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Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee – FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job – FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) – Getting.

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Presentation on theme: "Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee – FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job – FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) – Getting."— Presentation transcript:

1 Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee – FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job – FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) – Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits ERGONOMICSERGONOMICS

2 Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency Decreased lost work days Decreased turnover of staff – Less cost or replacement and training Improved morale

3  The word Ergonomics comes from the Greek words “Ergos”--(work) and “Namos”-- (natural law). ERGONOMICS

4 Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee – FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the job – FJM Fitting the job to the man (person) – Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits ERGONOMICSERGONOMICS

5 Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury risk Increased productivity Decreased mistakes/rework Increased efficiency Decreased lost work days Decreased turnover of staff – Less cost or replacement and training Improved morale

6 ERGONOMICS  Definition:  Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between the employee and the work place. It is a developing body of knowledge whose goal is to provide and maintain a healthy “user friendly” environment. Properly applied, ergonomic principles support each person's desire to find a zone of individual comfort.  FMJ will achieve the same results as FJM and is just as important in OHS

7 ERGONOMICS  Definition:  Ergonomics (FJM) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of ergonomics is the adaptation of the workstation design and work tools to suit the individual performing a particular job function.  The application of ergonomic principles to workstation design can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.

8 ERGONOMICS ERGONOMICS (FMJ)  Definition:  (FMJ) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of FMJ is the selection and training of workers to suit the a particular job function.  The application of FMJ principles to worker selection and training can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.

9 Why should we be interested? ERGONOMICSERGONOMICS The Worker (%) Men..........................34 Women......................65 Under 25 years.............11 25 to 54 years...............80 55 years and over...........7 Under 1 year of service...18 1 to 5 years..................35 5 years or more.............36 Not reported.................64

10 ERGONOMICS (Repetitive Stress Injuries)

11 ERGONOMICSERGONOMICS

12 MANUAL HANDLING 9 1% of the total cost of Nelco Product’s WC claims for 4/93 through 4/94 Only 42 % of the frequency  This means when MH losses occur, they are usually very severe and costly

13 OCCUPATIONAL BIOMECHANICS Definition:  Biomechanics uses laws of physics and engineering concepts to describe motion undergone by the various body segments and the forces acting on these body parts during normal daily activities.

14 CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTD’s)  Definition: Disorders that are caused or aggravated by repeated exertions or movements of the body.

15 ERGONOMICS-RELATED INJURIES  Strains/Sprains (difference?)  Low Back Pain (LBP)  Herniated Disc  Tendinitis  Tenosynovitis  Epicondylitis  Thoracic Outlet Syndrome  DeQuervain’s Syndrome  Ganglionic Cysts  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)  Eye Fatigue

16 CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES  Posture  Force  Repetition  Low temperature  Contact points  Vibration

17 CUMULATIVE TRAUMA Most back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time. Causes:  Repeated twisting  Awkward postures  Heavy lifting  Prolonged vibration

18 ERGONOMICS-RELATED INJURIES  Strains/Sprains (difference?)  Low Back Pain (LBP)  Herniated Disc  Tendinitis  Tenosynovitis  Epicondylitis  Thoracic Outlet Syndrome  DeQuervain’s Syndrome  Ganglionic Cysts  Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)  Eye Fatigue

19 CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES  Posture  Force  Repetition  Low temperature  Contact points  Vibration

20 CUMULATIVE TRAUMA Most back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time. Causes:  Repeated twisting  Awkward postures  Heavy lifting  Prolonged vibration

21 CUMULATIVE TRAUMA Once back pain is experienced, the chances of it recurring increase greatly. Back injuries from slips, trips, and falls can sometimes be prevented by good housekeeping. Proper storage of material and regular cleanup of debris can improve access not only for workers, but for materials handing equipment.

22 To reduce back injuries on the job, a preventive program is necessary. An effective program should cover factors such as anatomy, work place posture, lifting techniques, ergonomics, and exercises.

23  Ramazzini in 1700’s wrote:  Manifold is the harvest of diseases reaped by craftsman... As the...cause I assign certain violent and irregular motions and unnatural postures... by which... the natural structure of the living machine is so impaired that serious diseases gradually develop. (Tichauer, 1978)

24 ANATOMY

25 SPINAL COLUMN AND MUSCLES Made up of bones called vertebrae Divided into five areas:  Cervical (neck)  Thoracic (upper back)  Lumbar (lower back)  Sacrum  Coccyx The spine provides protection to the spinal cord The spinal cord has nerves that branch off and send messages to various parts of the body as well as bring back information on conditions throughout the body

26 VERTEBRAE AND DISCS Vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine.  Provide support  Offer protection Intervertebral Discs are made up of two parts.  Outer part (fibrous ring)  Inner part (soft, gel-like center) The discs are firmly attached to vertebrae, so cannot “slip.” If outer fibrous ring gets damaged, part of the gel part can start protruding out, called a disc protrusion or herniation.

27 VERTEBRAE AND DISCS 80-85% of people over 30 have protruded or herniated discs. However, the majority do not have pain. Why? Many theories exist, but the most widely accepted is that pain is felt when a protrusion or herniation occurs at the point where the nerve exits the spinal column. Age has an effect.  Degenerative disc disease  May cause flattening and hardening of discs and wears on the facet joints

28 SPINAL DISCS UNDER LOADS Discs are continually being compressed by the effects of gravity.  our upper body  loads we might be carrying Discs may become damaged when:  carrying uneven loads (compression) or  twisting combined with carrying (torsion)

29 SPINAL MUSCLES Movement controlled by muscles contracting and relaxing. Rope-like ligaments join bone ends to support and strengthen joints and prevent abnormal movements Interwoven sheath of muscle and ligaments across abdomen and lower back provide support. For this reason, it is important to keep them in good condition.

30 WORKPLACE POSTURE Dynamic vs. static Back muscles vs. stomach muscles  back--short, small very strong  stomach--large, broad  when imbalance occurs, back muscles can become overloaded.  thus, important to maintain health and good posture by using stomach muscles.  Unbalanced pelvis  stomach protruded  pelvis tilted down  back curve increases  stresses lower back  makes back vulnerable to injury  tightening stomach muscles will straighten pelvis, lowing spine

31 CORRECT POSTURE Natural alignment, follows natural curves. Lordosis (sway back)  inward curve  neck  low back  outward curve (kyphosis) in upper back  jams vertebrae together  causes lower back muscles and ligaments to tighten and leads to low back pain Kyphosis (flat back)  puts extra pressure on front of discs  may contribute to low back pain Keeping spine aligned reduces everyday stresses on the back and minimizes the effects of the normal aging process on the spine.

32 H = The horizontal distance When H is increased, the crane’s capacity to lift the load is decreased.  This is true with our bodies as well  It is critical to lift and carry the load as close as possible LIFTING H H

33 PROPER LIFTING Plan your move –Size up the load and make sure your path is clear. –Get help as needed. –Use a dolly or other materials handling equipment if possible. Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot slightly ahead of the other. Get as close to the load as possible. Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins. When lifting, keep your lower back in its normal arched position Pick up your feet and pivot to turn. Don’t twist your back. Lower the load slowly, maintaining the curve in your lower back.

34 LIFTING GRIP Use entire palm, not just the fingertips.

35 LIFTING DO’S AND DON’TS DO:  Push rather than pull.  Keep a good grip.  Maintain clear vision between the object and your destination.  When lowering an object, try and keep the natural curve of your back.  Place the load on the edge (tailgate) and push it back. DON’T:  Lift above shoulder height.  C atch falling objects.

36 TWISTING Repeated twisting of the lower back during lifting (or shoveling) is a common mistake. It can contribute to lower back pain and disability. Instead, lift your feet and turn you whole body. Lifting and placing palletized/stacked materials –lift object with feet and body in same direction –pick up feet and turn with feet and body together –don’t twist

37 MORE LIFTING TIPS Transferring weight –pull object towards you while transferring your weight to the lift side –lift only to the level required –shift your weight to the other leg while pushing the object into position. –do not twist Lifting heavy bags –put one knee down against bag –pull bag up leg –rest bag on edge of knee –stand upright –pull bag to waist height

38 LIFTING OVER BARRIERS Many back injuries result from repeated use of poor lifting techniques. Often a simple change in how we use our body to perform routine tasks can prevent back injuries and make work easier at the same time. One-handed lifts –Lifting with the back rounded and knees straight places great stress on the spine, making the lower back more susceptible to injuries Two-handed lifts –Again, avoid rounding the back –Move the object as close to the body as possible –Bend at the hips, while keeping the back in the normal arched position

39 MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT Different types of equipment have been designed and manufactured to lift and move loads of various shapes, sizes, and weights. This equipment can not only save time and labor---it can save your back! Rollers, wheelbarrows, carts, dollies, and rolling tables and scaffolds can be used to handle material efficiently and reduce the risk of back injury.

40 WORK TECHNIQUES Benches  For bench work the right height is vital to reduce the risk of back injury or pain. Ideally the bench (work surface) should keep the work between waist and shoulder height. Tools  Choose the proper tools for the job and repair or discard badly worn or damaged tools.  Never use cheater bars for extra leverage on a wrench. Use the right length of wrench.

41 Workstation Design Equipment Controls Design of Work Methods Tool and Handle Design Engineering Controls

42 Controls should be Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work – Different expectation in different cultures (cuntries) Controls should have feedback sensations Controls should relate to direction of display movement Display should suit work environment – Sound of display suit ambient noise – Light to suit ambient light Displays should be as simple as possible

43 Displays should be as simple as possible but not confusing mistaking the tachometer for the speedometer. is the problem that in some cars, the speedometer was on the right (above) and on the other car, it was on the left (below). the speedometer and tachometer on the car below have the same numeric scale. So if a gauge shows 30, does it indicate 30 miles per hour, or 3000 revolutions per minute? The gauge above doesn't have that problem.

44 Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work Stove top controls The problem is that it is difficult to tell which control goes with which burner. The solution is to arrange the controls in the same configuration as the burners.

45 Water taps OFF position. On position. Often used position.

46 Water taps The main problem is that the cold water handle opens clockwise, whereas the hot water handle opens counter-clockwise. Traditionally, taps with these cross-shaped handles, both hot and cold, always open counter-clockwise Other controls turn clockwise for on

47 Electrical switches USA Off Australia OFF

48 Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work I tried to insert it into the bill reader (See white arrow). It would not go into the bill reader! you had to first push a button (any button) on the parking permit machine. This activates the bill reader. Should parking permit machine should be designed to accept bills prior to making a ticket selection.

49 Opening the file drawer As shown in the photo on the left, the handle on the top doesn't open the top file drawer. Instead, it pulls the whole file cabinet out from under the table, Design Suggestion

50 Hey, which side do you use for cutting? This is a nice attractive knife. Just one problem. Which side do you use for cutting? Although you can tell which end is the handle and which end is the blade, it isn't clear which side of the blade cuts. Design suggestion The shape of an object should reveal how it is to be used.

51 Mechanical Lifts

52 Powered Cutters

53 Automated Cut Up

54 Scissor Lifts

55 Roller Conveyors

56 Diverters

57 Adjustable Platforms

58 Roller Conveyors

59 Diverters

60 Adjustable Platforms

61 Job Enlargement Job Rotation Rest Pauses Preventive Maintenance Housekeeping Administrative Controls

62 Proper Work Techniques New Employee Conditioning Period Monitoring Work Practice Controls

63 Enforce Proper Practices

64 Enforce Use of Equipment

65 Use good on-line knife sharpeners Install these sharpeners correctly Properly maintain the honing and/or hollow grinding machine Have knife sharpeners learn and use proper sharpening techniques Maintain consistent blade shapes Inform sharpener of cutting jobs where people are having MSDs Knife Sharpening Program

66 Knife handles come in a variety of ergonomic designs, including soft grip, non-slip, and angled blades. Knife Handles

67 Reduced boredom Reduced work stress Reduced MSDs Reduced turnover Reduced absenteeism Job Rotation Benefits

68 Workers did not want to change Machine operators didn’t want to “lend” to others Education and training for new jobs Finding appropriate jobs to rotate to Used inappropriately by management Job Rotation Implementation Problems

69 Reduce number of MSDs Reduce rotations that increase stress Reduce absenteeism and turnover Involve and further educate employees Job Rotation Goals


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