slide 4 Paring knife General use –Vegetables –Fruit Size –Approx 100mm Small paring knife that has a curved blade, used for shaping and peeling fruit and vegetables and garnishes. 65-85 mm in length General use –Shredding, slicing, chopping Blade size –Approx. 200-300mm Special features Turning knife Cooks knife
slide 5 Carving knife Filleting knife Boning knife This knife has a long and slightly flexible blade. It may have a rounded or pointed blade with plain, fluted or scalloped cutting edges. It varies between 200mm and 350mm in length. It is used for carving and slicing cooked meat and poultry. A flexible flat blade used by rubbing against the bones of whole fish to remove as much of the flesh as possible This knife has a thin blade tapering to a point. It varies between 150mm and 200mm in length. It is used for boning out cuts of meat, poultry and game. It is one of the most dangerous knives to use since it is used by holding the knife similar to a dagger.
slide 6 Palette knife A flexible flat blade with no sharp cutting edges used for shaping, smoothing and spreading. Also used for turning food while cooking The most common types of serrated knives are the bread knife and the serrated carving knife. Bread knife – has a long firm blade and a serrated fluted edge Carving knife – has a long and slightly flexible blade. It may have a rounded or pointed blade with plain, fluted or scalloped cutting edges. Serrated knife
slide 7 Secateurs Secateurs are used for jointing and trimming raw and cooked poultry. They can vary in size and have two scissor blades made of toughened material to cut through meat.
slide 10 Carrying Knives Hold the knife beside your leg and do not swing your arms as you move about When passing a knife, pass it so the handle is presented to the receiver. Pass the knife with the tip pointed downwards and the edge facing the floor. Passing a knife
slide 11 Cleaning Knives should be cleaned during and after use and especially after using on acidic items such as lemons. Hot soapy water is best, extreme heat is not recommended as it can weaken the metal e.g. dish- washers. Always wipe the knife with the blade away from the hand.
slide 12 Storage Knives need to have the same respect when stored as when handled. Ensure they are stored safely and that the knives are protected from damage caused from other equipment. –such as stored in a knife roll and not in a drawer. When knives are lying on a board/bench, or not in use, make sure they are lying on their side. Knives resting on their back face upwards, and are likely to cause an accident
slide 13 Answers to Activity 28 1. Knives should never be stored in: a drawer 2. When a knife is not in use it should be placed: on its side 3. When storing knives on a magnetic strip, the knives should be: all facing the same direction.
slide 14 Steel and stone When sharpening with a steel or a stone, you must angle the blade to 23- 45 degrees. Whatever angle you choose it must remain the same each time you sharpen. Sharpen alternate sides using a fair amount of pressure. Draw the knife right along the length of the steel or stone from the heel to the tip of the knife. Both serrated and non-serrated knives are sharpened in the same manner.
slide 15 Steel Is best used to maintain the knifes sharp edge. Should be used after using a stone to provide a smooth sharp edge, as the stone produces a rough edge.
slide 16 Answers to Activity 29 1.A steel is used for: honing and maintaining the edge of a knife 2.The guard on a steel is for: protecting your fingers from the sharp blade when sharpening a knife 3.The steel rod should be: made of magnetised steel 4.What type of lubricant is used on an oil stone? Fine-grade oil.
slide 18 Answers to Activity 31 A blunt knife requires a great deal of pressure by the user before it will cut. Never use a blunt knife. A steel’s rod is made of magnetised steel, with fine grooves along its length. The grooves give it a fine abrasive surface to sharpen the knife’s cutting edge. A knife with a blade that is kept sharp will cut more quickly, and produce a neater cut. Stoning or grinding a knife creates an edge on the blade. After using a grinder or a stone it is recommended that steel be used to hone the edge and create a precise, sharp blade. Using a grinder requires some experience and the use of safety goggles. When using a stone, place it on a damp cloth to stop it from slipping. Draw each side of the blade at an angle of 20 degrees across the stone, in a forward motion away from the body.
slide 22 Answers to activity 36 All food items should be checked to make sure they are: fresh and not wilted not blemished or bruised clean, with no dirt free from any pests within expiry or best before date free from chemicals free from foreign objects not dented, if canned not in ripped or torn packaging packaging intact. If used pre-cooked rice or pasta, make sure it has been: stored in the refrigerator at 4˚C or below wrapped and labelled cooked within the past 2 days.
slide 23 Pre-prepared foods may be used for a number of reasons, such as: consistency – so the chef knows the product is always of the same standard cost – some pre-prepared foods may be more cost effective than producing the item from raw ingredients time – some food items may take a long time to produce.