4Standard 1.1 Combine and apply movement patterns, simple to complex, in self defense, tumbling, and team activities.
5History of Gymnastics 1700s – Gymnastics begins in Germany 1800s – Leotard invented1896 – First gymnastics in Olympics (men)1928 – First women gymnastics in Olympics1976 – First perfect score (Nadia Comaneci from Romania scores 10.0 floor routine)
6History of Gymnastics Continued 1984 – USA men’s team wins gold in Olympics1996 – USA Kerri Strug sticks landing on vault with one foot (injured ankle previously)
7Log Roll Lay on back with arms extended over head. Turn head and shoulders to the left or right.Keep body straight.Roll around body.
8Front Shoulder Roll Drop one shoulder. Fall forward placing one arm diagonally across body.Tilt head forward and to the side.Tuck chin to chest.Roll over extended arm, shoulder, and back.
9V Sit Sit on the floor with your knees bent and arms extended. Extend your knees to assume a "V" shape.Support your body weight on your seat.
10Front Seat SupportSit on the floor with legs straight and hands flat on the floor between hips and knees.Point your fingers toward your feet.Push down against the floor so that your hips come up off the floor.Lift your heels and support your weight on your hands.
11Forward Roll Assume a squat position. Tuck chin to your chest. Push against the ground with your feet.Lift your hips.Roll over your rounded back.Tuck your legs.Push off with your hands.Roll forward to a squat position.
12Back Shoulder RollFrom a squat position, roll backward over one shoulder.Keep knees close to your chest.Continue moving legs over your body until toes touch the floor.Turn your head and look toward your knees.Bring your arms off the floor to complete the roll.
13Backward Roll Assume a squat position with your back toward the mat. Roll over rounded back.Keep your knees close to your chest.Reach over your shoulders with your hands in a palms up position.Push your hands against the mat to take the weight off your neck.Bring your body to a squat position.
14Switcheroo Perform a front lunge with your arms over your head. Bend forward at your hips.Place your hands on the mat.Kick your back leg up followed by your front leg.Scissor your legs in the air.Land with your rear leg in the front.Land with your front leg in the rear.
15Teeter Totter Perform a front lunge with arms overhead. Bend forward at your hips.Place your hands on the mat.Kick up your back leg up followed by your front leg.Hold your feet together for a moment in the handstand position.Scissor your legs in the air.Land with your rear leg in the front.Land with your front leg in the rear.
16Handstand Start with legs apart and hands over head. Bend forward at your hips.Place both hands on the mat.Kick legs up.Hold legs together in a straight line.
17TripodSquat down.Place your hands and head on the mat in a triangular position.Place your knees on your elbows.Maintain a balanced position.
18Three Point Tip Up Squat down. Place your hands flat on the mat. Point your fingertips forward.Position your elbows inside your legs.Press your elbows against the inner part of your lower thighs.Lean forward.Transfer your weight to your bent elbows and hands.Lower your forehead to the mat.
19Headstand – Balance Inversion Squat down.Place your hands and head on the mat in a triangular position.Move both feet slowly upward over the your head.Position your feet together with your legs straight and your toes pointed.Maintain a balanced position.
20Round Off- Hand-Hand-Both Feet Start with slight run.Push off with right foot then left foot.Place hands close together.Keep arms straight and your head up.Push off with both hands.Bring your feet together.Make a quarter turn.Bend at your waist to land on both feet.
21Cartwheel –Hand-Hand-Foot-Foot Place your hands over your head.Bend your body to the left.Place your left hand on the mat.Place your right hand on the mat.Place right foot on mat.Place left foot on mat.Keep your elbows and legs straight and your head up.Finish in a standing position.
22Resources for Tumbling Livestrong Basic TumblingHistory of GymnasticsVideo: The First Perfect 10 in Gymnastics (Nadia)
24With a “grab” the correct order for escape is: Step to the side of your attacker.Turn arm in a half circle.Use both hands to chop down to break the grip.ResponseEscape
25Break the Grip Using Leverage Side step after grab.Beginning of half turn.Completion of half turn.“Softening Up” attacker.
26Head Lock Escape: Turn chin into the attacker’s arm pit. Reach arm around to attacker’s face.Reach hand closest to attacker around and grab his/her face.Grab attacker’s hand.“Open Up”--Stand up and look away
27Over Arm Hugs Front and Back: Drop your weightGet in an athletic stance.
28Choke from Behind Escape: Tuck chinTurn to the side and swing arm over his/her armsPin his/her armsGoing away present
30SKILLS NEEDED FOR EFFECTIVE OFFENSE AND DEFENSE Reaction TimeAgilitySpeed
31TO PASS FOR DISTANCE: Biomechanical Principles: Leverage Opposition Rotary Motion
32EXAMPLE: PROPRIOCEPTION USE IN SPORTS The player feels that the ball is about to fall out of the net and makes an adjustmentThe player feels they are about to step out of bounds before catching football.
33Training Practices for Active Sports Agility drillsPlyometricsEndurance cardioSprintsResistance training for speedStretching.
34BiomechanicsStandard 1.3 Identify, explain, and apply the skill-related components of balance, reaction time, agility, coordination, explosive power, and speed that enhance performance levels in self defense, tumbling and team activities.
35BalanceAn even distribution of weight enabling someone or something to remain upright and steady.
36Reaction TimeThe time that elapses between a stimulus and the response to it.
37AgilityThe ability to change directions quickly.
38CoordinationThe organization of the different elements of a complex body or activity so as to enable them to work together effectively.
39Explosive PowerPower by definition is the rate at which we can apply maximal force against an external load or surface.
40SpeedTime an object or person travels across a distance.
41ForceA push or a pull applied to an object or person, measured in pounds or newtons.
42InertiaThe tendency of a body at rest to remain at rest or of a body in straight line motion to stay in motion in a straight line unless acted on by an outside force.
43Buyancy 1. The ability or tendency to float in water or other fluid. 2. The power of a liquid to keep something afloat
44Leverage1. a. The action of a lever. b. The mechanical advantage of a lever. 2. Positional advantage; power to act effectively
45Rotary MotionThe act of rotating as if on an axis; "the rotation of the dancer kept time with the music"
46OppositionThe use of body parts on opposite sides of body to increase force and power.
47ProprioceptionThe ability to sense the position and location and orientation and movement of the body and its parts.
48Sports Specific Training: Plyometrics A type of training designed to produce fast, powerful movements, and improving performance in sports.Jump higher.Run faster.
49Sports Specific Training: Endurance To be able to remain vigorous for a long time.Train with low weights and high reps.
50Sports Specific Training: Combination Strength and Endurance Medium weight and reps.Combination of plyos, strength, endurance and sprints.
51Standard 1.4 Explain and demonstrate advanced offensive, defensive, and transition strategies in self defense, and team activities.
52Defensive Strategy: Man to Man When your team does NOT have the ball and wants to keep the other team from scoring.Each player on the team guards a player from other team.
53Defensive Strategy: Zone Players guard an area.Any opposing players that come in their area, they play defense against that player.Allows for easy double/triple teaming
54Defensive Strategy in Self Defense Look aroundYell loudly for help.Find an opening for escape.Strike attacker in vulnerable spots.Run away.
55Offensive Strategy: Quarterback Plays Plays called by the quarterback.Players run to open space to receive football pass.
56Defensive Strategy: Interception When a player on the opposite team disrupts the play of team with the ball.
57Offensive Strategy: Move to Open Space Team mate breaks open away from defense to be available to receive a pass.
58Offensive Strategy: Give and Go Pass to a team mate.Go to open space.Receive pass and continue with play.
59Offensive Strategy: Inbound Play Throw the ball in play.Teammate(s) move to open space to receive pass.
60Spring Motor Skills Assessment Sample QuestionsHSCII EOC # 2Spring Motor Skills Assessment
61Regardless of the scenario, some basic principles of self defense should always be kept in mind: A. There is a start, middle and end of every attack: look for the openings. B. Use leverage instead of strength. C. Strike vulnerable areas of your attacker. D. All of the above.
62The basketball guarding position and the volleyball serve-receive position are similar in many ways, but in what way are they different?A. In basketball, your weight is low; but in volleyball you stand up.B. In basketball, one arm usually is up; but in volleyball, both are low.C. In basketball, you’re on your toes; but in volleyball, you’re on your heels.D. They’re the same, except that you try to hit a volleyball and catch a basketball.
63From the following list of skills, what are the similarities From the following list of skills, what are the similarities? Football pass, softball throw from the outfield, tennis serve, badminton smash.A. There are no similarities; they are discrete skills.B. All are offensive skills.C. All are skills that require height for success.D. All use an overhand-throw pattern.
64When playing softball, it’s best to hit a sacrifice fly when: A. A runner is on 3rd base, with less than two outs.B. No runners are on base, with less than two outs.C. The bases are loaded, with two outs.D. A runner is on 1st base, with one out.
65The best time to use a zone defense in soccer is when: A. The opponents are very slow and have weak soccer skills.B. The opponents are too fast to keep up with and can control the ball well.C. You’re tired or the goalkeeper is hurt.D. You have no substitutes to fill in for you.
66Your volleyball team has the following people in the back row: the tallest hitter, the setter & the defensive specialist. Which one should take the second hit?A. The defensive specialist.B. The hitter.C. The setter.D. Whomever the ball is hit to.
67On your soccer team, you have a very weak goalkeeper and one very skilled forward. It’s near the end of the game and you have a 1-goal lead. The opponents have just made a pass deep into the corner near your goal. What do you do?A. Line up a “wall” near the goal line.B. Kick it to your goalkeeper to kick back.C. Leave it until your forward comes to get it.D. Try to clear it well down the field.
68In softball, you have a runner on 1st and 2nd bases with 2 outs and the score tied. Where should you try to hit the ball to have the greatest opportunity to advance the runner on 2nd base?A. Grounder into right field.B. Grounder to left field.C Grounder to 3rd base.D. Deep fly ball to center field.
69Rosa is trying to kick a ball as far as possible, but with no success Rosa is trying to kick a ball as far as possible, but with no success. She should make sure that she has a full range of motion by using:A. A short backswing and a full follow-through.B. A full backswing and a full follow-through.C. No backswing and a full follow-through.D. A full backswing and a short follow-through.
70It’s important when throwing a ball to step forward on the opposite foot, because that provides: A. Stability and increased lever length.B. Momentum, and it shortens the range of motion.C. Momentum and maximum preparation to rotate.D. Stability and decreased lever length.
71A soccer ball stops rolling due to friction because: A. An object in motion remains in motion until acted upon by an outside force.B. For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.C. Force equals mass times acceleration.D. Drag increases with the square of the velocity.
72Once Satoshi has learned the basic skills in soccer, what kind of practice will help him improve each skill and his overall game performance? Practicing each skill:A. On different days to focus only on that one skill.B. In a full game of soccer.C. Separately but in game-like activities.D. Separately, but in isolation activities.
73Bob wants to learn to play volleyball, and is willing to practice Bob wants to learn to play volleyball, and is willing to practice. What is the best practice plan for learning to play the game?Practice the skills in game-like conditions first and then break the skills down to simple practice conditions.Practice all skills for some time on each day.Practice one skill on one day until you’re good at it and another skill on another day.Practice the skills in a game.
74Which of the following is an open skill that one should practice in game-like conditions? A. Basketball free throw.B. Batting in softball or baseball.C. Soccer dribble.D. Tennis serve.
75Maya is fairly skilled at her sport and wants to try out for her school team. How should she practice on most days to prepare for try-outs?A. Work on basic skills, then combine the skills, then play games.B. Work on playing in games as much as she can.C. Work on each skill separately and then play games.D. Work only on those skills she is weak in to use her time more wisely.
76A person’s size and strength should be considered when choosing: A. Sport equipment.B. Friends to play with.C. The type of sports clothes to buy.D. What to drink during activity.
77Which of the following is true about high school students. They have Which of the following is true about high school students? They have than elementary students.A. Longer limbs, more efficient lungs and similar muscle mass.B. Longer limbs, similar lung size and more muscle mass.C. Longer limbs, larger lungs and more muscle mass.D. Similar-length limbs, equally efficient lungs and more muscle fibers.
78As people mature and begin to balance job, family and recreation pursuits, their choice of physical activity typically includes more:A. Individual and dual activities.B. Highly competitive activities.C. Large-group activities.D. Longer games and sports.
79Tommy’s grandmother played basketball while growing up and still rides a bike and walks regularly. All of the following are benefits that Tommy’s grandmother could realize from physical activity, except:A. She sleeps better.B. She strengthened her bones to help resist osteoporosis.C. She has sore muscles.D. She has stronger heart and lungs.
80Mohammad is ahead of his peers in terms of motor skill development, which may be because of more: A. Maturity and practice.B. Instruction and speed.C . Practice, instruction and body size.D. Instruction, practice and maturity.
81As you continue to mature, which of the following is most likely to happen? A. I will get faster and stronger as I grow older, and that affects my skills.B. My skills will stay the same if I continue to practice.C. My skills in most activities will increase if I practice.D. My skills will be better immediately.
821.1 In tumbling, a round-off represents the following sequence: Foot/Foot/Land Both HandsHand/Hand/Land Both FeetHand/Foot/Hand/FootFoot/Hand/Foot/Hand
831.3In order for Henry to avoid opponents while dribbling the basketball to the end of the court, he should have:AgilityCoordinationExplosive powerAll of the above
841.4When playing softball, it’s best to hit a sacrifice fly when: A. A runner is on 3rd base, with less than two outs. B. No runners are on base, with less than two outs. C. The bases are loaded, with two outs. D. A runner is on 1st base, with one out.
851.5When Karen throws the football, she steps with her left foot and throws with her right hand. Which principle of biomechanics is she displaying?ForceInertiaRotary motionOpposition
861.6Sarah is nervous her serve won’t work well in the class volleyball championship game. How will practicing her serve before the big game help her to be successful?She will feel more confidentHer body will have a greater memory of the skillShe will feel preparedAll of the above
871.7While Edgar is performing a headstand, he feels his body leaning towards the left. He needs to focus on:Keeping his toes pointedHis balanceKeeping his legs over his bodyB and C
881.8Ted wants to try out for the basketball team. What type of conditioning should he engage in to help him prepare?PlyometricsCombination of long distance running and sprints .Stretching and core strengtheningAll of the above.
891.11On your soccer team, you have a very weak goalkeeper and one very skilled forward. It’s near the end of the game and you have a 1-goal lead. The opponents have just made a pass deep into the corner near your goal. What do you do? A. Line up a “wall” near the goal line. B. Kick it to your goalkeeper to kick back. C. Leave it until your forward comes to get it. D. Try to clear it well down the field.
903.2Marcia has been a jogger for over 20 years, but has developed arthritis in her knees and needs to find another activity she enjoys. Which activity is the most appropriate replacement for running?CyclingYogaWater aerobicsWalking
913.4As a pitcher in the softball game, you pitched a series of balls which allowed runners on the bases. Which characteristic is BEST described by your willingness to continue to pitch until the strikes start coming in again?Individual attitudeMotivationDeterminationAll of the above.
923.6Melba loves basketball and has grown up in a community in which basketball is supported and promoted. Melba moves to a new town where basketball is not currently being played at the school. What should she do?Ask a supportive teacher to coach the team.Convince friends to try out for the team.Create an awareness of the fun and benefits of playing basketball.All of the above.
933.7 How would you adjust a lacrosse game for eight year old kids? Use smaller lacrosse sticksUse a larger ball that is softMake the field smallerAll of the above
943.8Your group has been assigned the task of teaching the class an original game you have created. What are characteristics of a good leader?Lead stretchesSet up the equipmentExplain the game and organize the class into teamsAll of the above