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Product Design Developing Your Portfolio

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Presentation on theme: "Product Design Developing Your Portfolio"— Presentation transcript:

1 Product Design Developing Your Portfolio
These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. 1 of 57 © Boardworks Ltd 2005

2 Investigating the Problem

3 Introduction

4 Background information
Design and technology projects should always be based on real and genuine needs. A user group needs to be identified and so does the context (the type of problem). The location will usually explain where the problem exists (geographically). By adding as much information to each column as you can and then circling the key aspects of each, you can build up an accurate picture to justify the need. User Group Individual Family Organization Group of people Context Physical Sports Furniture Storage Location Home Work Indoors Outdoors This presentation uses the production of an outdoor chair as an example project, but all activities are generic, and so can be applied to whichever project students are working on.

5 Analysis of the problem
Before your mind gets solution-focused, it is worth spending some time thinking in detail about the design problem. A mind map is a good method to help you analyse the problem and you can use the information from the columns on the previous slide. Mind maps can help you generate lots of ideas in a short space of time. Add this information to your mind map too: other products which already perform a similar function materials which may be suitable equipment and processes which could help you.

6 Mind mapping the problem
You may wish to use a whiteboard pen to annotate and expand this mind map. How would you extend this mind map?

7 Why... What... Where... Who... Design brief
A design brief is a vital part of your project because it is the starting point at which you begin to formulate your response to the design problem. A brief can be written in many ways but it should be a short paragraph which is simple and concise with the following essential information: why the product is needed what the product must do where the product will be used who will use the product. Why... What... Where... Who...

8 Product analysis Before designing your own product, it is important to analyse other similar products. Look at what features a product has (the criteria it meets), and decide if these are essential to its function or not. Essential features are known as key criteria. Choose criteria that products meet, and compare them by giving them a score for each criterion. Decide which features are positives and negatives for each product, and which features are worth noting but don’t affect the products functionality.

9 Product analysis: deciding key criteria
This, and subsequent interactive slides, could be used by students for their own projects and then captured using a screen dump and printed for portfolio use.

10 Product analysis: comparing products
You may wish to take photos of the products you are comparing and display these on the whiteboard as students complete this activity.

11 Product analysis – PMI

12 The research process

13 Could you put these into a table and draw up a research plan?
Researching is a vital skill for a designer. To research effectively you need to be able to collect, sort/edit and record specific information which will help you to design and make a successful product. Before beginning the research, you should look at your design brief and think about the following questions: What do I need to find out? Where can I find it out? How am I going to record and present the information? Could you put these into a table and draw up a research plan?

14 Research plan

15 Primary research Primary research means finding out information directly from a source – it’s first hand information. When carrying out research, it is essential to ask yourself the following questions: Am I using a wide range of sources? Am I using primary and secondary research? Is my research appropriate and relevant? Does the information answer the questions posed in the research plan? Have I sorted through the body of information and highlighted the relevant bits? Can I explain how the research helps me to satisfy the brief?

16 Surveys Surveys are also known as questionnaires. When writing and conducting surveys: decide what information you need to find out – see your research plan start with some simple closed questions use multiple choice questions where possible make sure you ask the same questions to everyone so that your sample is valid finish with an open question remember that it is the analysis of the questions that really matters. It is assumed that students have already been introduced to writing questionnaires and know how to write open and closed questions.

17 Interviews Conducting interviews can be a useful way to find out research information. However, it is important to remember that what you do with the information (editing and analysis) is more important than collecting it. Interview TIPS: decide what information you need to find out write out your questions beforehand don’t try and write their answers – use a dictaphone to record and write later write up the interview in full while it is still fresh in your mind go through and highlight the important bits.

18 Writing letters Writing letters can sometimes be useful providing you know the name, role and contact information of the person you need information from. Here are some guidelines about letter writing: explain who you are and what you need from them be VERY specific about the information you need enclose a stamped, addressed envelope for the return always date the letter if posted first class, wait for four days and then follow up with a phone call to the person you addressed it to always have a back-up plan for getting the information consider using (it’s quicker!) but apply the above principles.

19 Secondary research Secondary research means finding out information that another person has already prepared – it already exists in one format or another. When conducting research, it is important not to simply cut out information, or copy whole sections of text and stick it into your folder. We call this ‘scissor research’ and it will be ignored. You must read, sort, highlight and edit your research so it is ready for analysis. Some people find it useful to keep an activity log or record of what they have researched. This is useful to keep accurate records of where and when you found specific information.

20 Internet searches The Internet is a huge source of information and images for secondary research. However, like any other research skill, it takes time, patience and practice to use it effectively. Use a recognized search engine (e.g. Google or ASK). Know what you want to find out. Use the advanced search option to narrow your results. Paste your results into a blank document. Always make a note of the website or information source. Set yourself a time limit for searches – if it’s not found within ten minutes, you’re unlikely to find it.

21 Newspaper/magazine searches
Using newspapers and magazines can sometimes be useful for research purposes. However, it is important to avoid cutting out large amounts of images or text and sticking them into your portfolio. It is the quality of what you find, not the quantity, that counts. Look in weekend papers – especially the supplements from the broadsheets. Use a combination of image types and text. Always quote the source of your research. Think, “how does this image/text help me to design or make my product?”

22 Editing research Collecting research is only the start of the process. To really make the most of the information you gather, it is vital to organize and process it. Organizing… Sort through all of the information. Put it into categories according to your research plan. Have a miscellaneous pile for anything that does not fit neatly into a category. Processing… Do not include whole reports or articles. Highlight relevant sections (especially key words, phrases or measurements) of text and cut off any excess. Mount the information into your portfolio so it is easy to read and access later.

23 Analysing research Research analysis shows the examiner that you have considered the impact of your research findings on the design and manufacture of your product. A good analysis of the research information needs to be completed before you can summarize it. Here are some analysis tips: annotate your edited research with comments highlight sections of research and sketch/annotate your thoughts write a bullet pointed list of how the research affects your design thinking attach some tracing paper over the relevant section and annotate over the top so the results are visible.

24 Research summary The research summary is an important part of the research. It brings together all of the important information you have found into one place, in a format that is easy to read and apply to your design thinking. Here are some tips for writing a research summary: show where the evidence is in your portfolio make sure you have a good balance between primary and secondary research (not too much secondary!) make sure you know where you found the information make sure you understand why the information is important to you refer back to the research plan – have you completed the research you set out to do?

25 Research summary – chart
This chart can be used as a teaching aid to demonstrate how a research summary might be completed.

26 Specification A specification is a list of criteria that your design must meet. Specifications can be extremely detailed documents and it helps to consider some broad headings. They are best written as a bullet pointed list. Function Detail about what the product must do Form Aesthetic, colour, shape, texture and proportion details Safety Any relevant safety issues including international standards Ergonomics How will the product and user interact? Cost Can you predict how much it might cost to a) make b) sell? Durability How hardwearing will it need to be? Will it function in any extreme environments? Maintenance How long will it last? Are there any replaceable parts? Environmental issues How will your product deal with green issues?

27 Developing Design Proposals

28 Design ideas With your design brief and specification close by, you are now ready to develop some initial ideas to solve the problem. As a professional designer, you should aim to design at least three different ideas for consideration.

29 Evaluating ideas However you choose to present your ideas, you will need to make it obvious that you have evaluated them. Here are some thoughts on how you can evaluate your initial ideas. Remember that evaluation does not always have to be in written format; sketches and drawings are just as effective.

30 How could you develop this idea to work in different ways?
Choosing an idea You will need to show which design is the most suitable for development. You can do this in several ways but below is one method for you to think about: Spec Point IDEA 1 2 3 Comments Function 4 5 Form Safety TOTAL 8 7 11 How could you develop this idea to work in different ways?

31 Product Synthesis

32 Developing concepts How you develop your chosen idea is crucial if you are to make the most effective product. When developing ideas, we improve specific aspects of them. It is important to make sure that every aspect of your chosen idea is fully developed in detail according to your specification. The following is a list of things you should make sure you improve and thoroughly justify in the development: Materials Ergonomics Aesthetics Proportions Assembly Production techniques

33 Developing concepts – discussions
Your friends are a good source to bounce ideas off. When you are developing your ideas, you can ask them for their opinions and thoughts about how you might improve your chosen ideas. You can also ask potential users of the product about what they think can be developed. Use a table similar to this one: NAME ASPECT TO DEVELOP CHANGES/IMPROVEMENTS

34 Developing ideas – 4 x 4 activity
The 4 x 4 activity uses other people’s ideas to develop your own ideas. Your original idea is in the centre of an A3 sheet. Stage 1 Groups of 4 people. Person 1 improves an aspect of the product Stage 2 Each person then sketches or describes another improvement in these spaces. Stage 3 Four minutes should be spent on each development. Stage 4 Give the sheet back to the original person.

35 Modelling – CAD Computer aided designing (CAD) is a good method to model and test your ideas. These chairs have been drawn using ProDesktop.

36 Modelling – CAD By using the modelling information, you will be able to quickly produce photo-realistic rendered images. MDF Natural wood Injection moulded polypropylene

37 Modelling – CAD Most CAD packages will be able to use the model information and automatically draw you an orthographic drawing in various formats. This will be needed for manufacturing.

38 Production Planning

39 Flow charts Flow charts can be used to communicate the manufacturing process of our products. Arrows connect the shapes below to show the order of production stages. START/STOP DECISION PROCESS Can you draw a flow chart to show the manufacturing process of a chair?

40 Flow charts

41 Production schedules A production schedule is essential to ensure a good quality product. Always take a copy of your schedule into the manufacturing environment so that you have a plan to follow. Production schedules will enable you to think through all of the stages of manufacturing before you actually begin. It is also a way of showing that you have considered quality assurance procedures. A production plan will contain the following information: what the main stages of production are the materials necessary for each stage the equipment/resources necessary for each task time scales for each task.

42 Production schedules

43 Tolerances and critical dimensions
Any project will have certain components or parts which have a critical dimension. A critical dimension is any measurement which has to be exactly right or an aspect of the product will fail. A tolerance is the amount you are willing to deviate from the critical dimension. Tolerances are usually described in percentages, e.g. ± 10% of the critical dimension. The following are some common critical dimensions: bearings friction fitting components machined parts casing. Critical dimensions can be included on the production schedule.

44 Cutting list A cutting list is an important part of production planning. It enables you to plan and prepare exactly what materials you will use and their dimensions. Part Material Quantity Length Width Thickness Diameter Main body Acrylic 1 250mm 200mm 3mm - Stands 2 100mm 20mm 6mm On the next slide you can fill in a cutting list for yourself.

45 Cutting list

46 Risk assessment

47 Manufacturing

48 Recording changes During manufacturing, you will need to show that you have recorded and justified any changes to your proposed solution. When justifying any changes, you need to make sure you explain what you changed, how you changed it and why you changed it. You could do this in a manufacturing diary like the this one. Date Photo What you changed How you changed it Why you changed it

49 Photographic log In your portfolio, you will also have to show examiners that you can use a variety of communication techniques. As well as hand drawn sketches, CAD and desktop publishing, you should also try and use a digital camera to capture images. A digital camera could be helpful for the following: providing evidence of research activities photographing models capturing images of manufacturing progress showing the product being tested photographing users evaluating the product.

50 Testing & Evaluation

51 Types of testing The BSI website includes examples of product tests and record sheets at

52 Evaluation of testing Your testing strategies will provide you with some information about how well your product performed under standard tests, user trials and visual inspection. You should try and compile some charts to show how well the product did under test conditions. Once you have the test information summarized, you are in a position to evaluate it. The evaluation is a reflection on how well the product performed. It is important that you establish why the product behaved and reacted the way it did in the tests, and that you are able to justify the results.

53 User evaluation User views are essential if you are going to justify the effectiveness of your product to a mass market. You must ask several users to test your product and then evaluate its effectiveness. You could use a standard form as outlined below: Date Photo of testing Name Description of testing Evaluation of how well it performed

54 Evaluation against specification

55 Modifications and changes

56 Modifications and changes
Your testing strategies gave you objective evidence about the performance of your product. Based on your testing, the evaluations should enable you to think about why the product performed as it did. What went well and what did not go as planned? The next step is to suggest changes and modifications to your finished product, based on the results of testing and evaluation, which would improve the chances of the product becoming a commercial success.

57 Modifications and changes
Think about the following: Are any changes necessary to make the product suitable for mass production? Could different (more appropriate?) materials be used? Can I use any standard components? Could I buy in more parts or components? Can I change the design to reduce the cost of manufacturing? Could the production method be different? Could I use jigs, moulds and formers to make identical products? Could I automate any stages of the manufacturing process by using CAM?


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