2CEREBRAL PALSY Definition Cerebral palsy is the result of a brain lesionThe brain lesion must be fixed and nonpr gressive.The abnormality of the brain results in motorimpairment
3EpidemiologyIn recent reports the incidence has been estimated to be between 2.4 and 2.7 per 100O Live births. (low birth weight tiny neonates)The risk for cerebral palsy in a child born full-term is approximately 1 in 2000.
4EpidemiologyCerebral palsy was diagnosed in 12.3% of infants born at between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation.Approximately 50% of children with cerebral palsy have low birth weight, and 28% weight less than 1500 g at birth.
5EpidemiologyThe incidence of cerebral palsy in recent studies of multiple births is9 to 12 per in twins31 to 45 per in triplets111 per 1000 in quadruplets.
6EtiologyPRENATALThe TORCHES group of infections (toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, herpes, and syphilis)Cocaine, heroin, and marijuanaCongenital malformationsRhesus blood group incompatibility resulting inkernicterus as a cause of cerebral palsy
7EtiologyPRENATALPrenatal chorioamnionitis and maternal infection have been associated with anincreased risk for premature onset of labor and cerebral palsy in the infant.placental abnormalitiesFetal biophysical profile scores are prenatal noninvasive tests used to monitor the health of the developing fetus.
8Etiology PERINATAL Anoxia as a result of perinatal complications (A tight nuchal Cord or placental abruption)Premature deliverySepsis in the neonatal periodExtracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMOHeart surgery before the age of 1 month resulted in cerebral palsy in 25% of infants.
9EtiologyPOSTNATALInfections such as meningitis in early childhood can lead to cerebral palsyCardiopulmonary arrestSuffocationMotor vehicle accidentsSevere falls, and child abuse
10Classification PHYSIOLOGIC The most common movement abnormality is Spasticity.HypotoniaDystoniaAthetosisPatients with cerebral palsy frequently have a mixed form of movement disorder
11classification GEOGRAPHIC what part of the body is affected by cerebralpalsy.HemiplegiaDiplegiaTriplegiaQuadriplegiatotal body involvement,
17Treatment MEDICAL TREATMENT OF SPASTICITY Oral Medication diazepam and baclofenIntrathecal BaclofenBotulinum Toxin(Botox)Clostridium botulinum and works by blocking the release of acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction.