Presentation on theme: "ERGONOMICS Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee"— Presentation transcript:
1ERGONOMICS Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the jobFJM Fitting the job to the man (person)Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits
2Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury riskIncreased productivityDecreased mistakes/reworkIncreased efficiencyDecreased lost work daysDecreased turnover of staffLess cost or replacement and trainingImproved morale
3ERGONOMICSThe word Ergonomics comes from the Greek words “Ergos”--(work) and “Namos”-- (natural law).
4ERGONOMICS Desinging the relationship between the job and the employee FMJ Fitting the man (person) to the jobFJM Fitting the job to the man (person)Getting the relationship between the worker and the job to have optimum fit will have many benifits
5Benefits of Ergonomics Decreased injury riskIncreased productivityDecreased mistakes/reworkIncreased efficiencyDecreased lost work daysDecreased turnover of staffLess cost or replacement and trainingImproved morale
6ERGONOMICS Definition: Ergonomics is the study of the relationship between the employee and the work place. It is a developing body of knowledge whose goal is to provide and maintain a healthy “user friendly” environment. Properly applied, ergonomic principles support each person's desire to find a zone of individual comfort.FMJ will achieve the same results as FJM and is just as important in OHS
7ERGONOMICS Definition: Ergonomics (FJM) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of ergonomics is the adaptation of the workstation design and work tools to suit the individual performing a particular job function.The application of ergonomic principles to workstation design can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.
8ERGONOMICS (FMJ) Definition: (FMJ) is the study of how human beings relate to their work environment. The result of FMJ is the selection and training of workers to suit the a particular job function.The application of FMJ principles to worker selection and training can result in increased effectiveness, work quality, health and safety, and job satisfaction.
9ERGONOMICS Why should we be interested? The Worker (%) MenWomenUnder 25 years25 to 54 years55 years and overUnder 1 year of service...181 to 5 years5 years or moreNot reported
12MANUAL HANDLING91% of the total cost of Nelco Product’s WC claims for 4/93 through 4/94Only 42 % of the frequencyThis means when MH losses occur, they are usually very severe and costly
13OCCUPATIONAL BIOMECHANICS Definition:Biomechanics uses laws of physics and engineering concepts to describe motion undergone by the various body segments and the forces acting on these body parts during normal daily activities.
14CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS (CTD’s) Definition: Disorders that are caused or aggravated by repeated exertions or movements of the body.
16CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES PostureForceRepetitionLow temperatureContact pointsVibration
17CUMULATIVE TRAUMAMost back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time.Causes:Repeated twistingAwkward posturesHeavy liftingProlonged vibration
19CAUSES OF ERGONOMIC- RELATED INJURIES PostureForceRepetitionLow temperatureContact pointsVibration
20CUMULATIVE TRAUMAMost back injuries are the result of everyday wear and tear rather than a single traumatic event. The cause is generally not a single lift but damage done over time.Causes:Repeated twistingAwkward posturesHeavy liftingProlonged vibration
21CUMULATIVE TRAUMAOnce back pain is experienced, the chances of it recurring increase greatly.Back injuries from slips, trips, and falls can sometimes be prevented by good housekeeping. Proper storage of material and regular cleanup of debris can improve access not only for workers, but for materials handing equipment.
22To reduce back injuries on the job, a preventive program is necessary To reduce back injuries on the job, a preventive program is necessary. An effective program should cover factors such as anatomy, work place posture, lifting techniques, ergonomics, and exercises.
23Ramazzini in 1700’s wrote:Manifold is the harvest of diseases reaped by craftsman... As the...cause I assign certain violent and irregular motions and unnatural postures... by which... the natural structure of the living machine is so impaired that serious diseases gradually develop. (Tichauer, 1978)
25SPINAL COLUMN AND MUSCLES Made up of bones called vertebraeDivided into five areas:Cervical (neck)Thoracic (upper back)Lumbar (lower back)SacrumCoccyxThe spine provides protection to the spinal cordThe spinal cord has nerves that branch off and send messages to various parts of the body as well as bring back information on conditions throughout the body
26VERTEBRAE AND DISCS Vertebrae are the bones that make up the spine. Provide supportOffer protectionIntervertebral Discs are made up of two parts.Outer part (fibrous ring)Inner part (soft, gel-like center)The discs are firmly attached to vertebrae, so cannot “slip.”If outer fibrous ring gets damaged, part of the gel part can start protruding out, called a disc protrusion or herniation.
27VERTEBRAE AND DISCS80-85% of people over 30 have protruded or herniated discs. However, the majority do not have pain. Why?Many theories exist, but the most widely accepted is that pain is felt when a protrusion or herniation occurs at the point where the nerve exits the spinal column.Age has an effect.Degenerative disc diseaseMay cause flattening and hardening of discs and wears on the facet joints
28SPINAL DISCS UNDER LOADS Discs are continually being compressed by the effects of gravity.our upper bodyloads we might be carryingDiscs may become damaged when:carrying uneven loads (compression) ortwisting combined with carrying (torsion)
29SPINAL MUSCLESMovement controlled by muscles contracting and relaxing.Rope-like ligaments join bone ends to support and strengthen joints and prevent abnormal movementsInterwoven sheath of muscle and ligaments across abdomen and lower back provide support. For this reason, it is important to keep them in good condition.
30WORKPLACE POSTURE Dynamic vs. static Back muscles vs. stomach muscles back--short, small very strongstomach--large, broadwhen imbalance occurs, back muscles can become overloaded.thus, important to maintain health and good posture by using stomach muscles.Unbalanced pelvisstomach protrudedpelvis tilted downback curve increasesstresses lower backmakes back vulnerable to injurytightening stomach muscles will straighten pelvis, lowing spine
31CORRECT POSTURE Natural alignment, follows natural curves. Lordosis (sway back)inward curvenecklow backoutward curve (kyphosis) in upper backjams vertebrae togethercauses lower back muscles and ligaments to tighten and leads to low back painKyphosis (flat back)puts extra pressure on front of discsmay contribute to low back painKeeping spine aligned reduces everyday stresses on the back and minimizes the effects of the normal aging process on the spine.
32LIFTING H = The horizontal distance When H is increased, the crane’s capacity to lift the load is decreased.This is true with our bodies as wellIt is critical to lift and carry the load as close as possibleHH
33PROPER LIFTING Plan your move Size up the load and make sure your path is clear.Get help as needed.Use a dolly or other materials handling equipment if possible.Use a wide, balanced stance with one foot slightly ahead of the other.Get as close to the load as possible.Tighten your stomach muscles as the lift begins.When lifting, keep your lower back in its normal arched positionPick up your feet and pivot to turn. Don’t twist your back.Lower the load slowly, maintaining the curve in your lower back.
34LIFTING GRIPUse entire palm, not just the fingertips.
35LIFTING DO’S AND DON’TS Push rather than pull.Keep a good grip.Maintain clear vision between the object and your destination.When lowering an object, try and keep the natural curve of your back.Place the load on the edge (tailgate) and push it back.DON’T:Lift above shoulder height.Catch falling objects.
36TWISTINGRepeated twisting of the lower back during lifting (or shoveling) is a common mistake. It can contribute to lower back pain and disability. Instead, lift your feet and turn you whole body.Lifting and placing palletized/stacked materialslift object with feet and body in same directionpick up feet and turn with feet and body togetherdon’t twist
37MORE LIFTING TIPS Transferring weight Lifting heavy bags pull object towards you while transferring your weight to the lift sidelift only to the level requiredshift your weight to the other leg while pushing the object into position.do not twistLifting heavy bagsput one knee down against bagpull bag up legrest bag on edge of kneestand uprightpull bag to waist height
38LIFTING OVER BARRIERSMany back injuries result from repeated use of poor lifting techniques. Often a simple change in how we use our body to perform routine tasks can prevent back injuries and make work easier at the same time.One-handed liftsLifting with the back rounded and knees straight places great stress on the spine, making the lower back more susceptible to injuriesTwo-handed liftsAgain, avoid rounding the backMove the object as close to the body as possibleBend at the hips, while keeping the back in the normal arched position
39MATERIALS HANDLING EQUIPMENT Different types of equipment have been designed and manufactured to lift and move loads of various shapes, sizes, and weights. This equipment can not only save time and labor---it can save your back!Rollers, wheelbarrows, carts, dollies, and rolling tables and scaffolds can be used to handle material efficiently and reduce the risk of back injury.
40WORK TECHNIQUES Benches Tools For bench work the right height is vital to reduce the risk of back injury or pain. Ideally the bench (work surface) should keep the work between waist and shoulder height.ToolsChoose the proper tools for the job and repair or discard badly worn or damaged tools.Never use cheater bars for extra leverage on a wrench. Use the right length of wrench.
41Engineering Controls Workstation Design Equipment Controls Design of Work MethodsTool and Handle Design
42Controls should beControls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to workDifferent expectation in different cultures (cuntries)Controls should have feedback sensationsControls should relate to direction of display movementDisplay should suit work environmentSound of display suit ambient noiseLight to suit ambient lightDisplays should be as simple as possible
43Displays should be as simple as possible but not confusing mistaking the tachometer for the speedometer. is the problem that in some cars, the speedometer was on the right (above) and on the other car, it was on the left (below).the speedometer and tachometer on the car below have the same numeric scale.So if a gauge shows 30, does it indicate 30 miles per hour, or 3000 revolutions per minute?The gauge above doesn't have that problem.
44Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work Stove top controlsThe problem is that it is difficult to tell which control goes with which burner.The solution is to arrange the controls in the same configuration as the burners.
45Water tapsOFF position.On position.Often used position.
46Water tapsThe main problem is that the cold water handle opens clockwise, whereas the hot water handle opens counter-clockwise.Traditionally, taps with these cross-shaped handles, both hot and cold, always open counter-clockwiseOther controls turn clockwise for on
48Controls should be designed to work the way you would expect them to work I tried to insert it into the bill reader (See white arrow). It would not go into the bill reader!you had to first push a button (any button) on the parking permit machine. This activates the bill reader.Should parking permit machine should be designed to accept bills prior to making a ticket selection.
49Opening the file drawer As shown in the photo on the left, the handle on the top doesn't open the top file drawer. Instead, it pulls the whole file cabinet out from under the table,Design Suggestion
50Hey, which side do you use for cutting? This is a nice attractive knife. Just one problem.Which side do you use for cutting?Although you can tell which end is the handle and which end is the blade, it isn't clear which side of the blade cuts.Design suggestionThe shape of an object should reveal how it is to be used.
51Mechanical LiftsThis is a small tote dumper that is used for in-process totes. This allows the worker to place the tote at a comfortable height and then dump it onto the processing line using the mechanism. The dumping activity can often be a problem because the employee has a heavy tote full of chicken parts and has to dump them with exaggerated postures.
52Powered CuttersSome cuts are difficult even if the tools are sharp. It may be that people have small hand spans (can’t hold large tools) and can’t apply enough force to complete the cut. It could be that certain parts you are trying to cut are just physically tough to cut with conventional knives or scissors. In these cases, you may want to consider devices like pneumatic powered cutters. There are several out there and you will have to determine if they are appropriate for this industry. Some of these are being used by the turkey people at this time.
54Scissor LiftsAlthough not typically used in the poultry industry, lift tables could be a good idea help to reduce forces. There are also some palletizing equipment that may be able to automatically palletize boxes for companies.
56DivertersThis conveyor has diverters in place that push the products closer to the workers. This reduces reaches for the employees. The work station above also has some cut outs that scrap or final products can be placed in. Some facilities use chutes in conjunction with these cut outs. This modification can reduce reaches or elevated arms. Some will use multiple conveyors at these operations with the cutouts or chutes going to different conveyors.
57Adjustable PlatformsMost facilities have platforms like these pictured above. Unfortunately, most employees don’t use them properly. We often see these adjusted at the same height even when the workers are of varied heights. Poorly adjusted platforms can be responsible for hand/wrists deviations, elevated upper arms, etc.
59DivertersThis conveyor has diverters in place that push the products closer to the workers. This reduces reaches for the employees. The work station above also has some cut outs that scrap or final products can be placed in. Some facilities use chutes in conjunction with these cut outs. This modification can reduce reaches or elevated arms. Some will use multiple conveyors at these operations with the cutouts or chutes going to different conveyors.
60Adjustable PlatformsMost facilities have platforms like these pictured above. Unfortunately, most employees don’t use them properly. We often see these adjusted at the same height even when the workers are of varied heights. Poorly adjusted platforms can be responsible for hand/wrists deviations, elevated upper arms, etc.
64Enforce Use of Equipment Teach employees to use the tools that they are given like these powered pallet jacks. Often we see employees carrying in-process totes or just sliding a stack of full totes into position.
65Knife Sharpening Program Use good on-line knife sharpenersInstall these sharpeners correctlyProperly maintain the honing and/or hollow grinding machineHave knife sharpeners learn and use proper sharpening techniquesMaintain consistent blade shapesInform sharpener of cutting jobs where people are having MSDs
66Knife HandlesKnife handles come in a variety of ergonomic designs, including soft grip, non-slip, and angled blades.
68Job Rotation Implementation Problems Workers did not want to changeMachine operators didn’t want to “lend” to othersEducation and training for new jobsFinding appropriate jobs to rotate toUsed inappropriately by management
69Job Rotation Goals Reduce number of MSDs Reduce rotations that increase stressReduce absenteeism and turnoverInvolve and further educate employees