Presentation on theme: "Workplace Inspection Training Program"— Presentation transcript:
1 Workplace Inspection Training Program Due diligence is what we promote, Risk Management is what we support.Workplace Inspection Training ProgramPresented by:Catherine (Cate) Drum, BASc (OHS), CHSC, CRSPEHS OfficerDepartment of Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) and Security
2 Benefits of a Workplace Inspection program Comply with legislation by practicing due diligenceImprove housekeepingReduce unsafe conditions and practicesImprove procedures and system effectivenessDetermine opportunities for improvementReduce accident frequencies
3 What is Occupational Health and Safety? OHS is a discipline that aims to provide a safe and healthy environment for workersThe goal is to eliminate or control potential workplace hazards such that injury and illness are kept to a minimum
4 What is an Occupational Hazard? An occupational hazard is a thing or situation with the potential to harm a workerThere are two categories: Safety hazards and Health hazardsSafety concerns unsafe conditions and acts that could cause injury (eg: slips and falls)Health concerns environmental factors that could impair the soundness of body, mind and spirit of workers causing illness (eg: radiation exposure; noise that impairs hearing)
5 What is a risk?A hazard posed by some material or situation is its potential to cause harmRisk is the probability that the hazard actually will harm someoneRisk also includes a consideration of the seriousness of the hazardRemoving occupational hazards is only one way of improving worker protectionWhat is often more practical is the control or management of risks that hazards pose
6 How should workplace health and safety hazards be dealt with? Through recognition, assessment and controlRecognition involves identifying a hazard and determining if there is a possibility of workers being affected by itIf there is a possibility of adverse effect, the hazard must be assessed and its level determinedIf the hazard is determined to be significant, the hazard must be controlled
7 How can we control hazards? We can control hazard at 3 levels: the source, the path, and the receiverWe can use engineering controls (modifying/isolating process), administrative controls (education/training), and control through use of personal protective equipment
8 How can we control hazards? At the source:Substitute with a less harmful materialChange of processEnclosure or isolation or processLocal exhaust ventilationAt the path:Housekeeping (immediate cleanup of spills)Increase distance between source and receiverGeneral ventilationAt the receiver:Personal protective equipmentRotation of workers to reduce exposure durationTraining & Education
9 What are the legal requirements? Legal requirements governing exposure to various health and safety hazards in universities can be found in Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Industrial EstablishmentsHealth hazards are also in hazard-specific regulations including:12 designated substance regulationsRegulation respecting the Control of Exposure to Biological or Chemical AgentsRegulation respecting X-Ray Safety
10 What are the legal requirements for Personal Protective Equipment? An employer has a general duty, under OHSA Section 25 (2)(h) to “take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances” to protect workersThis means that PPE should be provided to workers whenever there are health or safety risks that cannot be controlled in other waysPPE can reduce or prevent a worker’s exposure to a health hazard in the workplacePPE includes respirators, hearing protectors, protective clothing, footwear, face shields
11 What are the health effects from workplace hazard exposure? Health hazards mostly result from inhalation, ingestion, injection or contact of harmful substances, or from excessive noise, vibration and temperature exposureThe effect can be acute, from a single, high exposureThe effect can also be chronic, from repeated low level exposure over a prolonged time periodOccupational exposure limits are established to control worker exposure of a harmful substance or energy to a level that does not result in adverse acute or chronic health effects
12 Types of Hazards Safety hazards Chemical hazards Physical hazards Biological hazardsErgonomic hazardsEnvironmental hazardsViolence in the Workplace
13 Safety Hazards Unsafe workplace conditions Hazardous physical conditions or circumstances which could directly permit the occurrence of an accidentUnsafe work practices or actsViolation of known or accepted safe procedures which could permit the occurrence of an accident
14 Examples of Safety Hazards Unsafe workplace conditionsUnkempt work spaceInadequate warning systemDefective tools and equipmentInadequate guards or barriersPoor walking surfaceInadequate ventilationTemperature extreme exposuresUnsafe work practices or actsHorseplayNot wearing personal protective equipmentUsing defective equipmentSubstandard work practicesRemoving safety devicesFailure to follow proceduresFailure to warn others
15 Chemical HazardsSolids, liquids, vapours, gases, dusts, fumes or mistsFlammables, corrosives, toxics, compressed gases, oxidizersHarmful through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact
16 Physical Hazards Biological Hazards Noise, vibration, energy, electricity, radiation, pressure, moving mechanical parts, extreme heat and coldBiological HazardsBacteria, viruses, fungi, insects, proteins from animals or substances from plantsMay cause acute or chronic health effects through inhalation, injection, ingestion or contact with the skin
17 Ergonomic HazardsHazards that arise from interactions between man and his total working environmentErgonomic stress factors deal with workstation, equipment, tool design and environmental factors in the workplaceRepetitive motions, awkward postures, improper lifting, manual material handling, excessive forcesMajor concern for ergonomic hazards is repetitive strain injuries, or work-related musculoskeletal disorders
18 Environmental Hazards Comfort factors (temperature and humidity), poor indoor air quality, inadequate ventilation, inadequate or excessive illuminationEg: moulds, dirty ceiling vents, dusty floors, heavy perfumes
19 Violence in the Workplace Hazards Everyone should be able to work without fear of violence or harassment, in a safe and healthy workplace. Violence and harassment in the workplace are not tolerated in Ontario.Changes to the OHSA – effective June 15, 2010 – strengthen protections for workers from workplace violence and address workplace harassment. They apply to all provincially regulated workplaces.
20 Violence in the Workplace Hazards Defining workplace violenceThe exercise of physical force by a person against a worker, in a workplace, that causes or could cause physical injury to the worker.An attempt to exercise physical force against a worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker.A statement or behaviour that it is reasonable for a worker to interpret as a threat to exercise physical force against the worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker.
21 Violence in the Workplace Hazards Some activities increase the risk of workplace violenceHandling cashProtecting or securing valuablesTransporting people and goodsPublic or community contactWorking alone, or with just a few peopleWorking late at night or very early morning
22 Violence in the Workplace Hazards Workplace harassmentWorkplace harassment means engaging in a course of vexatious comment or conduct against a worker in a workplace that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome.Workplace harassment may include bullying, intimidating or offensive jokes or innuendos, displaying or circulating offensive pictures or materials, or offensive or intimidating phone calls.
23 What is a workplace inspection? Workplace inspection is an integral part of the Occupational Health and Safety programThere are two main types of inspections:FormalInformalBoth are necessary and complement one another
24 Types of Inspections Formal Informal Regularly scheduled examinations of the workplaceCarried out as a team to ensuring a safe and healthy workplaceA checklist is used to recognize, evaluate and control hazardsRequired by lawInformalA practiced awareness which identifies potential hazards of daily processes, conditions and activitiesPart of daily routines such as a supervisor’s walk- through or a worker’s equipment checkNot regularly scheduledDo not use a checklist
25 Purpose of Workplace Inspections To identify existing and potential hazardsTo monitor effectiveness of hazard controlsTo recommend corrective actionsTo determine the underlying causes of hazardsTo educate, increase awareness and encourage communication regarding health and safety in the workplaceTo listen to concerns of workers and supervisorsTo meet legal requirement
26 The 4 Step Inspection Process 1) Planning the inspection2) Conducting the inspection3) Completing the inspection report4) Follow-up and monitoring corrective actions
27 Planning the inspection Step OnePlanning the inspection
28 Planning – Aspects to Examine A workplace is “any land, premises, location or thing at, upon, in or near which a worker works”At the University, workplace can be labs, offices, shops, kitchens, mechanical rooms, and washroomsInspection must include areas where no work is done regularly, such as office storage areas
29 Planning – Aspects to Examine Every inspection planning must examine the where, what, who, when, and how.
30 Planning –WHERE Determine WHERE the inspection will take place Obtain a floor plan and a list of relevant areas to your departmentFloor plans can be obtained through Campus Facilities & Sustainability –Request a listing of all your areas –Location of machinery, equipment, fire exits, hallways, chemical storage etc relevant to your department must be documented and inspected
31 Planning –WHAT Determine WHAT will be inspected Look at all workplace elementsEnvironment – noise, vibration, lighting, temperatureEquipment – materials, tools, apparatusProcess – how the worker interacts with the environment and equipment in a series of tasks or operationsReview equipment inventory to learn what equipment/machinery is present and their hazardsCheck technical safety data sheets or manufacturer’s safety manualsReview chemical inventory to learn what chemicals are present and their hazardsCheck MSDS binder
32 Planning –WHO Determine WHO will be conducting the inspection Workplace inspection team must consist of at least:One worker representative, and/orDepartmental safety officer from the department/area to be inspectedIn addition, workplace inspection team may also consist of:Joint Health and Safety Committee membersSupervisors or technical specialistsAll members should receive training in workplace inspection in recognition, evaluation and control of hazardsAll members should be familiar with the legislation and standards
33 Planning –WHEN Determine WHEN inspections would be conducted Inform EHSS of your inspection schedule which defines the specific area and date to be inspectedEnsure that the entire area within the department, school or centre is inspected at least annually (a portion to be inspected monthly)Inspections can be themed, for example…Month 1: Offices and storage/photocopy roomsMonth 2: Floor, aisles, stairs and landingsMonth 3: LabsMonth 4: Tools and equipmentsMonth 5: First aid station/boxMonth 6: Ergonomic factorsMonth 7: Work practices and behaviourMonth 8: Hazardous Materials
34 Planning –HOW Determine HOW inspections should be conducted Review workplace elements (environment, equipment, and process) to determine if personal protective equipment is required during the inspectionReview and develop an Inspection ChecklistObtain Workplace Inspection Report FormReview past accident/incident reportsIdentify causes of accidents/incidentsCheck if recommended actions have been implemented
35 Step One: Inspection Planning Summary Review Workplace Inspection Policy and ProcedureReview and develop an Inspection ChecklistReview previous inspection reportsReview applicable legislation and standardsObtain floor plan and list of locations that belong to your departmentObtain workplace inspection report formDetermine what area will be inspectedDetermine inspection scheduleDetermine who will conduct the inspectionDetermine what tools/equipments will be neededGather materials such as lab coats, safety boots, and other PPE
37 Conducting the inspection Step TwoConducting the inspection
38 What makes a successful inspection? Look up, down, around and insideUse the Inspection Checklist as a guideDocument all your findings, even if it may not be directly related to health and safety!Clearly describe hazards and mark location on the floor plan or on your checklistRecord as you go along in case you forgetInvolve workers in the inspection, interview them if possible, but never disrupt their work processes
39 What makes a successful inspection? …continued… Pay particular attention to equipment with unsafe conditions due to stress, wear, impact, corrosion, or misuseReport serious hazards immediately to the supervisorShut down any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repairedWear the appropriate PPEDo not operate machinery – ask for demonstration by a qualified workerPay attention to ergonomic risks and worker behaviour
40 What if you don’t feel qualified? Ask questions!Ask for demonstrationsAsk someone who is qualified to accompany youSome areas of the University will have to be inspected by someone who is authorized to be in that space and that might not be you –Those areas must be identified so as not to slow down the inspection process
41 Examples of what to inspect BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURESIs there loose material, debris, worn carpeting on the floor?Are floors slippery, oily or wet?Are stairways and aisles clear and unblocked?Are windows sealed properly?Are wall and ceiling fixtures fastened securely?Are there stains on ceilings that may indicate a leak?Are there moulds, water, rust or excessive dirt on ceilings?ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONSIs there adequate ventilation?Is there adequate lighting?Is there any discomfort in temperature and humidity?Is there excessive noise?Are there harmful dust, mists, fumes, or vapours?
42 Examples of what to inspect FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENTExits are clearExit signs are visibleExtinguishers – are they easily accessible and have they been inspected in the last 6 months?Sprinkler systems – are materials are stacked close to sprinkler heads on ceiling?STORAGE FACILITIESCabinets, shelving units, closets, bins, racksAre they stable? Are they overloaded? Are there sharp edges?Are materials stored safely? Any heavy boxes placed on top shelves that may fall?
43 What are the hazards? Boxes dangerously stacked on top of a cabinet Housekeeping is needed
44 Examples of what to inspect ELECTRICAL POWER COMPONENTSAre extension cords used extensively?Are electrical cords exposed in areas where employees walk?Is electrical wiring properly concealed?Are there cords/wires under the desk that may cause a tripping hazard?
45 What are the hazards? Wires are tripping hazards Electrical wires are placed need a sink with a puddle of water on the floor right beside it – potential for electrocution
46 Examples of what to inspect CHEMICAL STORAGEAre all chemical containers labeled?Is there a designated storage area for flammable orcombustible or hazardous chemicals?Are there supplier labels on the containers?Are the containers in good condition free of loose seals or cracks?
47 What are the hazards? No labeling on containers Chemicals should be stored away in a designated area and not left in open areaFire extinguisher should be mounted in wallPoor Housekeeping
48 Examples of what to inspect STRUCTURAL OPENINGSPits, sumps, shafts, floor openings including those usually kept coveredWARNING AND SIGNALING DEVICESStrobes, crossing lights, horns, warning signsELEVATORS, ESCALATORS, DUMB-WAITERS, MAN-LIFTSCables, controls, safety devicesMATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENTConveyors, cranes, hoists, forklifts, carts, trolleys
49 Examples of what to inspect CONTAINERSBarrels, carboys, gas cylinders, flammable liquid containers, scrap bins, waste bins, vats, tanksMOTORIZED VEHICLESAutomobiles, trucks, earth moving equipment, backhoes, mowers, graders, tractors, all-terrain vehicles, forklift trucksELECTRICAL SERVICE EQUIPMENTSwitches, power bars, outlets, ground-fault circuit interrupters
50 Examples of what to inspect EMERGENCY EQUIPMENTSpill kits, first aid kits, emergency telephones, emergency alarmsPERSONNEL SUPPORTING EQUIPMENTLaddersAre rungs stable? Are ladders secured? Are they free of water or mud? Is the floor where the ladder is raised free of debris? Are users maintaining a 3-point contact at all times? (3 limbs out of 4 are in contact with the ladder)Scaffolds, scissor lifts, catwalks, platforms, life-lines, sling- chairs
51 What are the hazards? Ladder has broken and missing rungs Ladder is unstable - the debris on the floorChemicals should always be stored in easily accessible places, not on top of stacks of boxes
52 Examples of what to inspect MACHINERIESProtective guardsAre there loose bolts/nuts on fixed guards?Are there cracks on guards?Gear covers, pulley belt covers, pinch point guards, railings, blade guards
53 What are the hazards?The guard is not properly guarding the moving parts of the equipmentPoint of operation hazard is accessibleThe guard offers no protection
54 Area-specific Inspection LABORATORIESEyewash stationsProper signage, adequate water supply, readily accessible, clean and clear, clear drainsChemicalsAre MSDS current (within 3 years of the issue date) and readily available?Are all containers labeled?Are chemical storage and use areas designated?GeneralDo fume hoods have adequate air flow?Are PPE being worn?Are sharps properly disposed into sharps container?
55 What are the hazards?MSDS are not properly stored in an organized mannerThe chemical container does not have a legible label
56 Area-specific Inspection OFFICESAre computer workstations arranged in an ergonomic way?Is adjustable seating available?Is working space adequate?Are desks and file cabinets organized such that drawers do not open into aisles or walkways?Does office arrangement allow easy egress under emergency conditions?Is there cardboard, paper, or other combustible materials on the floor?
57 Area-specific Inspection Web of wires under the desk that can act as a tripping hazardWires should be tied together neatly and be close to the wall
58 Area-specific Inspection CLASSROOM/MEETING ROOM/BOARDROOMIs furniture and equipment in good condition?Are room occupancy limits and safe seating arrangements posted?KITCHEN FACILITIESAre all appliances in good condition and CSA/UL-approved?Are floors and counters clean and dry?
59 Area-specific Inspection WASHROOMSAre mirrors in good condition and firmly secured?Are locks on stalls in good condition and operational?Are hinges on doors in good condition and correctly fixed?Inspect water taps and sinks to check for leakingAre soap containers present?Are toilets flushable?
60 Area-specific Inspection BUILDINGAre electrical rooms free of materials, particularly combustible materials?Are there moulds or dirt on ceiling that may be a health hazard?Are hallways free of blockage?Are emergency exits blocked or barred?
61 Area-specific Inspection Corridor is full of waste materials; may impede evacuation in an emergencyRoom needs housekeeping, also represents a fire hazard as papers and boxes are combustible materials
62 What are the hazards?Exits are barred and blocked because of poor housekeepingTiles are missing from the ceiling
64 Completing the inspection report Step ThreeCompleting the inspection report
65 The Inspection ReportA detailed inspection report should be completed as soon as possible after the inspectionIt should give a summary of findings and make clear and concise recommendations for corrective actionsAt Ryerson, the inspection report is called the Workplace Inspection Report
66 The Inspection ReportA detailed inspection report should be completed as soon as possible after the inspectionIt should give a summary of findings and make clear and concise recommendations for corrective actionsAt Ryerson, the inspection report is called the Workplace Inspection Report
68 What should be included in the report? Time, date and area inspectedThe names of persons conducting inspectionAffiliated union of the worker’s representativeLocation and clear description of hazardRecommendations for actionNames of individuals for completion of corrective actions
69 Who should get copies of the report? The completed report should be reviewed by the Supervisor of the department within 5 calendar days of the inspection dateAn electronic copy of the report should be sent to andMaintenance issues should have a separate sent to
70 Assessing the RiskOnce hazards are identified, they should be assessed to determine whether they are significant enough to warrant changes – this is called Risk AssessmentRisk Assessment is a measure of the severity of potential harm to the likelihood of that harm occurring
71 To work out the level of risk, consider the following: Severity of the consequences of an accidentHow serious would the injury or illness be?How many people are at risk?Likelihood of the accident occurringHas it happened before?How often might it happen?When is it most likely to happen?
72 Hazard Category and Hazard Class To assist risk assessment, each identified hazard needs to be categorized according to its Hazard Category and Hazard Class on the Hazard Recording Form
73 Hazard CategoriesCHM – Chemical Hazards: includes any form of chemical such as compressed gases and solventsBIO – Biological Hazards: includes organisms or toxic substances produced by living things that can cause illnesses or diseases in humans (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, insects)PHS – Physical Hazards: includes noise, vibration, heat, cold and radiationERG – Ergonomic Hazards: includes design of the workplace and jobs that involve repetition, force and postureENY – Energy Hazards: includes pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, steam, heat, electricityENV – Environmental Hazards: includes comfort factors such as temperature and relative humidity, exposure to particulates, dust, moulds and sporesMAC – Machine Hazards: includes hazards from moving parts like rotating shafts, belts, pulleys, blades and sawsWKP – Work Practice Hazards: includes failures to have or follow safe work practices
74 Hazard ClassClass “A” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for permanent disability, loss of life or body part, and/or extensive loss of structure, equipment or materialClass “B” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for serious injury or illness (resulting in serious or temporary disability) or property damage that is disruptive but less so than Class “A”Class “C” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for injury and illness, or disruptive (non-disabling) property damage
75 Examples of Hazard Category and Class Hazard: Wires in room as potential tripping hazardCategory: WKPClass: CExample 2:Hazard: Pouring toxic highly volatile chemical on work bench instead of under fume hoodCategory: CHMClass: BExample 3:Hazard: Untrained personnel operating a saw blade without machine guarding or steel mesh glovesCategory: MACClass: A
76 Identifying Recommendations If risk assessment shows the hazard is significant, recommend controlsConsider what might be done to decrease the likelihood of an accident occurring or the severity of the consequencesProvide as many possible solutions as you canFor assistance in identifying solutions, contact Cate Drum, EHS Officer, EHSS at 7086
77 Recall how we can control hazards… Eliminate the hazard or substitute itIsolate the hazard from peopleChange the way the job is donePersonal protective equipment
78 Elimination or Substitution Use a different less dangerous piece of equipmentFix faulty machineryRedesign the workplaceUse safer materials or chemicalsReduce energy, speed, voltage, sound level, forceAutomate material handling
79 Isolate the Hazard from the People Redesign the equipmentRemove dust or fumes with exhaust systemUse lifting equipment or trolleysMachine guardingSound enclosuresPlatforms and guard railing
80 Change the Way the Job is Done Provide training, information and signs to increase awarenessImplement safe work procedures and control programsImplement rotation of workersIncrease equipment inspections and preventative maintenance programs
81 Use Personal Protective Equipment Should be used as a last resort and always in conjunction with other controlsThere are specific PPE requirements for each jobExamples are ear plugs, safety boots, safety glasses, dust masksSpecific PPE training and information may be necessary
83 Follow up actionsFollow up actions are important to ensuring that corrective measures are put in placeFollow up actions are also important in demonstrating to workers that health and safety is taken seriouslyDetermine who will be responsible for conducting follow up actionsDocument the progress of corrective actionsEnsure that EHSS is kept updatedMonitor the impact of corrective actions
84 Follow up actionsThe area supervisor (or their designate) must provide an electronic copy of the inspection report responding to all of the observed hazards to the EHSS within 21 Calendar days after the inspection
85 Inspection Process Summary Plan the time and location of inspectionGather the inspection team with appropriate materialsConduct the inspection with the use of checklistsFrom the inspection findings complete the Workplace Inspection Report FormSend completed reports to the supervisor including Cate Drum and within 5 days of the inspectionArea supervisor or their designate responds to all the observed hazards to EHSS within 21 days of the inspectionImplement corrective actionsEnsure follow up actions are taken
86 Reporting HazardsEveryone has the responsibility to find and report hazards!Report identified hazards to area supervisor or lecturerReport hazards immediately if they can cause death or serious injury/illness OR harm a number of people
87 Supervisors DutiesA supervisor, under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, means a person who has charge of a workplace or authority over a workerSupervisors must take action to fix hazards when a hazard is found or reportedIf fixing a hazard is not possible, action must be taken to minimize the immediate risk to health and safety
88 Summary Everyone should… Look out for hazards Report hazards to the supervisor of the work areaHelp fix hazards by providing recommendationsTake action to avoid, eliminate or minimize risksFollow safe work methods and use PPE as required
89 Safety first, because accidents last! Remember…Safety first, because accidents last!