5Livestock- farmers only allowed the best and strongest to breed Size and production of livestock increase.Example1700- avg wt. for sheep 18 lbs.1760- avg. wt. for sheep 50 lbs.
6How did the Agricultural Revolution lead to the Industrial Revolution Brainstorm cause and effectAgriculture RevolutionIncrease food supply and living conditionsDemand on food and goods increasedPopulation increased!!!Small farmers became factory workers and moved to citiesUrbanization
10Manchester Population Growth 63000045000036000027000018000090000175017601770178017901800181018201830184018501860
11Land/resources/waterways Factors of ProductionLand/resources/waterwayslaborwealthWhat circumstances allowed for England to lead the Industrial Revolution?
12InventionsSteam engine- James Watt 1765Seed Drill- Jethro Tull 1701How did these inventions lead to the Industrial Revolution?Seed Drill- increased crops- larger farmsCotton Gin- Textile mills increaseSteam Engine- powered by coal- transportationCotton Gin – Eli Whitney- 1793
13ConsumptionCottonHow will the increase in textile mills in England during the mid 1800’s help lead to war in the United States?
21Peppered MothsIn 1998, Michael E. N. Majerus of the Department of Genetics at the University of Cambridge carefully re-examined Kettlewell's studies, as well as many others that have since appeared. What he reported, first of all, was that Kettlewell's experiments, indicating that moth survival depends upon color-related camouflage, were generally correct:" Differential bird predation of the typica and carbonaria forms, in habitats affected by industrial pollution to different degrees, is the primary influence on the evolution of melanism in the peppered moth."(P. 116, Melanism - Evolution in Action, M. E. N. Majerus, Oxford University Press, New York, 1998).
22ProfitProfit - Money made or How much better off are we?Profit = Selling Price - Cost (labor + Capital)labor- wagescapital- resources, buildings, land, etc.If in theory the market controls the price then what can the owner control to increase his/her profit?What are some ways an owner of a factory can keep the cost down in order to maximize profit?Brainstorm methods to reduce labor cost.Brainstorm methods to reduce capital cost.What do you think is the government’s role when these cost cutting strategies occur?
23IncomeWhat information can be taken from this graph?
28No child labor laws until 1819 1833- major lawsUp to that pointChildren as young as 6 were expected to work as if they were adults.Long hours, little pay, fix machines, short break for lunch.
291833 Factory ActIn 1833 the Government passed a Factory Act to improve conditions for children working in factories. Young children were working very long hours in workplaces where conditions were often terrible. The basic act was as follows: No child workers under 9 years of age. Employers must have a medical or age certificate for child workers. Children between the ages of 9-13 to work no more than 9 hours a day. Children between to work no more than 12 hours a day. Children are not to work at night. Two hours schooling each day for children. Four factory inspectors appointed to enforce the law throughout the whole of the country. However, the passing of this Act did not mean that overnight the mistreatment of children stopped. This Public Record Office website allows students to investigate how the far the Act solved the problems of child labour.
34Mary and Rachell Enock, ages 11 and 12 years Mary and Rachell Enock, ages 11 and 12 years. "We are door-keepers in the four foot level. We leave the house before six each morning and are in the level until seven o'clock and sometimes later. We get 2p a day and our light costs us 2 1/2 p. a week. Rachel was in a day school and she can read a little. She was run over by a tram a while ago and was home ill a long time, but she has got over it."
35Jane Peacock Watson. "I have wrought in the bowels of the earth 33 years. I have been married 23 years and had nine children, six are alive and three died of typhus a few years since. Have had two dead born. Horse-work ruins the women; it crushes their haunches, bends their ankles and makes them old women at 40. "
36Isabella Read, 12 years old, coal-bearer. Works on mother's account, as father has been dead two years. Mother bides at home, she is troubled with bad breath, and is sair weak in her body from early labour. I am wrought with sister and brother, it is very sore work; cannot say how many rakes or journeys I make from pit's bottom to wall face and back, thinks about 30 or 25 on the average; the distance varies from 100 to 250 fathom.“I carry about 1 cwt (100 lbs.) and a quarter on my back; have to stoop much and creep through water, which is frequently up to the calves of my legs. When first down fell frequently asleep while waiting for coal from heat and fatigue.I do not like the work, nor do the lassies, but they are made to like it. When the weather is warm there is difficulty in breathing, and frequently the lights go out.”
37Isabel Wilson, 38 years old Isabel Wilson, 38 years old. "I have been married 19 years and have had 10 bairns [children]:...My last child was born on Saturday morning, and I was at work on the Friday night... None of the children read, as the work is no regular..When I go below my lassie 10 years of age keeps house..."
39Sarah Gooder, aged 8 years. I'm a trapper in the Gawber pit. It does not tire me, but I have to trap without a light and I'm scared. I go at four and sometimes half past three in the morning, and come out at five and half past. I never go to sleep. Sometimes I sing when I've light, but not in the dark; I dare not sing then. I don't like being in the pit. I am very sleepy when I go sometimes in the morning.
42Generally, how many hours did these women and children work each day? What health problems were generated by mine labor?Name some ways this type of work affected family life?Do women work in coal mines today?
43Why do you think women were used so frequently in the coal pits? According to Ben Miller, boss
44Realism ArtArt work that was intended to portray the realities of lifeNot intended to romanticize work- only record itFor each piece of ArtSketch itWrite down your observationsWhat is the subject doingEmotionsWhat do they all have in common?Ect.
50Create a Historical Fiction Directions:Using the information from this power point, your textbook, and notebook create a historical fiction the depicts the life of a person living during the industrial revolution.Possible writing forms:Series of diary entriesJournal entriesLettersChildren’s bookCourt testimonyPossible people:Coal miner, factory worker, children, women, Government official, Owner of a business, doctor, teacher, etc.This writing should be one page in length.Read in class
51PamphletAfter listening to the storiesImagine that you were asked to or were inspired to write a pamphlet that outlines the problems in society.Answer the following questions:What are the over all problems with society?What group of people are being wronged?Who is responsible for their difficult lives?What changes should happen? What should the people do? What should the government do?
52Socialism/Marxism/ Communismi ReformsCapitalismUtilitarianismsAdam Smith 1776 The Wealth of NationsLaissez-faire EconomicsGoal is to make a profit- promotes competitionOpposed to TaxOpposed to Government programsPeople are responsible for choicesThomas Malthus believed wars were needed to cut down on populationBelieved in the free market systemJeremy Bentham late 1700’sPeople should judge institutions based on their utility and usefulnessGov’t should promote the greatest good for the greatest amount of peopleQuestioned unregulated capitalismShocked by misery and povertySocialism/Marxism/ CommunismiKarl Marx and Friedrich EngelsCommunsit Manifesto (1848)- factors of production and resources owned by the publicCommand economyClass struggle between “have” bourgeoisie and the “have nots” proletariatBelieved in revolt- redistribution of wealthsmUnions- Workers united to force reforms- Collective bargaining- Strike- Laws created to stop unionsGoal- to raise wages and better working conditions
56Capitalism vs. Communism Capitalism (Free Market Economy)Directions:You will be playing rock paper scissors.Rules to the game:You choose anything you want to be ant any point. You may choose a rock, paper, or a scissor.Rock defeats scissorsScissor defeats paperPaper defeats rockAs long as you have money, you may make an investment per contest. Your investment must be at least $1 and as much as you like. If you lose the contest you must give you competition the agreed upon amount.When you have no more money you must sit down.Discussion points:-all started at different points-all free to make own decision (some were good and some were poor)you could invest as much as or as little as you likedyou could be a passive or as aggressive as you wishedsome did not even try to make moneyyou may have gone to the bank, cheated, stolewinners had their choice of what they wanted to spend money on.People control labor, wages, prices, supply and demandTop 3 Winners will be able to trade in class money for prizes.
57Communism (Command economy) You will be provided a role (rock, paper, or scissor)You will be told who and how much you may investEverybody starts with the same amount-students will not play the game because they realize that it will not always benefit them.Therefore you will force them to play at the end they all receive a non-salted pretzel.Command economy- Government controls, labor, demand, supply, price, wages.
58Capitalism vs. Communism Free Market Economy(Capitalism)Command Economy(Communism)Adam SmithPhilosopher(s)Karl MarxHands off, faith in the market, competition leads to improvementsClass struggle, haves and have not’s, Gov’t Regulation.IdeasWho determinesPrice?PeopleGovernmentWho determinesSupply?PeopleGovernmentWho determinesDemand?GovernmentPeople
59Capitalism vs. Communism Free Market Economy(Capitalism)Command Economy(Communism)PeopleGovernmentWho determines WagesrewardedDiscouragedViews on private property?Views on competition?encouragedDiscouragedGov’t influence on the economy?Hands onLimitedViews on FreedomvaluedRegulation over choiceincentivesPeople lack incentivesInventions/improve
60Brainstorm links from the Industrial Revolution to life of today EducationWorkWagesGovernment and the EconomyInternational relationsLawsEnvironmentothers