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© Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 57 These icons indicate that teacher’s notes or useful web addresses are available in the Notes Page. This icon indicates that the slide contains activities created in Flash. These activities are not editable. For more detailed instructions, see the Getting Started presentation. © Boardworks Ltd 2005 1 of 57 Product Design Developing Your Portfolio
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 2 of 57 Investigating the Problem
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 3 of 57 Introduction
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 4 of 57 Design and technology projects should always be based on real and genuine needs. A user group needs to be identified and so does the context (the type of problem). The location will usually explain where the problem exists (geographically). By adding as much information to each column as you can and then circling the key aspects of each, you can build up an accurate picture to justify the need. User Group Individual Family Organization Group of people Context Physical Sports Furniture Storage Location Home Work Indoors Outdoors Background information
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 5 of 57 Before your mind gets solution-focused, it is worth spending some time thinking in detail about the design problem. A mind map is a good method to help you analyse the problem and you can use the information from the columns on the previous slide. Mind maps can help you generate lots of ideas in a short space of time. other products which already perform a similar function materials which may be suitable equipment and processes which could help you. Analysis of the problem Add this information to your mind map too:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 6 of 57 How would you extend this mind map? Mind mapping the problem
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 7 of 57 A design brief is a vital part of your project because it is the starting point at which you begin to formulate your response to the design problem. A brief can be written in many ways but it should be a short paragraph which is simple and concise with the following essential information: why the product is needed what the product must do where the product will be used who will use the product. Design brief
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 8 of 57 Product analysis Before designing your own product, it is important to analyse other similar products. Look at what features a product has (the criteria it meets), and decide if these are essential to its function or not. Essential features are known as key criteria. Choose criteria that products meet, and compare them by giving them a score for each criterion. Decide which features are positives and negatives for each product, and which features are worth noting but don’t affect the products functionality.
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 9 of 57 Product analysis: deciding key criteria
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 10 of 57 Product analysis: comparing products
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 11 of 57 Product analysis – PMI
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 12 of 57 The research process
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 13 of 57 Researching is a vital skill for a designer. To research effectively you need to be able to collect, sort/edit and record specific information which will help you to design and make a successful product. What do I need to find out? Where can I find it out? How am I going to record and present the information? Before beginning the research, you should look at your design brief and think about the following questions: Could you put these into a table and draw up a research plan? Research plan
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 14 of 57 Research plan
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 15 of 57 Primary research means finding out information directly from a source – it’s first hand information. When carrying out research, it is essential to ask yourself the following questions: Am I using a wide range of sources? Am I using primary and secondary research? Is my research appropriate and relevant? Does the information answer the questions posed in the research plan? Have I sorted through the body of information and highlighted the relevant bits? Can I explain how the research helps me to satisfy the brief? Primary research
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 16 of 57 Surveys are also known as questionnaires. When writing and conducting surveys: decide what information you need to find out – see your research plan start with some simple closed questions use multiple choice questions where possible make sure you ask the same questions to everyone so that your sample is valid finish with an open question remember that it is the analysis of the questions that really matters. Surveys
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 17 of 57 Conducting interviews can be a useful way to find out research information. However, it is important to remember that what you do with the information (editing and analysis) is more important than collecting it. Interview TIPS: decide what information you need to find out write out your questions beforehand don’t try and write their answers – use a dictaphone to record and write later write up the interview in full while it is still fresh in your mind go through and highlight the important bits. Interviews
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 18 of 57 Writing letters can sometimes be useful providing you know the name, role and contact information of the person you need information from. Here are some guidelines about letter writing: explain who you are and what you need from them be VERY specific about the information you need enclose a stamped, addressed envelope for the return always date the letter if posted first class, wait for four days and then follow up with a phone call to the person you addressed it to always have a back-up plan for getting the information consider using e-mail (it’s quicker!) but apply the above principles. Writing letters
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 19 of 57 Secondary research means finding out information that another person has already prepared – it already exists in one format or another. When conducting research, it is important not to simply cut out information, or copy whole sections of text and stick it into your folder. We call this ‘scissor research’ and it will be ignored. You must read, sort, highlight and edit your research so it is ready for analysis. Some people find it useful to keep an activity log or record of what they have researched. This is useful to keep accurate records of where and when you found specific information. Secondary research
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 20 of 57 Use a recognized search engine (e.g. Google or ASK). Know what you want to find out. Use the advanced search option to narrow your results. Paste your results into a blank document. Always make a note of the website or information source. Set yourself a time limit for searches – if it’s not found within ten minutes, you’re unlikely to find it. The Internet is a huge source of information and images for secondary research. However, like any other research skill, it takes time, patience and practice to use it effectively. Internet searches
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 21 of 57 Look in weekend papers – especially the supplements from the broadsheets. Use a combination of image types and text. Always quote the source of your research. Think, “how does this image/text help me to design or make my product?” Using newspapers and magazines can sometimes be useful for research purposes. However, it is important to avoid cutting out large amounts of images or text and sticking them into your portfolio. It is the quality of what you find, not the quantity, that counts. Newspaper/magazine searches
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 22 of 57 Sort through all of the information. Put it into categories according to your research plan. Have a miscellaneous pile for anything that does not fit neatly into a category. Collecting research is only the start of the process. To really make the most of the information you gather, it is vital to organize and process it. Editing research Organizing… Do not include whole reports or articles. Highlight relevant sections (especially key words, phrases or measurements) of text and cut off any excess. Mount the information into your portfolio so it is easy to read and access later. Processing…
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 23 of 57 Research analysis shows the examiner that you have considered the impact of your research findings on the design and manufacture of your product. A good analysis of the research information needs to be completed before you can summarize it. annotate your edited research with comments highlight sections of research and sketch/annotate your thoughts write a bullet pointed list of how the research affects your design thinking attach some tracing paper over the relevant section and annotate over the top so the results are visible. Analysing research Here are some analysis tips:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 24 of 57 The research summary is an important part of the research. It brings together all of the important information you have found into one place, in a format that is easy to read and apply to your design thinking. Here are some tips for writing a research summary: show where the evidence is in your portfolio make sure you have a good balance between primary and secondary research (not too much secondary!) make sure you know where you found the information make sure you understand why the information is important to you refer back to the research plan – have you completed the research you set out to do? Research summary
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 25 of 57 Research summary – chart
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 26 of 57 A specification is a list of criteria that your design must meet. Specifications can be extremely detailed documents and it helps to consider some broad headings. They are best written as a bullet pointed list. FunctionDetail about what the product must do FormAesthetic, colour, shape, texture and proportion details SafetyAny relevant safety issues including international standards ErgonomicsHow will the product and user interact? CostCan you predict how much it might cost to a) make b) sell? DurabilityHow hardwearing will it need to be? Will it function in any extreme environments? MaintenanceHow long will it last? Are there any replaceable parts? Environmental issues How will your product deal with green issues? Specification
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 27 of 57 Developing Design Proposals
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 28 of 57 With your design brief and specification close by, you are now ready to develop some initial ideas to solve the problem. As a professional designer, you should aim to design at least three different ideas for consideration. Design ideas
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 29 of 57 However you choose to present your ideas, you will need to make it obvious that you have evaluated them. Here are some thoughts on how you can evaluate your initial ideas. Remember that evaluation does not always have to be in written format; sketches and drawings are just as effective. Evaluating ideas
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 30 of 57 You will need to show which design is the most suitable for development. You can do this in several ways but below is one method for you to think about: Spec PointIDEA 1 IDEA 2 IDEA 3 Comments Function435 Form214 Safety232 TOTAL8711 How could you develop this idea to work in different ways? Choosing an idea
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 31 of 57 Product Synthesis
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 32 of 57 How you develop your chosen idea is crucial if you are to make the most effective product. When developing ideas, we improve specific aspects of them. It is important to make sure that every aspect of your chosen idea is fully developed in detail according to your specification. Materials Ergonomics Aesthetics Proportions Assembly Production techniques Developing concepts The following is a list of things you should make sure you improve and thoroughly justify in the development:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 33 of 57 Your friends are a good source to bounce ideas off. When you are developing your ideas, you can ask them for their opinions and thoughts about how you might improve your chosen ideas. You can also ask potential users of the product about what they think can be developed. Use a table similar to this one: NAMEASPECT TO DEVELOPCHANGES/IMPROVEMENTS Developing concepts – discussions
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 34 of 57 The 4 x 4 activity uses other people’s ideas to develop your own ideas. Your original idea is in the centre of an A3 sheet. Stage 1 Groups of 4 people. Person 1 improves an aspect of the product Stage 2 Each person then sketches or describes another improvement in these spaces. Stage 3 Four minutes should be spent on each development. Stage 4 Give the sheet back to the original person. Developing ideas – 4 x 4 activity
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 35 of 57 Computer aided designing (CAD) is a good method to model and test your ideas. These chairs have been drawn using ProDesktop. Modelling – CAD
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 36 of 57 By using the modelling information, you will be able to quickly produce photo-realistic rendered images. Injection moulded polypropylene MDF Natural wood Modelling – CAD
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 37 of 57 Most CAD packages will be able to use the model information and automatically draw you an orthographic drawing in various formats. This will be needed for manufacturing. Modelling – CAD
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 38 of 57 Production Planning
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 39 of 57 START/STOP PROCESS DECISION Flow charts can be used to communicate the manufacturing process of our products. Arrows connect the shapes below to show the order of production stages. Can you draw a flow chart to show the manufacturing process of a chair? Flow charts
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 40 of 57 Flow charts
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 41 of 57 A production schedule is essential to ensure a good quality product. Always take a copy of your schedule into the manufacturing environment so that you have a plan to follow. Production schedules will enable you to think through all of the stages of manufacturing before you actually begin. It is also a way of showing that you have considered quality assurance procedures. A production plan will contain the following information: what the main stages of production are the materials necessary for each stage the equipment/resources necessary for each task time scales for each task. Production schedules
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 42 of 57 Production schedules
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 43 of 57 Any project will have certain components or parts which have a critical dimension. A critical dimension is any measurement which has to be exactly right or an aspect of the product will fail. A tolerance is the amount you are willing to deviate from the critical dimension. Tolerances are usually described in percentages, e.g. ± 10% of the critical dimension. bearings friction fitting components machined parts casing. Critical dimensions can be included on the production schedule. Tolerances and critical dimensions The following are some common critical dimensions:
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 44 of 57 A cutting list is an important part of production planning. It enables you to plan and prepare exactly what materials you will use and their dimensions. PartMaterialQuantityLengthWidthThicknessDiameter Main bodyAcrylic1250mm200mm3mm- StandsAcrylic2100mm20mm6mm- On the next slide you can fill in a cutting list for yourself. Cutting list
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 45 of 57 Cutting list
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 46 of 57 Risk assessment
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 47 of 57 Manufacturing
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 48 of 57 During manufacturing, you will need to show that you have recorded and justified any changes to your proposed solution. When justifying any changes, you need to make sure you explain what you changed, how you changed it and why you changed it. You could do this in a manufacturing diary like the this one. Date Photo What you changed How you changed it Why you changed it Recording changes
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 49 of 57 In your portfolio, you will also have to show examiners that you can use a variety of communication techniques. As well as hand drawn sketches, CAD and desktop publishing, you should also try and use a digital camera to capture images. A digital camera could be helpful for the following: providing evidence of research activities photographing models capturing images of manufacturing progress showing the product being tested photographing users evaluating the product. Photographic log
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 50 of 57 Testing & Evaluation
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 51 of 57 Types of testing
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 52 of 57 Your testing strategies will provide you with some information about how well your product performed under standard tests, user trials and visual inspection. You should try and compile some charts to show how well the product did under test conditions. Once you have the test information summarized, you are in a position to evaluate it. The evaluation is a reflection on how well the product performed. It is important that you establish why the product behaved and reacted the way it did in the tests, and that you are able to justify the results. Evaluation of testing
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 53 of 57 User views are essential if you are going to justify the effectiveness of your product to a mass market. You must ask several users to test your product and then evaluate its effectiveness. You could use a standard form as outlined below: Date Photo of testing Name Description of testing Evaluation of how well it performed User evaluation
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 54 of 57 Evaluation against specification
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 55 of 57 Modifications and changes
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 56 of 57 Your testing strategies gave you objective evidence about the performance of your product. Based on your testing, the evaluations should enable you to think about why the product performed as it did. What went well and what did not go as planned? The next step is to suggest changes and modifications to your finished product, based on the results of testing and evaluation, which would improve the chances of the product becoming a commercial success. Modifications and changes
© Boardworks Ltd 2005 57 of 57 Are any changes necessary to make the product suitable for mass production? Could different (more appropriate?) materials be used? Can I use any standard components? Could I buy in more parts or components? Can I change the design to reduce the cost of manufacturing? Could the production method be different? Could I use jigs, moulds and formers to make identical products? Could I automate any stages of the manufacturing process by using CAM? Think about the following: Modifications and changes
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