Presentation on theme: "Syndromology of renal disease. Dr. Martin Havrda."— Presentation transcript:
Syndromology of renal disease. Dr. Martin Havrda
Edema: Palpable swelling produced by expansion of the interstitial fluid volume – Generalized edema = anasarca
Example 1: Young female broke her calf. She received a plaster fixation for 4 weeks. After 3 weeks she observed pain in the involved leg. Following the removal of the fixation, her right leg became swallen, her calf muscles became tender, she developped mild fever. Her left leg was normal.
Example 1 – diagnosis: Localised edema of the right leg. Local reason for oedema is likely. Deep venous thrombosis. Diagnosis? – Doppler ultrasound – Phlebography (isotope, X-ray) Treatment? – Heparin
Localised edema – treatment: No diuretics! Treatment depends on the cause.
Example 2: Male with the history of MI followed by exertional dyspnea. 2 weeks ago he had a respiratory infection with cough. Since then his dyspnea worsened and he developed edema of the legs.
Example 2 – physical examination (1): Symmetrical edema of the legs – Not tender – Normal skin colour Hepatomegaly Distended jugular veins
Example 2 – physical examination (2): Patient becomes dyspneic in recumbent position, prefers sitting. Symmetrical inspiratory rales over the lung base. Gallop Cyanosis Impaired mental status
Example 2 – physical examination (3): Dull percussion and decreased breathing sounds over the base of the right lung.
Example 2 – diagnosis? Heart failure. History of heart disease. Signs of failing left heart. Signs of failing right heart. Signs of general circulatory malfunction.
Drugs promoting edema formation: Non-steroid antiinflammatory drugs. Some antihypertensives (CCB). Some antidiabetics (pioglitazone, rosiglitazone). Estrogens. Other drugs…
Example 3: Male with the history of alcohole abuse complaints on growing size of his abdomen, weakness, swelling of the legs in the last week. 10 days ago he had his birhtday.
Example 3 – physical examination (1): Large abdomen – thin extremities – Muscular atrophy Abdomen distended, not tender, undulatory wave positive. Icterus. Hepatomegaly. Splenomegaly. Iceberg symptom. Caput medusae. Spider naevi. Palmar erythema.
Example 3 – physical examination (2): Symmetrical swelling of the legs – Not tender – Unaltered colour of the swollen area. Signs of hypovolemia – Collapsed jugular veins – Hypotension – Tachycardia Dupuytren´s contracture Gynecomastia Foetor hepaticus Encephalopathy – flapping tremor
Example 3 – diagnosis? Liver cirrhosis. History of liver disease or ethanol abuse. Predominating ascites. Other signs of cirrhosis. Dyspnea is uncommon (large ascites).
Example 4: Female suddenly developed large swelling of both legs. No pain, no considerable history, no other symptoms. Physical examination – Symmetrical swelling, non-tender – No other remarkable abnormalities
Example 4 – diagnosis? Edema of renal origin. Lack of symptoms of cardiac edema and liver cirrhosis makes renal edema likely.
Edema in renal disorders - history: No specific symptoms Symptoms of particular renal disorder Uremic symptoms may be present – Fatigue, malaise, weight loss – Dyspepsia, vomiting, diarrhea – Dyspnea – Itching – Confusion
Edema in renal disorders – phys.exam: Hypertension may occur Diabetic or hypertonic vascular eye abnormalities may be present Uremic foetor may be present Eyelid edema may predominate Pericardial friction rub in advanced uremia Check the kidneys – Flank percussion – Bimanual palpation Check the urinary bladder – Distended? – Tenderness above the symphysis or in the ureteric points?
Edema in renal disorders – tests: Positive urinary sediment – Hematuria – Proteinuria Abnormalities in serum common – Low albumin – High cholesterol – High urea – High creatinine Ultrasonography – Kidneys enlarged, reduced size, abnormal echogenity – Dilatation of the pelvis, calyces, ureter Many other tests...
General edema and fluid overload: Edema of a systemic origin – Symmetrical – Gravity – dependent – Mostly unpainful Accumulation of fluid – Pleural effusion – Pericardial effusion – Ascites – Transcutaneous fluid leakage
Clinically important evaluation of edema: Physical examination. Blood pressure – Hypertension in renal related edema is common Body weight. X-ray – Pleural effusion – Pulmonary congestion Ultrasonography – Pleural effusion – Ascites – Diameter of vena cava and hepatic veins Echocardiography CT Bioimpedance measurement Central venous pressure
General edema – reason? Retention of dietary or intravenously administered sodium and water by the kidneys. – Primary (renal edema) – Secondary (cardiac edema, liver cirrhosis) – Combination (impaired cardiorenal axis) 2,5-3 liters before it becomes apparent Vascular reasons – Increased capillary leak – Increased oncotic pressure of the interstitium Myxedema … accumulation of proteins
EDEMA IN RENAL DISEASES: 1. Nephrotic syndrome. Proteinuria Hypoalbuminemia Hyperlipoproteinemia Edema 2. Acute nephritic syndrome. Acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis 3. Loss of GFR. Abnormal Na + excretion
Nephrotic syndrome: 1. Proteinuria > 3,5 g/24h Reabsorption in tubules, toxic effect. 2. Hypoalbuminemia Loss of albumin in the urine ≈ increased albumin synthesis in the liver. 3. Hyperlipoproteinemia Decreased catabolism of lipoproteins Cardiovascular risk, progression of renal disease (capture of lipoproteins by mesangial cells) 4. Edema Primary renal Na + retention („overflow“ theory) Leakage of the fluid to the interstitium → hypovolemia („undefilling“ theory)
Complications of the nephrotic syndrome: 1. Loss of proteins in the urine Hypoalbuminemia, catabolism, malnutrition. Deficit of IgG → risk of infection (pneumococcal). Loss of binders (TBG, vit.D binding glob., Ca). Loss of antithrombin III. 2. Increased concentration of plasma macromolecules Fibrinogen. IgM.
Conclusions: Localised edema General edema Types of general edema – Cardiac – Liver cirrhosis – Renal Nephrotic syndrome Nephritic syndrom Loss of GFR – Other (myxedema, allergic...) Nephrotic syndrome Nephritic syndrome