Presentation on theme: "Prenatal, Infancy, & Early Childhood"— Presentation transcript:
1 Prenatal, Infancy, & Early Childhood Human DevelopmentPrenatal, Infancy, & Early Childhood
2 Prenatal Period Stage 1: Germinal (conception- 2wk) Ovum + Sperm = fertilized egg called a zygote (46 chromosomes, 23 from each parent)Zygote starts as a single cell & begins to divide2wk it attaches to the wall of the uterus & placenta forms (this is the beginning of the next stage)Many zygotes rejected at this point (1 in 5 pregnancies end with woman not aware she was pregnant)
3 Genetic Abnormalities Turner syndrome:XOSperm contributes nothing and baby develops female but can’t reproduce because don’t have reproductive organsUsually short
7 Genetic Abnormalities XXXSperm contributes too muchLooks femaleTend to be normal female.Don’t even know they have it.
8 Stage 2: Embryonic (2-8 wk) Zygote is now called an embryo- begin to differentiate between bone, muscle & organsVery fragile since basic organs are begin formed (heart, spine, brain, genitalia)Teratogens- toxic agents that cross the placentaMajor birth defects can occur & most miscarriages occur in this stage
9 Prenatal Hormone Abnormalities Andrenogenital Syndrome (AGS)Too much androgen is released to the fetus. Not a problem if you’re a male but females are masculine.Genitalia will masculinize and more like a tomboy.Androgen Insensitivity syndrome (AIS)Baby doesn’t detect androgen. Boys don’t masculinize they develop female (XY)No internal sex organsThey are XY females.At puberty they grow breasts but do not menstruate.
10 Stage 3: Fetal (2 mo- birth) Embryo now called a fetusVital organs develop & physical characteristics distinctly humanCapable of physical movementRespiratory & digestive system matures22-23 wk fetus may reach age of viability- can survive in the event of premature birth26-28 wk survival rate 85%
15 BirthPremature- the more premature and underweight the baby is the greater chance of physical & mental impairmentPower of Touch- premature babies gently massaged 3x a day show significant weight gain, more rapidly maturing nervous system, & higher activityAnoxia- loss of oxygen to nerve cells can lead to motor paralysis (cerebral palsy)
16 Some Influences on Prenatal Dev. Severe Maternal MalnutritionIncrease risk of birth complications & neurological defectsOften confounded with poverty, drug use, & limited access to health careAll Recreational Drugs (E.I- cocaine, narcotics)Born addictedIncrease risk of early death due to prematurityBirth defects- particularly respiratory problems
17 Some Influences on Prenatal Dev. Alcohol- Fetal Alcohol SyndromeCorrelation btw amount of alcohol consumed & damage to offspringMicrocephaly (small head), heart defects, hyperactivity, delayed mental & motor skills, leading cause of mental retardationIncrease incidence of depression, suicide, & criminal behavior in adulthoodSmokingIncrease risk of miscarriage, prematurity & sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)Slower cognitive development, ADD
18 Cross-Cultural Comparison of Infant Mortality Infant mortality is the death rate per 1,000 births during 1st year of lifeUS ranks only 21st in the prevention of infant mortalityWhy?
20 Reflexes at BirthRooting- turn head toward anything that touches cheekSucking- suck on anything that enters mouthSwallowing- swallow liquids w/o chokingGrasping- wrap their fist around anything that enters their handStepping- make stepping motion if held just above the ground
21 Sensory Dev Vision Hearing Smell & Taste 1-3 mo distinguish mom’s face with that of a strangerImitates facial expressions of an adult3-4 years have visual abilities equal to an adultHearing1 mo keen hearing & can discriminate between small sound variations such as bah & pah6 mo have developed ability to make all sounds necessary to learn language10-13 mo first wordsSmell & Taste1 day old can tell difference between citrus & floral odor6 wk can smell difference between their mom & a strangerInnate taste preference for sweet things
22 Maturation- developmental changes that are biologically programmed rather than learned Walking- all humans learn it but sometimes when we learn it depends on cultureHead size decreases in proportion to body size as one gets olderIn first 3 mo babies’ body weight & brain size doublesDevelopmental Norms- average age at which children perform various tasks
24 Gross Motor Skills (larger muscles of the body) 5.5 mo- sitting up alone10 mo- crawling1 yr- walk alone1.5 yr- up and down stairs
25 Fine Motor Skills (smaller muscles of the body) 2 yr- clumsy at picking up objects, can hold cup with one hand, start to use spoon3 yr- use scissor & button clothes4 yr- change clothes by themselves, eat with utensils5 yr- begin to write
26 Drawing- type of fine motor skill Serves purpose of sensory exploration & to express emotionPre-representational- scribbles, focus is on activity itselfRepresentational- drawing means something to the child, 4 yr old can draw stick figures