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Dr. Henry C. Lee Chief Emeritus, Connecticut State Police Professor, University of New Haven Director, Forensic Research Center New Investigative Techniques.

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Presentation on theme: "Dr. Henry C. Lee Chief Emeritus, Connecticut State Police Professor, University of New Haven Director, Forensic Research Center New Investigative Techniques."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Dr. Henry C. Lee Chief Emeritus, Connecticut State Police Professor, University of New Haven Director, Forensic Research Center New Investigative Techniques

3 Information Theory Criminal Investigation

4 Investigative Technology Image Enhancement & Analysis Image Enhancement & Analysis Digital Video Recording & Analysis Digital Video Recording & Analysis Crime Scene Site Identification Crime Scene Site Identification Electronic Monitoring Electronic Monitoring Artificial Intelligence Artificial Intelligence Biometric Identification Biometric Identification Crime Mapping & Analysis Crime Mapping & Analysis Pattern Evidence Analysis Pattern Evidence Analysis Data Collection & Data Mining Data Collection & Data Mining Reconstruction of Crime Scene Reconstruction of Crime Scene

5 Scene Process Laboratory Process Court Process Recognition Documentation Reservation Collection Identification Comparison Individualization Reconstruction Interpretation

6 Crime Scene Crime Scene Type of scene - indoor vs outdoor - primary vs secondary - organized vs unorganized - staged vs normal - dynamic vs passive - universal vs. microscopic

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8 Transient Evidence 蹈 臨時鏗物証 Pattern Evidence 痕跡鏗物証 Conditional Evidence 情况鏗物証 Transfer Evidence 移轉鏗物証 Associative Evidence 連鎖鏗物証

9 Pattern Evidence  Recognition of pattern  Identification of pattern  Documentation of pattern  Enhancement of Pattern  Comparison of pattern.  Mechanism of transfer

10 Bloodstain Patterns Drop, Drip and Satellite Pattern Drop, Drip and Satellite Pattern Swipe, Wipe and Smudges Swipe, Wipe and Smudges Impact, Splash, and Gushing Impact, Splash, and Gushing Contact and Transfer Contact and Transfer Cast off and Wave Cast off Cast off and Wave Cast off Imprint and Impression Imprint and Impression Low, Medium and High Impact Spatter Low, Medium and High Impact Spatter

11 Blood as Evidence PATTERN PATTERN  Location of Stain  Position of stain  Direction of stain  Condition of stain  Size & shape of stain  Amount & distribution of stain TYPING TYPING  ABO System  Red cell system  Serum grouping  Isoenyme typing  DNA  Sex, Race, Age, Other determination

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15 Types of Pattern on Body Mark Made By Human Mark Made By Human Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Animals Mark Made By Animals Mark Made By Objects Mark Made By Objects Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Clothing Mark Made By Clothing

16 Imprint Impression Evidence  Human – Fingerprint, Footprint, Lip print, Ear print, Body print, Handwriting.  Animal – Paw print, Body print.  Vehicle – Tire Track, Impact Pattern, Damage Pattern.  Clothing- Fabric Pattern, Logo Imprint, Accessory Imprint, Shoe Patterns  Objects – Tool-marks, Bullets & Casings, Weapon Pattern, Typewriter & Pattern, Marks & Trade Stamps.

17 Methods for Pattern Enhancement 1) Photographic Methods 2) Chemical Methods 3) Lighting and Filtering 4) Casting and Lifting

18 Imprint Pattern Evidence at Scene Finger / hand prints Finger / hand prints Foot / shoe prints Foot / shoe prints Tire marks Tire marks Bullet striations Bullet striations Casing imprints Casing imprints Handwritings Handwritings Ear prints / nose prints Ear prints / nose prints Cutting mark of Body parts Cutting mark of Body parts Machine marks Machine marks Tool marks Tool marks

19 Physical Pattern on Body Footprint patterns Footprint patterns Tool mark patterns Tool mark patterns Shoeprint patterns Shoeprint patterns Tire track patterns Tire track patterns Bloodstain patterns Bloodstain patterns Semen strain patterns Semen strain patterns Wound / injury patterns Wound / injury patterns Rope/Ligature Marks Rope/Ligature Marks Weapon Marks Weapon Marks

20 Types of Pattern on Body Mark Made By Human Mark Made By Human Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Animals Mark Made By Animals Mark Made By Objects Mark Made By Objects Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Clothing Mark Made By Clothing

21 Mark Made By Human Bite Mark Bite Mark Fingerprint Fingerprint Footprint Footprint Handprint Handprint Nail Mark Nail Mark Wound Pattern Wound Pattern

22 Mark Made by Animals & Insects  Dog bite  Claw Marks  Insect Bite  Animal Bite  Scratch Marks  Bacteria Infection

23 Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Tools Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Weapons Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Vehicle Mark Made By Clothing Mark Made By Clothing Mark Made By Object

24 Mark Made By Weapon Sharp Instrument Sharp Instrument Blunt Instrument Blunt Instrument Gunshot Wound Gunshot Wound Rope/Ligature Rope/Ligature Burn Patterns Burn Patterns

25 Types of Sharp Force Injury Stabbing Wound Stabbing Wound Cutting Wound Cutting Wound Chopping Wound Chopping Wound Slashing Wound Slashing Wound Scraping Wound Scraping Wound

26 Knife Speer SwordNeedle ArrowScrewdriver AxeIce pick MacheteGlass Hatchet Meat Clever AxeScissor

27 Sharp Force Wound Sharp Force Wound Sharp edges, Clear penetration and separation Blunt Force Injury Blunt Force Injury Blunt-impact-crushes & tear Laceration-Abraded edges, undermined

28 Knife Spear SwordNeedle ArrowScrewdriver AxeIce pick MacheteGlass Hatchet Meat Clever Needle, NailScissor

29 Lacerations Split Bridge of soft tissue Abraded Edge Marginal Abrasion Patterned Abrasion Chipping Special Wound Pattern

30 Gun Shot Wound  Contact  Close Range  Intermediate range  Distant range

31 Contact Discharge Muzzle against the skin Muzzle against the skin Single and circular wound Single and circular wound Entrance hole approximate diameter of bore Entrance hole approximate diameter of bore Little or no soot on skin Little or no soot on skin Little or no burn on skin Little or no burn on skin Muzzle mark on skin Muzzle mark on skin GSR in wound track GSR in wound track

32 Close Range Discharge 1.Muzzle near skin (not a contact) 2.Circular Wound – right angle 3.Elliptical wound – slanted angle 4.Nibbling / cremation around wound edge 5.Blackened / soot on edge of wound 6.Annular / distant bruising 7.Singeing of hair / skin 8.GSR around wound

33 Mid-range Discharge 1.Smoke / soot diminished 20-40cm 2.Muzzle to target – 15cm to 2 m 3.Powder tattooing around wound cm 4.Cremated / scalloped wound edges 5.One central entrance hole 1m 6.Satellite holes around central hole – 1m

34 Distance Discharge 1.Muzzle to target - 2m 2.No burning / soot on skin 3.Few GSR particles 4.Wad may be present – 5m 5.Central hole diminished m 6.Spread of pellets increase

35 Mark Made by Animals & Insects  Dog bite  Claw Marks  Insect Bite  Animal Bite  Scratch Marks  Bacteria Infection

36 Examination of Pattern Evidence  Recognition of pattern  Documentation of pattern  Identification of pattern  Comparison of pattern.  Mechanism of transfer

37 Recognition of Pattern Evidence  Imprint vs.Indentation  Human vs. Animal origin  Weapon vs. Artificial mark  Direct vs. Secondary  Bloody Imprint vs. Impression in Blood

38 Documentation of Pattern Evidence  Photographs  Video Taping  Notes  Diagrams  Sketches  Recording

39 Identification of Pattern Evidence  Pattern made by hands  Pattern made by foot  Pattern made by Rope  Pattern made by Weapons  Pattern made by Teeth, Nail  Pattern made by Vehicle  Pattern made by Objects


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