Presentation on theme: "Industrial Revolution. Brainstorm a list of changes a nation-state would go through as they transformed from an agriculture society to an industrial society."— Presentation transcript:
Livestock- farmers only allowed the best and strongest to breed Size and production of livestock increase. Example 1700- avg wt. for sheep 18 lbs. 1760- avg. wt. for sheep 50 lbs.
How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution Brainstorm cause and effect Agriculture RevolutionIncrease food supply and living conditions Population increased!!! Demand on food and goods increased Small farmers became factory workers and moved to cities Urbanization
Urbanization Manchester 1760- 45,000 Manchester 1850- 300,000
175017601770178017901800181018201830184018501860 90000 0 180000 270000 360000 450000 630000 Manchester Population Growth
Factors of Production labor Land/resources/waterways wealth What circumstances allowed for England to lead the Industrial Revolution?
Steam engine- James Watt 1765 Seed Drill- Jethro Tull 1701 Cotton Gin – Eli Whitney- 1793 Inventions How did these inventions lead to the Industrial Revolution? Seed Drill- increased crops- larger farms Cotton Gin- Textile mills increase Steam Engine- powered by coal- transportation
Consumption Cotton How will the increase in textile mills in England during the mid 1800’s help lead to war in the United States?
Peppered Moths In 1998, Michael E. N. Majerus of the Department of Genetics at the University of Cambridge carefully re-examined Kettlewell's studies, as well as many others that have since appeared. What he reported, first of all, was that Kettlewell's experiments, indicating that moth survival depends upon color-related camouflage, were generally correct: " Differential bird predation of the typica and carbonaria forms, in habitats affected by industrial pollution to different degrees, is the primary influence on the evolution of melanism in the peppered moth." (P. 116, Melanism - Evolution in Action, M. E. N. Majerus, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998).
Profit Profit - Money made or How much better off are we? Profit = Selling Price - Cost (labor + Capital) labor- wages capital- resources, buildings, land, etc. If in theory the market controls the price then what can the owner control to increase his/her profit? What are some ways an owner of a factory can keep the cost down in order to maximize profit? Brainstorm methods to reduce labor cost. Brainstorm methods to reduce capital cost. What do you think is the government’s role when these cost cutting strategies occur?
Income What information can be taken from this graph?
No child labor laws until 1819 1833- major laws Up to that point Children as young as 6 were expected to work as if they were adults. Long hours, little pay, fix machines, short break for lunch.
1833 Factory Act In 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: No child workers under 9 years of age. Employers must have a medical or age certificate for child workers. Children between the ages of 9-13 to work no more than 9 hours a day. Children between 13-18 to work no more than 12 hours a day. Children are not to work at night. Two hours schooling each day for children. Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law throughout the whole of the country. However, the passing of this Act did not mean that overnight the mistreatment of children stopped. This Public Record Office website allows students to investigate how the far the Act solved the problems of child labour.
Mary and Rachell Enock, ages 11 and 12 years. "We are door-keepers in the four foot level. We leave the house before six each morning and are in the level until seven o'clock and sometimes later. We get 2p a day and our light costs us 2 1/2 p. a week. Rachel was in a day school and she can read a little. She was run over by a tram a while ago and was home ill a long time, but she has got over it."
Jane Peacock Watson. "I have wrought in the bowels of the earth 33 years. I have been married 23 years and had nine children, six are alive and three died of typhus a few years since. Have had two dead born. Horse-work ruins the women; it crushes their haunches, bends their ankles and makes them old women at 40. "
Isabella Read, 12 years old, coal-bearer. Works on mother's account, as father has been dead two years. Mother bides at home, she is troubled with bad breath, and is sair weak in her body from early labour. I am wrought with sister and brother, it is very sore work; cannot say how many rakes or journeys I make from pit's bottom to wall face and back, thinks about 30 or 25 on the average; the distance varies from 100 to 250 fathom. “I carry about 1 cwt (100 lbs.) and a quarter on my back; have to stoop much and creep through water, which is frequently up to the calves of my legs. When first down fell frequently asleep while waiting for coal from heat and fatigue. I do not like the work, nor do the lassies, but they are made to like it. When the weather is warm there is difficulty in breathing, and frequently the lights go out.”
Isabel Wilson, 38 years old. "I have been married 19 years and have had 10 bairns [children]:...My last child was born on Saturday morning, and I was at work on the Friday night... None of the children read, as the work is no regular..When I go below my lassie 10 years of age keeps house..."
Sarah Gooder, aged 8 years. I'm a trapper in the Gawber pit. It does not tire me, but I have to trap without a light and I'm scared. I go at four and sometimes half past three in the morning, and come out at five and half past. I never go to sleep. Sometimes I sing when I've light, but not in the dark; I dare not sing then. I don't like being in the pit. I am very sleepy when I go sometimes in the morning.
Generally, how many hours did these women and children work each day? What health problems were generated by mine labor? Name some ways this type of work affected family life? Do women work in coal mines today?
Why do you think women were used so frequently in the coal pits? According to Ben Miller, boss - 1841
Realism Art Art work that was intended to portray the realities of life Not intended to romanticize work- only record it For each piece of Art Sketch it Write down your observations What is the subject doing Emotions What do they all have in common? Ect.
Create a Historical Fiction Directions: Using the information from this power point, your textbook, and notebook create a historical fiction the depicts the life of a person living during the industrial revolution. Possible writing forms: Series of diary entries Journal entries Letters Children’s book Court testimony Possible people: Coal miner, factory worker, children, women, Government official, Owner of a business, doctor, teacher, etc. This writing should be one page in length. Read in class
Pamphlet After listening to the stories Imagine that you were asked to or were inspired to write a pamphlet that outlines the problems in society. Answer the following questions: What are the over all problems with society? What group of people are being wronged? Who is responsible for their difficult lives? What changes should happen? What should the people do? What should the government do?
Reforms Capitalism Utilitarianisms -Adam Smith 1776 The Wealth of Nations - Laissez-faire Economics -Goal is to make a profit- promotes competition - Opposed to Tax -Opposed to Government programs -People are responsible for choices - Thomas Malthus believed wars were needed to cut down on population -Believed in the free market system Socialism/Marxism/ Communismi -Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels -Communsit Manifesto (1848) -- factors of production and resources owned by the public -Command economy -Class struggle between “have” bourgeoisie and the “have nots” proletariat -Believed in revolt- redistribution of wealthsm -Jeremy Bentham late 1700’s - People should judge institutions based on their utility and usefulness -Gov’t should promote the greatest good for the greatest amount of people -Questioned unregulated capitalism -Shocked by misery and poverty Unions - Workers united to force reforms - Collective bargaining - Strike - Laws created to stop unions -Goal- to raise wages and better working conditions
Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism (Free Market Economy) Directions: You will be playing rock paper scissors. Rules to the game: You choose anything you want to be ant any point. You may choose a rock, paper, or a scissor. Rock defeats scissors Scissor defeats paper Paper defeats rock As long as you have money, you may make an investment per contest. Your investment must be at least $1 and as much as you like. If you lose the contest you must give you competition the agreed upon amount. When you have no more money you must sit down. Discussion points: -all started at different points -all free to make own decision (some were good and some were poor) you could invest as much as or as little as you liked you could be a passive or as aggressive as you wished some did not even try to make money you may have gone to the bank, cheated, stole winners had their choice of what they wanted to spend money on. People control labor, wages, prices, supply and demand Top 3 Winners will be able to trade in class money for prizes.
Communism (Command economy) You will be provided a role (rock, paper, or scissor) You will be told who and how much you may invest Everybody starts with the same amount -students will not play the game because they realize that it will not always benefit them. Therefore you will force them to play at the end they all receive a non-salted pretzel. Command economy- Government controls, labor, demand, supply, price, wages.
Capitalism vs. Communism Free Market Economy (Capitalism) Command Economy (Communism) Philosopher(s) Ideas Who determines Price? Who determines Supply? Who determines Demand? Adam Smith Karl Marx Hands off, faith in the market, competition leads to improvements Class struggle, haves and have not’s, Gov’t Regulation. People Government
Capitalism vs. Communism Free Market Economy (Capitalism) Command Economy (Communism) Who determines Wages Views on private property? Views on competition? Gov’t influence on the economy? Views on Freedom Inventions/improve GovernmentPeople rewarded encouraged valued Limited incentives Discouraged Hands on Regulation over choice People lack incentives
Brainstorm links from the Industrial Revolution to life of today Education Work Wages Government and the Economy International relations Laws Environment others