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Chapter 11 Fine Motor and Manipulatives “In an early care and education classroom, the fine motor and manipulatives area probably includes a larger variety.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Fine Motor and Manipulatives “In an early care and education classroom, the fine motor and manipulatives area probably includes a larger variety."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Fine Motor and Manipulatives “In an early care and education classroom, the fine motor and manipulatives area probably includes a larger variety of activities and materials than any other center.” ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

2 Fine Motor and Manipulative Play Defined  Fine motor movements are the small movements that occur in the hands, wrists, fingers, feet, toes, lips, and tongue  The smaller actions involved in picking up objects between the thumb and finger, using a pencil to write carefully, holding a fork and using it to eat  Fine motor skill is defined as the coordination of small muscle movements that occur in body parts such as the fingers, usually in coordination with the eyes ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

3 Pre-Writing Hand Skills  Pincer grasp: Using thumb and index finger to pick up an item  Grasping and squeezing  Bilateral coordination: Using both hands together to perform a task  Eye-hand coordination: Focusing and coordinating eye movement and visual input to control and direct the hands  Wrist rotation and wrist stability  Finger dexterity: Ability to move individual fingers in isolation ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

4 Infant & Toddler Fine Motor Development  Infants  Pre-reaching  Newborn  Mitten grasp  3-4 months  Hand to hand  4-5 months  Pincer grasp  9 months  Toddlers  Fills & Dumps  Works simple puzzles  Turns knobs and switches  Flushes toilet  Scribbles  Points ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

5 Preschool Fine Motor Skills  Dressing  2-3 years  Puts on and removes  Zips  3-4 years  Buttons  4-5 years  Dresses by self  Feeding  2-3 years  Uses spoon  3-4 years  Serves self  4-5 years  Uses fork  5-6 years  Uses knife on soft food ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

6 Other Preschool Skills  2-3 years: Opens door, strings beads  3-4 years: Uses scissors, copies line and circle  4-5 years: Cuts on a line, copies triangle, cross and some letters  5-6 years: Ties shoes, draws six part person ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

7 Primary-School-Aged Small Motor Skills  Dramatic improvements with handwriting and ability to write in cursive letters  Can draw complex and detailed pictures that incorporate depth cues and 3-D elements  Become capable of detail-oriented craft projects involving beading, sewing, scrap booking, and building models  Are good at using simple tools such as a hammer or a hand mixer  Become skillful at playing games involving eye- hand coordination ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

8 Planning and Preparing the Environment  Fine motor skills are developed in many learning centers of the early childhood classroom  Art  Sensory  Blocks  Woodworking  Dramatic play  Library ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

9 Manipulative Center  Located in a quiet, uninterrupted area  Is well lit, preferably with natural light  Contains low, open shelves for materials  Includes labeled tubs or baskets to hold materials needed for a specific activity  Provides both horizontal and vertical surfaces  Contains a variety of engaging materials and high quality tools  Contains materials for four to six children to have several choices each ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

10 Materials to Build Fine Motor Skills  Play dough with a pizza cutter and mini rolling pin  Spin tops  Locks and keys  Hole punches  Wind-up toys  Peg games  Tweezers  Tongs  Squeeze balls  Squeeze squirters  Chinese yo-yo’s  Putty or dough with beads and buttons  Puzzles  These materials do not include pencils and worksheets! ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

11 More Fine Motor Materials  Legos®  Colored cubes  Interlocking links  Parquetry blocks  Cuisenaire rods  Lacing cards  Alphabet bingo  Card games  Board games ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

12 Fine Motor Play for Infants  Use a pincer grasp to take objects out and put them in a container  Poke a button that causes something to pop-up or spin  Fill a bucket with toys or soft blocks to reach in and take out and then place back in the bucket  Make shape sorters from recycled containers with plastic lids  Fill a recycled wipe container with scarves to pull out  Give older infants a thick crayon to scribble with, or a stubby brush to paint with ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

13 Fine Motor Play for Toddlers  Build a tower with up to six blocks  Press together manipulative pieces  String big beads on a thick shoelace  Lift and turn pages of thick board books  Use crayons to color and draw  Paint with nontoxic shaving cream  Paint with brushes or fingers  Introduce low easels to provide a vertical surface for making marks ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

14 Fine Motor Play for Preschoolers  Children should have strength and dexterity in their hands and fingers before being asked to manipulate a pencil on paper  Working on dexterity and strength can eliminate the development of an inappropriate pencil grasp  Becoming more commonplace as children are engaged in writing experiences before their hands are ready  Use manipulatives, implements, and tools found in various learning centers to support fine motor development ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

15 Manipulative Center Play  Turn over cards, coins, checkers, or buttons without bringing them to the edge of the table  Pick out small objects from a tray of sand  Play connect the dots  Encourage children to connect dots from left to right and from top to bottom  Trace around stencils  Use small-sized screwdrivers  Tie knots in string  Pick up cotton balls or small pieces of fabric with clothespins ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

16 Cross Midline for Brain Development  Encourage reaching across the body for materials with each hand  You may need to engage the other hand in an activity to prevent child from switching hands at midline  Refrain from discouraging a child from using the left hand for any activity  Allow the natural development of hand dominance by presenting activities at midline and allowing the child to choose ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

17 Cross Midline for Brain Development  Start making the child aware of the left and right sides of his or her body through spontaneous comments such as “kick the ball with your right leg”  Play imitation posture games such as “Simon Says” with across the body movements  When painting at an easel, encourage the child to paint a continuous line across the entire paper and also from diagonal to diagonal ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

18 Hand Skill Development  Encourage appropriate hand skill development  Minimize passive entertainment usage such as video games as these do not build efficient pencil grasp patterns ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

19 Vertical Surface and Fine Motor Development  A vertical surface is the natural and preferred plane to play for young children  Best supports hand skill development of young children in three ways  Engages the shoulder against gravity, which promotes the development of the hand and arm for writing  Encourages an extended wrist position needed for writing  Most appropriate visually for young children ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

20 Vertical Surfaces & Activities  Chalkboard  Easel  Paper on wall  Table tipped on its side  Coloring  Stamping  Play Dough  Shaving Cream  Magnadoodle  Magnets  Velcro matching games  Painting  Water painting  Chalk ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

21 Rip, Snip, Cut  Sequence for scissor skill development  Mastery of the each step will lead to improved scissor use for complex patterns in the long run  Rip: Start with ripping paper (use scraps for mosaic art projects)  Snip: Use scissors to snip play dough, straws, grass, index cards  Cut: Cut along short (1 inch) bolded straight lines on strips of thick paper progressing gradually to longer, thinner straight lines on thinner types of paper ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

22 Rip, Snip, Cut  Practice cutting along curves with paper plates after straight lines are mastered  Cutting on angles is usually performed competently by 1 st or 2 nd grade. ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

23 Fine Motor Play for Primary- School-Aged Children  Tear tissue paper into strips by placing both hands on the top of each sheet and pulling in opposite directions  Once the sheet of tissue is in strips, have the child try to crumple it into a ball using just the fingers of one hand  Have the children practice drawing a line from the top to the bottom of a large piece of paper taped to a vertical surface such as an easel or wall ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

24 Fine Motor Play for Primary- School-Aged Children (continued)  Move small items from one container to another using tweezers or a clothespin  Include materials such as peg boards, lacing cards and Legos® in your manipulative center  In your writing center, provide the children with a variety of stencils to trace and implements of various sizes ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

25 Fine Motor Art Play for Primary Aged Children  Have the children use their fingers to make their artistic creations in finger paint  After finishing, place a piece of construction paper of a different color than the paint over the child’s work  Have the child press the paper down and pull up a print of the painting  Give them a sponge to wipe away the paint left on the table in a side to side motion, encouraging them to use their arms and wrists while keeping their shoulder still ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

26 Fine Motor Sensory Play  Mold and roll play dough into balls using the palms of the hands facing each other and with fingers curled slightly toward the palm  Or roll play dough into tiny balls using only the finger tips  Use pegs or toothpicks to make designs in play dough  Cut play dough with a plastic knife or pizza wheel by holding in a diagonal grasp ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

27 Fine Motor Sensory Play (continued)  Scrunch up one sheet of newspaper in one hand  Use a plant sprayer to spray plants or spray shaving cream with food coloring and water  Catch bubbles between hands by clapping  Draw in wet sand, salt, rice, or “goop”  Reach for objects under water  Pour water or sand from one container to another  Use a turkey baster in water play ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

28 Using Art to Develop Fine Motor Skills  Tear newspaper into strips and then crumple them into balls  Use eye droppers in colored water for color mixing or to make artistic designs on paper or coffee filters  Spray paintings with water in a small spray bottle to create a “rained on” effect  Use spray bottles to paint a mural on butcher paper attached to the wall outside ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

29 Using Art to Develop Fine Motor Skills (continued)  Paint at an easel  Roll small balls of tissue paper and glue them onto construction paper to form pictures or designs  Tear and glue colored tissue to create a “stained glass window” on waxed paper  Make pictures using stickers or self-sticking paper reinforcements ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

30 Fine Motor in Dramatic Play  Play games with the “puppet fingers”  The thumb, index, and middle fingers  Put on dress up clothes using buttons, zippers, and snaps  Use puppets to act out stories  Stir pretend food while cooking  Pick up and hold pots and pans to “cook” ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

31 Using Manipulatives in Math  Distinguishing patterns  Recognizing geometric shapes  Measuring  Exploring and describing spatial relationships  Communicating mathematical ideas effectively  Identifying and describing different types of symmetry  Developing and using spatial memory  Learning about and experimenting with transformations  Engaging in problem solving ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

32 Diversity in Fine Motor and Manipulative Play  Multicultural materials  Nesting dolls from Russia  Worry dolls from Guatemala  Fans and chopsticks from Japan  Molcajete from Mexico  Mancala game from Africa  Multicultural activities  Make stamped cookies from Sweden or Belgium  Make cascarones out of egg shells and confetti to break on people’s heads at carnival time  Make origami sculptures ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

33 Supporting Each and Every Child’s Success  Encourage children to attempt buttons, zippers, and snaps, giving them only as much assistance as needed  Block distractions by placing the manipulative table facing a shelf or make partitions out of laminated file folders or three-section display boards cut in half  Define play spaces by putting materials on individual trays, cookie sheets, tubs or small throw rugs on the floor ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

34 Supporting Each and Every Child’s Success (continued)  Create a nonslip workspace by putting down rubbery shelf liner material  Provide a small container to put manipulative pieces in next to the puzzle or game while working to decrease clutter  Use manipulatives on the floor and well as the table ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

35 Creating Partnerships with Families  Sorting socks  Tearing paper  Cutting with scissors  Tracing  Stapling paper  Punching holes  Wringing out sponges  Sewing and lacing  Stringing beads  Performing finger plays  Clapping ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.  There are lots of activities parents can do at home to develop their child’s fine motor skills using common household items

36 The Teacher’s Role  Teachers build the foundation required to help children become proficient in fine motor skills, which are needed for proper growth  Important for teachers to create activities that captivate children’s interest and keep them engaged in learning ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

37 Guidance Guidelines  Start with simpler fine motor activities to build strength in the fingers and wrists while developing eye-hand coordination  It is important for teachers to remember that development takes place at different times in children  Patience, understanding, and positive reinforcement help when developing fine motor skills ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

38 Guidance Guidelines (continued)  Allowing children access to manipulative materials at all times during child initiated play encourages them to be creative  They will be able to practice fine motor skill development without having to follow a guided activity ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

39 Teaching Tips  Offer a range of opportunities to practice developing fine motor skills  Use various of materials for drawing, painting, and writing  Break fine motor skills into sequenced steps  Explicitly teach a new skill  Built skills on the previously mastered skills ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.

40 Model Appropriate Language  Talk about what you are doing as you demonstrate new skills  Positively recognize effort  “You were very careful when you cut around the circle.”  Discuss how to do tasks  “Put the scissors on the edge of the paper.”  Sequence the action through descriptive language  “Hold the scissors in your cutting hand, open them, put them on top of the cutting line, close them.” ©2015 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.


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