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Biology 335 Wildlife and Fisheries Biology. Objectives Introduction to wildlife and fisheries biology. Topics –history of wildlife and fisheries conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "Biology 335 Wildlife and Fisheries Biology. Objectives Introduction to wildlife and fisheries biology. Topics –history of wildlife and fisheries conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biology 335 Wildlife and Fisheries Biology

2 Objectives Introduction to wildlife and fisheries biology. Topics –history of wildlife and fisheries conservation and management –Wildlife and fisheries ecology –Conservation and management in practice –habitat management techniques –animal management techniques –scientific tools

3 Today’s Outline Defining wildlife and fisheries biology History of wildlife and fisheries biology

4 What is wildlife? –Bias towards charismatic megafauna –Give three examples of wildlife Game vs. non-game –In PA > 60 mammals; how many are hunted? – > 300 birds

5 Fisheries What is fisheries? –Give three examples of fisheries –Game vs. non-game Refers to a target species, not confined to just fish in general

6 Fisheries?

7 Habitat Biota Human User What is wildlife and fisheries biology?

8 Black-footed ferret Grassland Farmer or rancher

9 Mountain meadows Elk Hunters

10 What is wildlife and fisheries biology? Journal of Wildlife Management – in premier issue (1937) –Wildlife management is “the practical ecology of all vertebrates and their plant and animal associates” –Wildlife management “along sound biological lines is part of the greater movement for conservation of our entire native flora and fauna”

11 Conservation vs. Management Management – to manipulate with a goal in mind Conservation – to sustain healthy or restore unhealthy populations –Conservation is NOT Preservation Preservation – leaving natural systems as they are –Gifford Pinchot – a forester for T. Roosevelt Lines have been blurred

12 What is wildlife management? Game or stock management Endangered species management Non-game management Animal control Basic biology – Natural history Habitat management - Restoration ecology People management

13 “To keep every cog and wheel is the first precaution of intelligent tinkering” Aldo Leopold

14 Who needs a wildlife or fisheries biologist? Municipal, state, federal, tribal agencies need biologists to manage and conserve Private sector Law enforcement Politicians

15 History of Wildlife & Fisheries Biology Kublai Khan (1259-1294 AD) decreed no taking of any animals from March to October

16 History of Wildlife Management At the same time in Europe, wildlife was exploited for food with less regard for management Wildlife viewed as competitors

17 History of Wildlife Management By 1700s only wildlife left was on property of nobles Wildlife and fish were owned by the king With his permission, nobles were granted the right to hunt

18 Supreme Court declared that all property of the king belonged to the people

19 60 million reduced to 150

20 50 BILLION reduced to 0

21 Extirpated from PA Mammals: –Fisher, Marten, Mountain Lion, Gray Wolf, Lynx, Wolverine, Bison, Elk

22 Birds: –Passenger Pigeon, Greater Prairie Chicken, Piping Plover, Olive-sided Flycatcher, Bewick’s Wren, Bachman’s Sparrow

23 A market for hunting American robins, plovers, curlews, sandpipers were sold in restaurants Swans, herons and egrets hunted for plumes

24 Frank Chapman's 1886 Feathered Hat Census BIRD SPECIES# HATS SEENBIRD SPECIES# HATS SEEN Grebes7Blue Jay5 Green-backed Heron1Eastern Bluebird3 Virginia Rail1American Robin4 Greater Yellowlegs1Northern Shrike1 Sanderling5Brown Thrasher1 Laughing Gull1Bohemian Waxwing1 Common Tern21Cedar Waxwing23 Black Tern1Blackburnian Warbler1 Ruffed Grouse2Blackpoll Warbler3 Greater Prairie Chicken1Wilson's Warbler3 Northern Bobwhite16Tree Sparrow2 California Quail2White-throated Sparrow1 Mourning Dove1Snow Bunting15 Northern Saw-whet Owl1Bobolink1 Northern Flicker21Meadowlarks2 Red-headed Woodpecker2Common Grackle5 Pileated Woodpecker1Northern Oriole9 Eastern Kingbird1Scarlet Tanager3 Scissor-tailed Flycatcher 1Pine Grosbeak1 Tree Swallow1

25 No holds barred… Waterfowl were shot with cannons loaded with shot (Read Chesapeake by James Michener) Bison shot from moving trains No seasons, no limits, no geographical restrictions The abundance of wildlife seemed limitless

26 Market hunting – the trade or selling of wildlife for commerce Subsistence hunting – the taking of wildlife for food Trophy hunting – the taking of “premium” specimens

27 By early 1900’s hunting opportunities were scarce and people began to realize that some sort of conservation and management of wildlife and fisheries were needed.

28 Teddy Roosevelt – 26th president (1901-1909) developed National Wildlife Refuge system reserved 230 million acres for public use

29 Aldo Leopold Founder of US wildlife management 1933- Game Management 1949- A Sand County Almanac

30 … and today?

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