesophageal Reflux Thickened feedings (add rice cereal to formula) Thickened feedings (add rice cereal to formula) Upright positioning Upright positioning Medications like antacids or histamine H2 blockers Medications like antacids or histamine H2 blockers Surgical fundoplication Surgical fundoplication

30 Long Term Feeding Problems in BPD History of unpleasant oral experiences (intubation, frequent suctioning, recurrent vomiting) History of unpleasant oral experiences (intubation, frequent suctioning, recurrent vomiting) History of non-oral feedings History of non-oral feedings Delayed introduction of solids Delayed introduction of solids Discomfort or choking associated with eating solids Discomfort or choking associated with eating solids Infants may tire easily while breast-feeding or bottle feeding Infants may tire easily while breast-feeding or bottle feeding May require intervention of interdisciplinary feeding team May require intervention of interdisciplinary feeding team

31 Cystic Fibrosis Inherited autosomal recessive disorder Inherited autosomal recessive disorder 2-5% of the white population are heterozygous 2-5% of the white population are heterozygous CF incidence of 1:2500 live births CF incidence of 1:2500 live births 30,000 people treated at CF centers in the U.S. 30,000 people treated at CF centers in the U.S. Survival is improving; median age of patients has exceeded 30 years Survival is improving; median age of patients has exceeded 30 years

32 Cystic Fibrosis Epithelial cells and exocrine glands secrete abnormal mucus (thick) Epithelial cells and exocrine glands secrete abnormal mucus (thick) Affects respiratory tract, sweat, salivary, intestine, pancreas, liver, reproductive tract Affects respiratory tract, sweat, salivary, intestine, pancreas, liver, reproductive tract

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34 Diagnosis of Cystic Fibrosis Neonatal screening provides opportunity to prevent malnutrition in CF infants Neonatal screening provides opportunity to prevent malnutrition in CF infants Sweat test (Na and Cl >60 mEq/L) Sweat test (Na and Cl >60 mEq/L) Chronic lung disease Chronic lung disease Failure to thrive Failure to thrive Malabsorption Malabsorption Family history Family history

35 Nutritional Implications of CF Infants born with meconium ileus are highly likely to have CF Infants born with meconium ileus are highly likely to have CF 85% of persons with CF have pancreatic insufficiency 85% of persons with CF have pancreatic insufficiency Plugs of mucus reduce the digestive enzymes released from the pancreas causing maldigestion of food and malabsorption of nutrients Plugs of mucus reduce the digestive enzymes released from the pancreas causing maldigestion of food and malabsorption of nutrients

36 Nutritional Implications of CF Decreased bicarbonate secretion reduces digestive enzyme activity Decreased bicarbonate secretion reduces digestive enzyme activity Decreased bile acid reabsorption contributes to fat malabsorption Decreased bile acid reabsorption contributes to fat malabsorption Excessive mucus lining the GI tract prevents nutrient absorption by the microvilli Excessive mucus lining the GI tract prevents nutrient absorption by the microvilli

37 Gastrointestinal Complications of CF Bulky, foul-smelling stools Bulky, foul-smelling stools Cramping and intestinal obstruction Cramping and intestinal obstruction Rectal prolapse Rectal prolapse Liver involvement Liver involvement Pancreatic damage causes impaired glucose tolerance (50% of adults with CF) and development of diabetes (15% of adults with CF) Pancreatic damage causes impaired glucose tolerance (50% of adults with CF) and development of diabetes (15% of adults with CF)

38 Nutritional Care Goals Control malabsorption Control malabsorption Provide adequate nutrients for growth or maintain weight for height or pulmonary function Provide adequate nutrients for growth or maintain weight for height or pulmonary function Prevent nutritional deficiencies Prevent nutritional deficiencies

39 Common Treatments Pancreatic enzyme replacement Pancreatic enzyme replacement Adjust macronutrients for symptoms Adjust macronutrients for symptoms Nutrients for growth Nutrients for growth Meconium ileus equivalent: intestinal obstruction (enzymes, fiber, fluids, exercise, stool softeners) Meconium ileus equivalent: intestinal obstruction (enzymes, fiber, fluids, exercise, stool softeners)

40 Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Introduced in the early 1980s Introduced in the early 1980s Enteric-coated enzyme microspheres withstand acidic environment of the stomach Enteric-coated enzyme microspheres withstand acidic environment of the stomach Release enzymes in the duodenum, where they digest protein, fat and carbohydrate Release enzymes in the duodenum, where they digest protein, fat and carbohydrate

41 Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Dosage depends on Degree of pancreatic insufficiency Degree of pancreatic insufficiency Quantity of food eaten Quantity of food eaten Fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of food eaten Fat, protein, and carbohydrate content of food eaten Type of enzymes used Type of enzymes used

42 Pancreatic Enzyme Replacement Enzyme dosage limited to 2500 lipase units per kilogram of body weight per meal Enzyme dosage limited to 2500 lipase units per kilogram of body weight per meal Adjusted empirically to control gastrointestinal symptoms, including steatorrhea, and promote growth Adjusted empirically to control gastrointestinal symptoms, including steatorrhea, and promote growth Fecal fat or nitrogen balance studies may help to evaluate the adequacy of enzyme supplementation Fecal fat or nitrogen balance studies may help to evaluate the adequacy of enzyme supplementation

43 Distal Intestinal Obstruction Syndrome AKA recurrent intestinal impaction AKA recurrent intestinal impaction Occurs in children and adults Occurs in children and adults Prevention includes adequate enzymes, fluids, dietary fiber, and regular exercise Prevention includes adequate enzymes, fluids, dietary fiber, and regular exercise Treatment involves stool softeners, laxatives, hyperosmolar enemas, intestinal lavage Treatment involves stool softeners, laxatives, hyperosmolar enemas, intestinal lavage

44 Estimation of Energy Needs in CF Use WHO equations to estimate BMR Use WHO equations to estimate BMR Multiply by activity coefficient + disease coefficient Multiply by activity coefficient + disease coefficient TEE – BMR X (AC + DC) TEE – BMR X (AC + DC) Disease coefficient is based on lung function Disease coefficient is based on lung function

45 Disease Coefficient in CF Normal lung function = 0.0 Normal lung function = 0.0 Moderate lung disease = 0.2 Moderate lung disease = 0.2 –FEV % of that predicted Severe lung disease = 0.3 Severe lung disease = 0.3 –FEV1 <40% of that predicted FEV = forced expiratory volume FEV = forced expiratory volume

46 Example Equation TEE in CF Male patient 22 years old, weight 54 kg, relatively sedentary Male patient 22 years old, weight 54 kg, relatively sedentary FEV1 is 60% of predicted (moderate lung disease) FEV1 is 60% of predicted (moderate lung disease) TEE = BMR X ( ) TEE = BMR X ( ) TEE = [(15.3 (54) + 679] X 1.7 TEE = [(15.3 (54) + 679] X 1.7 TEE = 2559 kcals TEE = 2559 kcals

47 Calculate the Daily Energy Requirement (DER) Takes into account steatorrhea Takes into account steatorrhea Pancreatic sufficiency: TEE = DER Pancreatic sufficiency: TEE = DER –Pancreatic sufficiency is Coefficient of fat absorption >93% of intake Pancreatic insufficiency: DER = TEE (0.93/CFA) Pancreatic insufficiency: DER = TEE (0.93/CFA) –CFA is a fraction of fat intake based on stool collections

48 Calculation of DER in CF 72-hour fecal fat collections reveals that CFA is 78% of intake 72-hour fecal fat collections reveals that CFA is 78% of intake DER = TEE X (.93/CFA) DER = TEE X (.93/CFA) = 2559 X (0.93/.78) = 2559 X (0.93/.78) = 2559 X 1.19 = 2559 X 1.19 DER = 3045 kcals/day DER = 3045 kcals/day

49 Protein in CF Protein needs are increased in CF due to malabsorption Protein needs are increased in CF due to malabsorption If energy needs are met, protein needs are usually met by following typical American diet (15-20% protein) or use RDA If energy needs are met, protein needs are usually met by following typical American diet (15-20% protein) or use RDA

50 Fat Intake in CF Fat intake 35-40% of calories, as tolerated Fat intake 35-40% of calories, as tolerated Helps provide required energy, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Helps provide required energy, essential fatty acids and fat-soluble vitamins Limits volume of food needed to meet energy demands and improves palatability of the diet Limits volume of food needed to meet energy demands and improves palatability of the diet EFA deficiency sometimes occurs in CF patients despite intake and pancreatic enzymes EFA deficiency sometimes occurs in CF patients despite intake and pancreatic enzymes

51 Symptoms of Fat Intolerance Increased frequency of stools Increased frequency of stools Greasy stools Greasy stools Abdominal cramping Abdominal cramping

52 Carbohydrate in CF Eventually intake may need to be modified if glucose intolerance develops Eventually intake may need to be modified if glucose intolerance develops Some patients develop lactose intolerance Some patients develop lactose intolerance

53 Vitamins in CF With pancreatic enzymes, water soluble vitamins usually adequately absorbed with daily multivitamin With pancreatic enzymes, water soluble vitamins usually adequately absorbed with daily multivitamin Will need high potency supplementation of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, K, E) Will need high potency supplementation of fat soluble vitamins (A, D, K, E)

54 Minerals in CF Intake of minerals should meet DRI for age and sex Intake of minerals should meet DRI for age and sex Sodium requirements increased due to loss in sweat Sodium requirements increased due to loss in sweat –North American diet usually provides enough –Infants need supplementation (1/4-1/2 teaspoon/day)

55 Minerals in CF Decreased bone mineralization, low iron stores, and low magnesium levels have all been described in CF Decreased bone mineralization, low iron stores, and low magnesium levels have all been described in CF

56 Feeding Strategies in CF: Infants Breast feeding with supplements of high-calorie formulas and pancreatic enzymes Breast feeding with supplements of high-calorie formulas and pancreatic enzymes Calorie dense infant formulas (20-27 kcals/oz) with enzymes Calorie dense infant formulas (20-27 kcals/oz) with enzymes Protein hydrolysate formulas with MCT oil if needed Protein hydrolysate formulas with MCT oil if needed

57 Feeding Strategies in CF: children and adults Regular mealtimes Regular mealtimes Large portions Large portions Extra snacks Extra snacks Nutrient-dense foods Nutrient-dense foods Nocturnal enteral feedings Nocturnal enteral feedings –Intact or hydrolyzed formulas –Add enzyme powder to feeding or take before and during

58 Nutritional Implications of Tuberculosis TB is making a comeback TB is making a comeback Many patients are developing drug- resistant TB Many patients are developing drug- resistant TB

59 Nutritional Factors that Increase Risk of TB Protein-energy malnutrition: affects the immune system; debate whether it is a cause or consequence of the disease Protein-energy malnutrition: affects the immune system; debate whether it is a cause or consequence of the disease Micronutrient deficiencies that affect immune function (vitamin D, A, C, iron, zinc) Micronutrient deficiencies that affect immune function (vitamin D, A, C, iron, zinc)

60 Nutritional Consequences of TB Increased energy expenditure Increased energy expenditure Loss of appetite and body weight Loss of appetite and body weight Increase in protein catabolism leading to muscle breakdown Increase in protein catabolism leading to muscle breakdown Malabsorption causing diarrhea, loss of fluids, electrolytes Malabsorption causing diarrhea, loss of fluids, electrolytes

61 Nutritional Needs in TB Energy: kcals/kg of ideal body weight Energy: kcals/kg of ideal body weight Protein: grams/kg body weight, or 15% of energy or grams/day Protein: grams/kg body weight, or 15% of energy or grams/day Multivitamin-mineral supplement at % DRI Multivitamin-mineral supplement at % DRI

62 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Characterized by airway obstruction Emphysema: abnormal, permanent enlargement of alveoli, accompanied by destruction of their walls without obvious fibrosis Emphysema: abnormal, permanent enlargement of alveoli, accompanied by destruction of their walls without obvious fibrosis Chronic bronchitis: chronic, productive cough with inflammation of one or more of the bronchi and secondary changes in lung tissue Chronic bronchitis: chronic, productive cough with inflammation of one or more of the bronchi and secondary changes in lung tissue

63 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Emphysema: patients are thin, often cachectic; older, mild hypoxia, normal hematocrits Emphysema: patients are thin, often cachectic; older, mild hypoxia, normal hematocrits Chronic bronchitis: of normal weight; often overweight; hypoxia; high hematocrit Chronic bronchitis: of normal weight; often overweight; hypoxia; high hematocrit

64 Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Bronchospasm: asthma Bronchospasm: asthma Cor pumonale: heart condition characterized by right ventricular enlargement and failure that results from resistance to passage of blood through the lungs Cor pumonale: heart condition characterized by right ventricular enlargement and failure that results from resistance to passage of blood through the lungs

65 Chronic Bronchitis

66 Emphysema

67 Bronchial Asthma Food sensitivities may be triggers for asthmatic episodes (sulfites, shrimp, herbs) but not the most common causes Food sensitivities may be triggers for asthmatic episodes (sulfites, shrimp, herbs) but not the most common causes Provide healthy diet and maintain healthy weight Provide healthy diet and maintain healthy weight Be aware of drug nutrient interactions (steroids) Be aware of drug nutrient interactions (steroids)

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69 MNT Assessment in COPD Fluid balance and requirements Fluid balance and requirements Energy needs Energy needs Food intake (decreased intake common) Food intake (decreased intake common) Morning headache and confusion from hypercapnia (excessive CO2 in the blood) Morning headache and confusion from hypercapnia (excessive CO2 in the blood) Fat free mass Fat free mass

70 MNT Assessment in COPD Food drug interactions Food drug interactions Fatigue Fatigue Anorexia Anorexia Difficulty chewing/swallowing because of dyspnea Difficulty chewing/swallowing because of dyspnea Impaired peristalsis secondary to lack of oxygen to the GI tract Impaired peristalsis secondary to lack of oxygen to the GI tract Underweight patients have the highest morbidity/mortality Underweight patients have the highest morbidity/mortality

71 Nutrient Needs in Stable COPD Protein: grams/kg (15-20% of calories) to restore lung and muscle strength and promote immune function Protein: grams/kg (15-20% of calories) to restore lung and muscle strength and promote immune function Fat: 30-45% of calories Fat: 30-45% of calories Carbohydrate: 40-55% of calories Carbohydrate: 40-55% of calories Maintain appropriate RQ Maintain appropriate RQ Address other underlying diseases (diabetes, heart disease) Address other underlying diseases (diabetes, heart disease)

72 Nutrient Needs in Stable COPD Vitamins: intakes should at least meet the DRI Vitamins: intakes should at least meet the DRI Smokers may need more vitamin C ( mg) depending on cigarette use Smokers may need more vitamin C ( mg) depending on cigarette use Minerals: meet DRIs and monitor phosphorus and magnesium in patients at risk for refeeding during aggressive nutrition support Minerals: meet DRIs and monitor phosphorus and magnesium in patients at risk for refeeding during aggressive nutrition support

73 Treatments for COPD Bronchodilators—theophylline and aminophylline Bronchodilators—theophylline and aminophylline Antibiotics—secondary infections Antibiotics—secondary infections Respiratory therapy Respiratory therapy Exercise to strengthen muscles Exercise to strengthen muscles

74 MNT in COPD Based on Weight/Height Routine care Routine care Anticipatory guidance: 90% IBW Anticipatory guidance: 90% IBW Supportive intervention: 85% to 90% IBW Supportive intervention: 85% to 90% IBW Resuscitative/palliative: below 75% IBW Resuscitative/palliative: below 75% IBW Rehabilitative care: consistently below 85% IBW Rehabilitative care: consistently below 85% IBW JADA—1997 JADA—1997

75 MNT in COPD GI motility: adequate exercise, fluids, dietary fiber GI motility: adequate exercise, fluids, dietary fiber Abdominal bloating: limit foods associated with gas formation Abdominal bloating: limit foods associated with gas formation Fatigue: resting before meals, eating nutrient-dense foods, arrange assistance with shopping and meal preparation Fatigue: resting before meals, eating nutrient-dense foods, arrange assistance with shopping and meal preparation

76 MNT in COPD Suggest that patient Use oxygen at mealtimes Use oxygen at mealtimes Eat slowly Eat slowly Chew foods well Chew foods well Engage in social interaction at mealtime Engage in social interaction at mealtime Coordinate swallowing with breathing Coordinate swallowing with breathing Use upright posture to reduce risk of aspiration Use upright posture to reduce risk of aspiration

77 MNT in COPD Oral supplements Oral supplements Nocturnal or supplemental tube feedings Nocturnal or supplemental tube feedings Specialized pulmonary Specialized pulmonary products generally products generally not necessary not necessary

78 Food Drug Interactions Aminoglycosides lower serum Mg ++ —may need to replace Aminoglycosides lower serum Mg ++ —may need to replace Prednisone—monitor nitrogen, Ca ++, serum glucose, etc. Prednisone—monitor nitrogen, Ca ++, serum glucose, etc.

79 MNT in Respiratory Failure

80 Causes of Acute Lung Injury (ALI) Aspiration of gastric contents or inhalation of toxic substances Aspiration of gastric contents or inhalation of toxic substances High inspired oxygen High inspired oxygen Drugs Drugs Pneumonitis, pulmonary contusions, radiation Pneumonitis, pulmonary contusions, radiation Sepsis syndrome, multisystem trauma, shock,,pancreatitis, pulmonary embolism Sepsis syndrome, multisystem trauma, shock,,pancreatitis, pulmonary embolism

81 Aspiration Movement of food or fluid into the lungs Movement of food or fluid into the lungs Can result in pneumonia or even death Can result in pneumonia or even death Increased risk for infants, toddlers, older adults, persons with oral, upper gastrointestinal, neurologic, or muscular abnormalities Increased risk for infants, toddlers, older adults, persons with oral, upper gastrointestinal, neurologic, or muscular abnormalities

82 Aspiration Reported incidence of aspiration in tubefed patients varies from.8% to 95%. Clinically significant aspiration 1-4% Reported incidence of aspiration in tubefed patients varies from.8% to 95%. Clinically significant aspiration 1-4% Many aspiration events are “silent” and often involve oropharyngeal secretions Many aspiration events are “silent” and often involve oropharyngeal secretions Symptoms include dyspnea, tachycardia, wheezing, rales, anxiety, agitation, cyanosis Symptoms include dyspnea, tachycardia, wheezing, rales, anxiety, agitation, cyanosis May lead to aspiration pneumonia May lead to aspiration pneumonia

83 Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) Most severe form of acute lung injury Most severe form of acute lung injury Sepsis usually the underlying cause Sepsis usually the underlying cause Increasing pulmonary capillary permeability Increasing pulmonary capillary permeability Pulmonary edema Pulmonary edema Increased pulmonary vascular resistance Increased pulmonary vascular resistance Progressive hypoxemia Progressive hypoxemia

84 Goals of Treatment of ALI and ARDS Improve oxygen delivery and provide hemodynamic support Improve oxygen delivery and provide hemodynamic support Reduce oxygen consumption Reduce oxygen consumption Optimize gas exchange Optimize gas exchange Individualize nutrition support Individualize nutrition support

85 Nutrition Assessment in ALI and ARDS Indirect calorimetry best tool to determine energy needs in critically ill patients Indirect calorimetry best tool to determine energy needs in critically ill patients In absence of calorimetry, use predictive equations with stress factors In absence of calorimetry, use predictive equations with stress factors Avoid overfeeding Avoid overfeeding Patients may need high calorie density feedings to achieve fluid balance Patients may need high calorie density feedings to achieve fluid balance

86 Nutrition Support in ARDS In one randomized, controlled trial in 146 patients with ARDS, enteral nutrition with omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid) gamma-linonenic acid, and antioxidants appeared to reduce days on mechanical ventilation, new organ failure, and ICU length of stay In one randomized, controlled trial in 146 patients with ARDS, enteral nutrition with omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid) gamma-linonenic acid, and antioxidants appeared to reduce days on mechanical ventilation, new organ failure, and ICU length of stay This study was sponsored by Ross Laboratories, makers of Oxepa This study was sponsored by Ross Laboratories, makers of Oxepa Have been unable to locate further studies since then Have been unable to locate further studies since then Gadek JE et al. Effect of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Enteral Nutrition in ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1409. Gadek JE et al. Effect of enteral feeding with eicosapentaenoic acid, gamma-linolenic acid, and antioxidants in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Enteral Nutrition in ARDS Study Group. Crit Care Med 1999;27:1409.


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