2Basic Writing Purposes and Elements Grammar Review Welcome and IntrosWho Am I? Who are You?What’s this Class About?Syllabus ReviewIcebreakersBasic Writing Purposes and ElementsGrammar ReviewParts of SpeechPronounsCharacteristics of a Narrative EssayGo over Assignment Sheet: Narrative EssayIn-Class Brainstorming Session – Narrative EssayWrap Up
3Who Am I?Instructor with 18 years experience teaching and preparing instructional curriculumTeaching ExperienceOrange County Public SchoolsFlorida Virtual SchoolFlorida Metropolitan UniversityUniversity of FloridaEducational BackgroundNorthwestern University (Undergraduate)Rollins College (Master’s Degree)University of Florida (Doctorate)
5Icebreaker 1 STOP Get into pairs (Find a Partner) Individually, look in your purse/wallet/backpack and find something that is significant to you.Share with your partner why the item is significant to you.STOPWhen done, you’ll introduce your partner and share something significant about them.
6Icebreaker 2 STOP Find a different partner Complete the following sentence:“If I could have dinner with any person, living or dead, it would be____________ because_____________."Share with your partner.STOPWhen done, you’ll introduce your partner and share who they would have dinner with and WHY.
7What Will I be Doing? Writing and Revising Personal Narrative Descriptive EssayDefinition EssayComparison and Contrast EssayArgumentPresentingConducting Peer ReviewsGrammar Review and Exercises
8What Will I Need to Succeed? TextbooksBullock, Richard and Francine Weinberg. The Little Seagull Handbook. New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 2014.Buscemi, Santi and Charlotte Smith. 75 Readings Plus. Tenth Edition. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2013.
9How Will I Be Graded? Essays Turned in Late Deduction of 10% per day Four days late = 0
10Basic Writing Elements Week 1 – Freshman Composition
13Let’s See What You Know Review the sentences on the handout. Write the word that is the part of speech indicated in parenthesisExample:___________(verb)The Blue Streaks running back exploded off the line of scrimmage.exploded
14Expository – provides information or an explanation about a topic Narrative – tells a storyDescriptive – describes a subject using sensory detailsPersuasive – attempts to change someone’s viewpoint about a subject4 Writing Purposes
15Point of View Point of View – how the author tells his story First person – narrator as a major character; narrator as a minor character – the narrator may be naïve or insane – the narrator uses first person pronouns (I, my, mine, we, our, etc.)Second person – narrator involves the reader through the use of second person pronouns (you, yourself, yours, etc.)Third person – omniscient, selective omniscient, objective – third person pronouns are used (he, she, him, her, they, them, etc.Point of View
16First Person Point of View A story told from the first person point of view involves the narrator as part of the story, and usually features the following pronouns: I, me, mine, our, we, us, Example: For one whole semester the streetcars and I shimmied up and scooted down the sheer hills of San Francisco. I lost some of my need for the Black ghetto’s shielding-sponge quality, as I clanged and cleared my way down Market Street, with its honky-tonk homes from homeless sailors, past the quiet retreat of Golden Gate Park and along closed undwelled-in-looking dwellings of the Sunset District. (From I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou)First Person Point of View
17Second Person Point of View Instructions and directions are usually written from a second-person point of view. Uses the pronoun “you” Remember, any tool that you can use against an enemy may also be used against you. Ninjas train on special courses that really mess with their perception of space, but that doesn’t mean you can’t make your own mini gauntlet to increase your skills. The Ninja HandbookSecond Person Point of View
18Third Person Point of View Third person point of view is told by a narrator who is not part of the story and generally uses pronouns such as: he, she, it, they, them, him, her, its, etc. There are three type of third person narration: omniscient and limited.Third Person Point of View
19Third Person Objective No character’s thoughts are revealed – only their actions and dialogue.Third Person Objective
20Third Person Omniscient Point of View “Omniscient” means all-knowing. If a person is all-knowing, he or she knows the thoughts and feelings of everybody. Third person omniscient occurs when a story is told by a narrator who is not part of the story but knows the thoughts and feelings of all the characters in the story. In other words, a third person omniscient narrator is inside the hearts and heads of the characters, exposing their thoughts and/or feelings.Example: The next semester the writing professor is obsessed with writing from personal experience. You must write from what you know, from what has happened to you. He wants deaths, he wants camping trips. Think about what has happened to you. in three years there have been three things: you lost your virginity; your parents got divorced; and your brother came home from a forest ten miles from the Cambodian border with only half a thigh, a permanent smirk nestled into one corner of his mouth.Third Person Omniscient Point of View
21Third Person Limited Point of View Third person limited is similar to the omniscient point of view, but it is a limited viewpoint. The narrator only knows the thoughts and feelings of one character. Example: J.K. Rowling uses third person limited in Harry Potter and the Chamber of Secrets. The reader witnesses what Harry sees and knows his thoughts and feelings but without ever hearing first-person narration from Harry. Check out the excerpt below. Harry had taken up his place at wizard school, where he and his scar were famous ...but now the school year was over, and he was back with the Dursleys for the summer, back to being treated like a dog that had rolled in something smelly. The Dursleys hadn't even remembered that today happened to be Harry's twelfth birthday. Of course, his hopes hadn't been high? In this excerpt from the novel we are able to know how Harry Potter is feeling, what he's thinking, and what is happening.Third Person Limited Point of View
25Introduction Why bother writing a good introduction? You never get a second chance to make a first impression.Ideally, your introduction will make your readers want to read your paper.IntroductionSource: The Writing Center, The University of N.C. Chapel Hill.
26Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper Your introduction is an important road map for the rest of your paper. It should convey:What your topic isWhy your topic is importantHow you plan to proceed with your discussionContains a THESISIntroductionSource: The Writing Center, The University of N.C. Chapel Hill.
27Strategies for Writing a Strong Introduction Open with an attention grabberAn intriguing exampleA provocative quotationA vivid ancedoteA thought-provoking questionTry writing your introduction last.Strategies for Writing a Strong Introduction
28What is it?a one- or two- sentence statement that explicitly outlines the purpose or point of your paper.placed at or near the end of the introductory paragraph.What does it do?must contain an arguable point.it should point toward the development or course of argument the reader can expect your argument to takeThesis
29Example (in an Argument Paper) Poor: Stephen King writes readable books.Good: Stephen King’s books are so good because they are about normal people who get into supernatural situations.Example (in an Argument Paper)
30Supporting Paragraphs What is it?a sentence or group of sentences that support one main idea.Every paragraph in a paper should be:Unified: All of the sentences in a single paragraph should be related to a single controlling idea (often expressed in the topic sentence of the paragraph).Clearly related to the thesis: The sentences should all refer to the central idea, or thesis, of the paper (Rosen and Behrens 119).Coherent: The sentences should be arranged in a logical manner and should follow a definite plan for development (Rosen and Behrens 119).Well-developed: Every idea discussed in the paragraph should be adequately explained and supported through evidence and details that work together to explain the paragraph’s controlling idea (Rosen and Behrens 119).Supporting Paragraphs
31Ways to Organize a Paragraph Narration: Tell a story. Go chronologically, from start to finish.Description: Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic.Process: Explain how something works, step by step. Perhaps follow a sequence—first, second, third. Classification: Separate into groups or explain the various parts of a topic.Illustration: Give examples and explain how those examples prove your point.Ways to Organize a Paragraph
32Example – Descriptive Paragraph Description: Provide specific details about what something looks, smells, tastes, sounds, or feels like. Organize spatially, in order of appearance, or by topic. Piranha are omnivorous, freshwater fish, which are mostly known for their single row of sharp, triangular teeth in both jaws. Piranhas’ teeth come together in a scissor-like bite and are used for puncture and tearing. Baby piranha are small, about the size of a thumbnail, but full-grown piranha grow up to about 6-10 inches, and some individual fish up to 2 feet long have been found. The many species of piranha vary in color, though most are either silvery with an orange underbelly and throat or almost entirely black.Example – Descriptive Paragraph
33Should help your reader see why all your analysis and information should matter to them after they put the paper down.allows you to:have the final say on the issues you have raised in your papersummarize your thoughtsdemonstrate the importance of your ideas, andpropels your reader to a new view of the subjectConclusion
34Strategies - Conclusion Return to the theme or themes in the introduction. This strategy brings the reader full circle.Synthesize, don’t summarize: Include a brief summary of the paper’s main points, but don’t simply repeat things that were in your paper. Instead, show your reader how the points you made and the support and examples you used fit together. Pull it all together.Propose a course of action, a solution to an issue, or questions for further study.Do NOT begin with overused phrases such as “in conclusion”, “in summary” or “in closing”Strategies - Conclusion
36Assignment 1: Personal Narrative Write an essay about a significant event in your life.Choose an event that will be engaging for readers and that will, at the same time, tell them something about you.Tell your story dramatically and vividly, giving a clear indication of its autobiographical significance.Use first-person, singular (“I”) narration for this essayStructuring your essay using a chronology may also be a good idea, in many cases.Rough DraftPeer ReviewFinal DraftAssignment 1: Personal Narrative
37What is a Personal Narrative? A personal narrative re-creates a specific experience or event in your life.To write an effective narrative, select an experience that you feel strongly about.What is a Personal Narrative?
38B a s i c s i n a B o x Personal Narrative at a Glance Middle BeginningDescribes the event using descriptive details and possibly dialogueMakes the significance clearEndTells the outcome or result of the eventPresents the writer’s feelings about the experienceIntroduces the incident including the people and place involvedRUBRICStandards for WritingA successful narrative shouldfocus on a clear, well-defined incidentmake the importance or significance of the event clearshow clearly the order in which events occurreduse descriptive details that appeal to the senses to describe characters and settinguse dialogue to develop charactersmaintain a consistent tone
39Writing Your Personal Narrative 1PrewritingYour life, though it may seem average to you, is a new and exotic world to other people. Don’t be afraid to write about your personal experiences .Joe Hasley, student writer
40Writing Your Personal Narrative 1PrewritingHow can you find ideas?Think about interesting or unusual events that really happened.Recall personal experiences that have been funny, sad, frightening, or unforgettable.Brainstorm similar incidents you have heard about from others.
41Planning Your Personal Narrative 1. Analyze the nature of the incident. What was its significance? Why does it stand out in your mind?2. Decide on the tone you want to create. How did the incident make you feel when you experienced, saw, or heard about it? What is the main feeling you want to create in your audience?
42Planning Your Personal Narrative 3. Make a time line. List all the parts of the event in time order. For each part, stop and list who was involved, where it happened, and some of the significant details. When the list is finished, decide which parts to include in your narrative and which parts you can condense or skip in order to keep the narrative focused and lively.
43Planning Your Personal Narrative 4. Decide which parts of the narrative to enliven with dialogue or with details that appeal to the senses. What details could help you show what happened rather than simply telling about it? What dialogue would move your narrative along and make it more realistic?
44Writing Your Personal Narrative Drafting 2DraftingBegin by describing the setting or an important character.Give background information or flash forward to an event further along in the narrative.Use your time line to help you remember the order of events.
45Writing Your Personal Narrative Drafting 2DraftingKeep in mind what tone you want to create.Use dialogue and plenty of descriptive details to help move the narrative along.End by telling the outcome.
46Revising Writing Your Personal Narrative 3RevisingWORD CHOICEPay attention to word choice to make your narrative more lively and interesting. Try usingSpecific nouns, verbs, and modifiers— words like chuckle, snicker, giggle, guffaw, or roar.
47Revising Writing Your Personal Narrative 3RevisingWORD CHOICETry usingModifiers, like velvety or shrill, that appeal to the senses.A thesaurus to find specific synonyms for vague words.A dictionary for the precise meaning of words.
48Editing and Proofreading Writing Your Personal NarrativeEditing and Proofreading4PRONOUN-ANTECEDENT AGREEMENTIn your narrative, make sure each pronoun you use agrees with its antecedent innumbergenderperson
49Tips from Little Seagull Handbook (see pages 59-61) Describe the settingDescribe what you remember seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and feelingRemember to SHOW rather than TELLThink about the key peopleDescribe the people (movements, posture, facial expressions)Try writing lines of dialogue between two people in your narrative.Consider each of 5 Ws (Who? What? When? Where? Why? )Consider the SIGNIFICANCE of the event
50Homework - Read The Little Seagull Handbook 75 Readings Plus Narration Read W-1 (Writing Contexts), W-2 (Academic Contexts), W-3 (Writing Process)Narrating (pages24-25)W-10 Personal Narratives (pages 58-61)S-6 Pronouns p. 27775 Readings PlusNarrationRead Chapter 1: “Narration” (p.1)Read “Superman and Me”by Sherman AlexieGeorge Orwell “Shooting an Elephant”Homework - Read
51Homework –Turn In Complete Rough Draft Essay #1 Narrative Essay Be Prepared for Quiz on 75 Readings Plus ReadingsHomework –Turn In