Stencil & Accumulation Buffers Stencil buffer is basically a mask that tells us which pixels can be modified and which can’t. Accumulation buffer does what the name says, accumulates information.
Clear Value void glClearColor(red, green, blue, alpha); void glClearIndex(index); void glClearDepth(depth); void glClearStencil(s); void glClearAccum(red, green, blue, alpha); Set the clear value of the appropriate buffer.
Clearing the Buffers void glClear(GLbitfield mask); Clears the specified buffers. The value of mask is the bitwise logical OR of some combination of: GL_COLOR_BUFFER_BIT, GL_DEPTH_BUFFER_BIT, GL_STENCIL_BUFFER_BIT, GL_ACCUM_BUFFER_BIT.
Writing / Reading void glDrawBuffer(GLenum mode); void glReadBuffer(GLenum mode); These commands tell OpenGL to which buffer should it write, from which buffers should it read (no actual read / write are done).
Enable / Disable void glColorMask(red, green, blue, alpha); void glDepthMask(flag); void glStencilMask(mask); Enables / Disables writing to the specified buffers or field in the buffer.
Scissor Test void glScissor(x, y, width, height); Sets the location and size of the scissor rectangle. The parameters define the lower-left corner (x, y), and the width and height of the rectangle (must be enabled first). Buffer Scissor Box (x,y)
Alpha Test void glAlphaFunc(func, ref); Sets the reference value and comparison function for the alpha test. The reference value ref is clamped to be between zero and one.
Stencil Test void glStencilFunc(func, ref, mask); Sets the comparison function, reference value, and a mask for use with the stencil test. The reference value is compared to the value in the stencil buffer using the comparison function, but the comparison applies only to those bits where the corresponding bits of the mask are 1. void glStencilOp(fail, zfail, zpass); Specifies how the data in the stencil buffer is modified when a fragment passes or fails the stencil test. The three functions fail, zfail, and zpass can be GL_KEEP, GL_ZERO, GL_REPLACE, GL_INCR, GL_DECR, or GL_INVERT.
Depth Test void glDepthFunc(GLenum func); Sets the comparison function for the depth test.
Accumulation Buffer Won’t go into specifics but here are a few applications: Soft Shadows Motion Blurs Depth of Field
Speeding Up Rendering After Deciding What to Draw
We want to render our complex models at interactive frame rates. Here when we say render we mean the decision process of deciding what to render and the actual rendering. 30 fps 33 msec per frame. Need More Time
Thing that Have to be Done Visibility calculations Character animation Collision detection LOD determination Shadows Reflections … The decision process includes: All this and the actual rendering have to be done on time.
Display Lists A display list is a convenient and efficient way to name and organize a set of OpenGL commands. glCallList( wheel_id ); modelview transformation glCallList( wheel_id ); modelview transformation glCallList( wheel_id );
Display Lists To optimize performance, an OpenGL display list is a cache of commands rather than a dynamic database. In other words, once a display list is created, it can't be modified.
What does Cache Mean? glRotate(35.0, 1.0, 0.0, 0.0): Matrix Computed by the Function Computation Result We Store This Matrix in Memory
Getting Display Lists ids GLuint glGenLists(GLsizei range); Allocates range number of contiguous, previously unallocated display-list indices. The integer returned is the index that marks the beginning of a contiguous block of empty display-list indices. void glDeleteLists(GLuint list, GLsizei range); Deletes range display lists, starting at the index specified by list.
Creating a List void glNewList (GLuint list, GLenum mode); Specifies the start of a display list. OpenGL routines that are called subsequently are stored in a display list, except for a few restricted OpenGL routines that can't be stored. Mode can be GL_COMPILE or GL_COMPILE_AND_EXECUTE. void glEndList (void); Marks the end of a display list.
Rendering Context Display Lists are rendering context sensitive. If you are working in a rendering context that is not the one that the display list was created in, it will probably not work!!!
Not Allowed Vertex Array Stuff glVertexPointer() glColorPointer() glNormalPointer() glTexCoordPointer() glEdgeFlagPointer() glIndexPointer() glInterleavedArrays() glEnableClientState() glDisableClientState() Display List Stuff glDeleteLists() glGenLists() glIsList() Selection Stuff glRenderMode() glSelectBuffer() glFeedbackBuffer() And a Few Others…
Using a Display List void glCallList (GLuint list); This routine executes the display list specified by list. The commands in the display list are executed in the order they were saved, just as if they were issued without using a display list.
void glVertexPointer(size, type, stride, *pointer); Specifies where spatial coordinate data can be accessed. Pointer is the memory address of the first coordinate of the first vertex in the array. Type specifies the data type of each coordinate in the array. Size is the number of coordinates per vertex. Stride is the byte offset between consecutive vertexes. Specifying Data
Using the Vertex Arrays void glArrayElement( ith ) void glDrawElements(mode, count, type, *indices); Defines a sequence of geometric primitives using count number of elements, whose indices are stored in the array indices. Type indicates the data type of the indices array. Mode specifies what kind of primitives are constructed void glDrawArrays(mode, first, count); Constructs a sequence of geometric primitives using array elements starting at first and ending at first+count- 1 of each enabled array.
Which One is Better? Depends on the Implementation
Graphics Hardware New hardware has further capabilities for rendering … OpenGL extensions, for example VBO.
OpenGL Extensions Vertex Buffer Object is basically the same idea as the Vertex Array only it is implemented on the graphics hardware. The use is pretty much the same, the difference is that the data is stored directly on the graphics hardware.