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Workplace Inspection Training Program

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1 Workplace Inspection Training Program
Due diligence is what we promote, Risk Management is what we support. Workplace Inspection Training Program Presented by: Catherine (Cate) Drum, BASc (OHS), CHSC, CRSP EHS Officer Department of Environmental Health & Safety (EHS) and Security

2 Benefits of a Workplace Inspection program
Comply with legislation by practicing due diligence Improve housekeeping Reduce unsafe conditions and practices Improve procedures and system effectiveness Determine opportunities for improvement Reduce accident frequencies

3 What is Occupational Health and Safety?
OHS is a discipline that aims to provide a safe and healthy environment for workers The goal is to eliminate or control potential workplace hazards such that injury and illness are kept to a minimum

4 What is an Occupational Hazard?
An occupational hazard is a thing or situation with the potential to harm a worker There are two categories: Safety hazards and Health hazards Safety concerns unsafe conditions and acts that could cause injury (eg: slips and falls) Health concerns environmental factors that could impair the soundness of body, mind and spirit of workers causing illness (eg: radiation exposure; noise that impairs hearing)

5 What is a risk? A hazard posed by some material or situation is its potential to cause harm Risk is the probability that the hazard actually will harm someone Risk also includes a consideration of the seriousness of the hazard Removing occupational hazards is only one way of improving worker protection What is often more practical is the control or management of risks that hazards pose

6 How should workplace health and safety hazards be dealt with?
Through recognition, assessment and control Recognition involves identifying a hazard and determining if there is a possibility of workers being affected by it If there is a possibility of adverse effect, the hazard must be assessed and its level determined If the hazard is determined to be significant, the hazard must be controlled

7 How can we control hazards?
We can control hazard at 3 levels: the source, the path, and the receiver We can use engineering controls (modifying/isolating process), administrative controls (education/training), and control through use of personal protective equipment

8 How can we control hazards?
At the source: Substitute with a less harmful material Change of process Enclosure or isolation or process Local exhaust ventilation At the path: Housekeeping (immediate cleanup of spills) Increase distance between source and receiver General ventilation At the receiver: Personal protective equipment Rotation of workers to reduce exposure duration Training & Education

9 What are the legal requirements?
Legal requirements governing exposure to various health and safety hazards in universities can be found in Occupational Health and Safety Act and Regulations for Industrial Establishments Health hazards are also in hazard-specific regulations including: 12 designated substance regulations Regulation respecting the Control of Exposure to Biological or Chemical Agents Regulation respecting X-Ray Safety

10 What are the legal requirements for Personal Protective Equipment?
An employer has a general duty, under OHSA Section 25 (2)(h) to “take every precaution reasonable in the circumstances” to protect workers This means that PPE should be provided to workers whenever there are health or safety risks that cannot be controlled in other ways PPE can reduce or prevent a worker’s exposure to a health hazard in the workplace PPE includes respirators, hearing protectors, protective clothing, footwear, face shields

11 What are the health effects from workplace hazard exposure?
Health hazards mostly result from inhalation, ingestion, injection or contact of harmful substances, or from excessive noise, vibration and temperature exposure The effect can be acute, from a single, high exposure The effect can also be chronic, from repeated low level exposure over a prolonged time period Occupational exposure limits are established to control worker exposure of a harmful substance or energy to a level that does not result in adverse acute or chronic health effects

12 Types of Hazards Safety hazards Chemical hazards Physical hazards
Biological hazards Ergonomic hazards Environmental hazards Violence in the Workplace

13 Safety Hazards Unsafe workplace conditions
Hazardous physical conditions or circumstances which could directly permit the occurrence of an accident Unsafe work practices or acts Violation of known or accepted safe procedures which could permit the occurrence of an accident

14 Examples of Safety Hazards
Unsafe workplace conditions Unkempt work space Inadequate warning system Defective tools and equipment Inadequate guards or barriers Poor walking surface Inadequate ventilation Temperature extreme exposures Unsafe work practices or acts Horseplay Not wearing personal protective equipment Using defective equipment Substandard work practices Removing safety devices Failure to follow procedures Failure to warn others

15 Chemical Hazards Solids, liquids, vapours, gases, dusts, fumes or mists Flammables, corrosives, toxics, compressed gases, oxidizers Harmful through inhalation, ingestion, and skin contact

16 Physical Hazards Biological Hazards
Noise, vibration, energy, electricity, radiation, pressure, moving mechanical parts, extreme heat and cold Biological Hazards Bacteria, viruses, fungi, insects, proteins from animals or substances from plants May cause acute or chronic health effects through inhalation, injection, ingestion or contact with the skin

17 Ergonomic Hazards Hazards that arise from interactions between man and his total working environment Ergonomic stress factors deal with workstation, equipment, tool design and environmental factors in the workplace Repetitive motions, awkward postures, improper lifting, manual material handling, excessive forces Major concern for ergonomic hazards is repetitive strain injuries, or work-related musculoskeletal disorders

18 Environmental Hazards
Comfort factors (temperature and humidity), poor indoor air quality, inadequate ventilation, inadequate or excessive illumination Eg: moulds, dirty ceiling vents, dusty floors, heavy perfumes

19 Violence in the Workplace Hazards
Everyone should be able to work without fear of violence or harassment, in a safe and healthy workplace. Violence and harassment in the workplace are not tolerated in Ontario. Changes to the OHSA – effective June 15, 2010 – strengthen protections for workers from workplace violence and address workplace harassment. They apply to all provincially regulated workplaces.

20 Violence in the Workplace Hazards
Defining workplace violence The exercise of physical force by a person against a worker, in a workplace, that causes or could cause physical injury to the worker. An attempt to exercise physical force against a worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker. A statement or behaviour that it is reasonable for a worker to interpret as a threat to exercise physical force against the worker, in a workplace, that could cause physical injury to the worker.

21 Violence in the Workplace Hazards
Some activities increase the risk of workplace violence Handling cash Protecting or securing valuables Transporting people and goods Public or community contact Working alone, or with just a few people Working late at night or very early morning

22 Violence in the Workplace Hazards
Workplace harassment Workplace harassment means engaging in a course of vexatious comment or conduct against a worker in a workplace that is known or ought reasonably to be known to be unwelcome. Workplace harassment may include bullying, intimidating or offensive jokes or innuendos, displaying or circulating offensive pictures or materials, or offensive or intimidating phone calls.

23 What is a workplace inspection?
Workplace inspection is an integral part of the Occupational Health and Safety program There are two main types of inspections: Formal Informal Both are necessary and complement one another

24 Types of Inspections Formal Informal
Regularly scheduled examinations of the workplace Carried out as a team to ensuring a safe and healthy workplace A checklist is used to recognize, evaluate and control hazards Required by law Informal A practiced awareness which identifies potential hazards of daily processes, conditions and activities Part of daily routines such as a supervisor’s walk- through or a worker’s equipment check Not regularly scheduled Do not use a checklist

25 Purpose of Workplace Inspections
To identify existing and potential hazards To monitor effectiveness of hazard controls To recommend corrective actions To determine the underlying causes of hazards To educate, increase awareness and encourage communication regarding health and safety in the workplace To listen to concerns of workers and supervisors To meet legal requirement

26 The 4 Step Inspection Process
1) Planning the inspection 2) Conducting the inspection 3) Completing the inspection report 4) Follow-up and monitoring corrective actions

27 Planning the inspection
Step One Planning the inspection

28 Planning – Aspects to Examine
A workplace is “any land, premises, location or thing at, upon, in or near which a worker works” At the University, workplace can be labs, offices, shops, kitchens, mechanical rooms, and washrooms Inspection must include areas where no work is done regularly, such as office storage areas

29 Planning – Aspects to Examine
Every inspection planning must examine the where, what, who, when, and how.

30 Planning –WHERE Determine WHERE the inspection will take place
Obtain a floor plan and a list of relevant areas to your department Floor plans can be obtained through Campus Facilities & Sustainability – Request a listing of all your areas – Location of machinery, equipment, fire exits, hallways, chemical storage etc relevant to your department must be documented and inspected

31 Planning –WHAT Determine WHAT will be inspected
Look at all workplace elements Environment – noise, vibration, lighting, temperature Equipment – materials, tools, apparatus Process – how the worker interacts with the environment and equipment in a series of tasks or operations Review equipment inventory to learn what equipment/machinery is present and their hazards Check technical safety data sheets or manufacturer’s safety manuals Review chemical inventory to learn what chemicals are present and their hazards Check MSDS binder

32 Planning –WHO Determine WHO will be conducting the inspection
Workplace inspection team must consist of at least: One worker representative, and/or Departmental safety officer from the department/area to be inspected In addition, workplace inspection team may also consist of: Joint Health and Safety Committee members Supervisors or technical specialists All members should receive training in workplace inspection in recognition, evaluation and control of hazards All members should be familiar with the legislation and standards

33 Planning –WHEN Determine WHEN inspections would be conducted
Inform EHSS of your inspection schedule which defines the specific area and date to be inspected Ensure that the entire area within the department, school or centre is inspected at least annually (a portion to be inspected monthly) Inspections can be themed, for example… Month 1: Offices and storage/photocopy rooms Month 2: Floor, aisles, stairs and landings Month 3: Labs Month 4: Tools and equipments Month 5: First aid station/box Month 6: Ergonomic factors Month 7: Work practices and behaviour Month 8: Hazardous Materials

34 Planning –HOW Determine HOW inspections should be conducted
Review workplace elements (environment, equipment, and process) to determine if personal protective equipment is required during the inspection Review and develop an Inspection Checklist Obtain Workplace Inspection Report Form Review past accident/incident reports Identify causes of accidents/incidents Check if recommended actions have been implemented

35 Step One: Inspection Planning Summary
Review Workplace Inspection Policy and Procedure Review and develop an Inspection Checklist Review previous inspection reports Review applicable legislation and standards Obtain floor plan and list of locations that belong to your department Obtain workplace inspection report form Determine what area will be inspected Determine inspection schedule Determine who will conduct the inspection Determine what tools/equipments will be needed Gather materials such as lab coats, safety boots, and other PPE

36 Step One: Inspection Planning Resources
Workplace Inspection Information Workplace Inspection Guideline Workplace Inspection Report Training Presentation Various checklists

37 Conducting the inspection
Step Two Conducting the inspection

38 What makes a successful inspection?
Look up, down, around and inside Use the Inspection Checklist as a guide Document all your findings, even if it may not be directly related to health and safety! Clearly describe hazards and mark location on the floor plan or on your checklist Record as you go along in case you forget Involve workers in the inspection, interview them if possible, but never disrupt their work processes

39 What makes a successful inspection? …continued…
Pay particular attention to equipment with unsafe conditions due to stress, wear, impact, corrosion, or misuse Report serious hazards immediately to the supervisor Shut down any hazardous items that cannot be brought to a safe operating standard until repaired Wear the appropriate PPE Do not operate machinery – ask for demonstration by a qualified worker Pay attention to ergonomic risks and worker behaviour

40 What if you don’t feel qualified?
Ask questions! Ask for demonstrations Ask someone who is qualified to accompany you Some areas of the University will have to be inspected by someone who is authorized to be in that space and that might not be you – Those areas must be identified so as not to slow down the inspection process

41 Examples of what to inspect
BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES Is there loose material, debris, worn carpeting on the floor? Are floors slippery, oily or wet? Are stairways and aisles clear and unblocked? Are windows sealed properly? Are wall and ceiling fixtures fastened securely? Are there stains on ceilings that may indicate a leak? Are there moulds, water, rust or excessive dirt on ceilings? ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS Is there adequate ventilation? Is there adequate lighting? Is there any discomfort in temperature and humidity? Is there excessive noise? Are there harmful dust, mists, fumes, or vapours?

42 Examples of what to inspect
FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Exits are clear Exit signs are visible Extinguishers – are they easily accessible and have they been inspected in the last 6 months? Sprinkler systems – are materials are stacked close to sprinkler heads on ceiling? STORAGE FACILITIES Cabinets, shelving units, closets, bins, racks Are they stable? Are they overloaded? Are there sharp edges? Are materials stored safely? Any heavy boxes placed on top shelves that may fall?

43 What are the hazards? Boxes dangerously stacked on top of a cabinet
Housekeeping is needed

44 Examples of what to inspect
ELECTRICAL POWER COMPONENTS Are extension cords used extensively? Are electrical cords exposed in areas where employees walk? Is electrical wiring properly concealed? Are there cords/wires under the desk that may cause a tripping hazard?

45 What are the hazards? Wires are tripping hazards
Electrical wires are placed need a sink with a puddle of water on the floor right beside it – potential for electrocution

46 Examples of what to inspect
CHEMICAL STORAGE Are all chemical containers labeled? Is there a designated storage area for flammable or combustible or hazardous chemicals? Are there supplier labels on the containers? Are the containers in good condition free of loose seals or cracks?

47 What are the hazards? No labeling on containers
Chemicals should be stored away in a designated area and not left in open area Fire extinguisher should be mounted in wall Poor Housekeeping

48 Examples of what to inspect
STRUCTURAL OPENINGS Pits, sumps, shafts, floor openings including those usually kept covered WARNING AND SIGNALING DEVICES Strobes, crossing lights, horns, warning signs ELEVATORS, ESCALATORS, DUMB-WAITERS, MAN-LIFTS Cables, controls, safety devices MATERIAL HANDLING EQUIPMENT Conveyors, cranes, hoists, forklifts, carts, trolleys

49 Examples of what to inspect
CONTAINERS Barrels, carboys, gas cylinders, flammable liquid containers, scrap bins, waste bins, vats, tanks MOTORIZED VEHICLES Automobiles, trucks, earth moving equipment, backhoes, mowers, graders, tractors, all-terrain vehicles, forklift trucks ELECTRICAL SERVICE EQUIPMENT Switches, power bars, outlets, ground-fault circuit interrupters

50 Examples of what to inspect
EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT Spill kits, first aid kits, emergency telephones, emergency alarms PERSONNEL SUPPORTING EQUIPMENT Ladders Are rungs stable? Are ladders secured? Are they free of water or mud? Is the floor where the ladder is raised free of debris? Are users maintaining a 3-point contact at all times? (3 limbs out of 4 are in contact with the ladder) Scaffolds, scissor lifts, catwalks, platforms, life-lines, sling- chairs

51 What are the hazards? Ladder has broken and missing rungs
Ladder is unstable - the debris on the floor Chemicals should always be stored in easily accessible places, not on top of stacks of boxes

52 Examples of what to inspect
MACHINERIES Protective guards Are there loose bolts/nuts on fixed guards? Are there cracks on guards? Gear covers, pulley belt covers, pinch point guards, railings, blade guards

53 What are the hazards? The guard is not properly guarding the moving parts of the equipment Point of operation hazard is accessible The guard offers no protection

54 Area-specific Inspection
LABORATORIES Eyewash stations Proper signage, adequate water supply, readily accessible, clean and clear, clear drains Chemicals Are MSDS current (within 3 years of the issue date) and readily available? Are all containers labeled? Are chemical storage and use areas designated? General Do fume hoods have adequate air flow? Are PPE being worn? Are sharps properly disposed into sharps container?

55 What are the hazards? MSDS are not properly stored in an organized manner The chemical container does not have a legible label

56 Area-specific Inspection
OFFICES Are computer workstations arranged in an ergonomic way? Is adjustable seating available? Is working space adequate? Are desks and file cabinets organized such that drawers do not open into aisles or walkways? Does office arrangement allow easy egress under emergency conditions? Is there cardboard, paper, or other combustible materials on the floor?

57 Area-specific Inspection
Web of wires under the desk that can act as a tripping hazard Wires should be tied together neatly and be close to the wall

58 Area-specific Inspection
CLASSROOM/MEETING ROOM/BOARDROOM Is furniture and equipment in good condition? Are room occupancy limits and safe seating arrangements posted? KITCHEN FACILITIES Are all appliances in good condition and CSA/UL-approved? Are floors and counters clean and dry?

59 Area-specific Inspection
WASHROOMS Are mirrors in good condition and firmly secured? Are locks on stalls in good condition and operational? Are hinges on doors in good condition and correctly fixed? Inspect water taps and sinks to check for leaking Are soap containers present? Are toilets flushable?

60 Area-specific Inspection
BUILDING Are electrical rooms free of materials, particularly combustible materials? Are there moulds or dirt on ceiling that may be a health hazard? Are hallways free of blockage? Are emergency exits blocked or barred?

61 Area-specific Inspection
Corridor is full of waste materials; may impede evacuation in an emergency Room needs housekeeping, also represents a fire hazard as papers and boxes are combustible materials

62 What are the hazards? Exits are barred and blocked because of poor housekeeping Tiles are missing from the ceiling

63 Examples of descriptive words to use
Broken, chipped, leaked, dirty, disconnected, slipping, wobbling, worn, frayed, corroded, littered, removed, sagging, spalled, unstable, deteriorated, cracked, dented, blocked, unlabelled, defaced, inadequate, overloaded, missing, hazardous, messy, spilled, unanchored, protruding, bent, inoperative, smelly, cluttered, slippery, unlocked, splintered, malfunctioning, excessive, deficient, inappropriate, uneven, obscured

64 Completing the inspection report
Step Three Completing the inspection report

65 The Inspection Report A detailed inspection report should be completed as soon as possible after the inspection It should give a summary of findings and make clear and concise recommendations for corrective actions At Ryerson, the inspection report is called the Workplace Inspection Report

66 The Inspection Report A detailed inspection report should be completed as soon as possible after the inspection It should give a summary of findings and make clear and concise recommendations for corrective actions At Ryerson, the inspection report is called the Workplace Inspection Report

67 Workplace Inspection Report

68 What should be included in the report?
Time, date and area inspected The names of persons conducting inspection Affiliated union of the worker’s representative Location and clear description of hazard Recommendations for action Names of individuals for completion of corrective actions

69 Who should get copies of the report?
The completed report should be reviewed by the Supervisor of the department within 5 calendar days of the inspection date An electronic copy of the report should be sent to and Maintenance issues should have a separate sent to

70 Assessing the Risk Once hazards are identified, they should be assessed to determine whether they are significant enough to warrant changes – this is called Risk Assessment Risk Assessment is a measure of the severity of potential harm to the likelihood of that harm occurring

71 To work out the level of risk, consider the following:
Severity of the consequences of an accident How serious would the injury or illness be? How many people are at risk? Likelihood of the accident occurring Has it happened before? How often might it happen? When is it most likely to happen?

72 Hazard Category and Hazard Class
To assist risk assessment, each identified hazard needs to be categorized according to its Hazard Category and Hazard Class on the Hazard Recording Form

73 Hazard Categories CHM – Chemical Hazards: includes any form of chemical such as compressed gases and solvents BIO – Biological Hazards: includes organisms or toxic substances produced by living things that can cause illnesses or diseases in humans (bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, insects) PHS – Physical Hazards: includes noise, vibration, heat, cold and radiation ERG – Ergonomic Hazards: includes design of the workplace and jobs that involve repetition, force and posture ENY – Energy Hazards: includes pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, steam, heat, electricity ENV – Environmental Hazards: includes comfort factors such as temperature and relative humidity, exposure to particulates, dust, moulds and spores MAC – Machine Hazards: includes hazards from moving parts like rotating shafts, belts, pulleys, blades and saws WKP – Work Practice Hazards: includes failures to have or follow safe work practices

74 Hazard Class Class “A” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for permanent disability, loss of life or body part, and/or extensive loss of structure, equipment or material Class “B” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for serious injury or illness (resulting in serious or temporary disability) or property damage that is disruptive but less so than Class “A” Class “C” Hazard: A condition or practice with the potential for injury and illness, or disruptive (non-disabling) property damage

75 Examples of Hazard Category and Class
Hazard: Wires in room as potential tripping hazard Category: WKP Class: C Example 2: Hazard: Pouring toxic highly volatile chemical on work bench instead of under fume hood Category: CHM Class: B Example 3: Hazard: Untrained personnel operating a saw blade without machine guarding or steel mesh gloves Category: MAC Class: A

76 Identifying Recommendations
If risk assessment shows the hazard is significant, recommend controls Consider what might be done to decrease the likelihood of an accident occurring or the severity of the consequences Provide as many possible solutions as you can For assistance in identifying solutions, contact Cate Drum, EHS Officer, EHSS at 7086

77 Recall how we can control hazards…
Eliminate the hazard or substitute it Isolate the hazard from people Change the way the job is done Personal protective equipment

78 Elimination or Substitution
Use a different less dangerous piece of equipment Fix faulty machinery Redesign the workplace Use safer materials or chemicals Reduce energy, speed, voltage, sound level, force Automate material handling

79 Isolate the Hazard from the People
Redesign the equipment Remove dust or fumes with exhaust system Use lifting equipment or trolleys Machine guarding Sound enclosures Platforms and guard railing

80 Change the Way the Job is Done
Provide training, information and signs to increase awareness Implement safe work procedures and control programs Implement rotation of workers Increase equipment inspections and preventative maintenance programs

81 Use Personal Protective Equipment
Should be used as a last resort and always in conjunction with other controls There are specific PPE requirements for each job Examples are ear plugs, safety boots, safety glasses, dust masks Specific PPE training and information may be necessary

82 Monitoring corrective actions
Step Four Monitoring corrective actions

83 Follow up actions Follow up actions are important to ensuring that corrective measures are put in place Follow up actions are also important in demonstrating to workers that health and safety is taken seriously Determine who will be responsible for conducting follow up actions Document the progress of corrective actions Ensure that EHSS is kept updated Monitor the impact of corrective actions

84 Follow up actions The area supervisor (or their designate) must provide an electronic copy of the inspection report responding to all of the observed hazards to the EHSS within 21 Calendar days after the inspection

85 Inspection Process Summary
Plan the time and location of inspection Gather the inspection team with appropriate materials Conduct the inspection with the use of checklists From the inspection findings complete the Workplace Inspection Report Form Send completed reports to the supervisor including Cate Drum and within 5 days of the inspection Area supervisor or their designate responds to all the observed hazards to EHSS within 21 days of the inspection Implement corrective actions Ensure follow up actions are taken

86 Reporting Hazards Everyone has the responsibility to find and report hazards! Report identified hazards to area supervisor or lecturer Report hazards immediately if they can cause death or serious injury/illness OR harm a number of people

87 Supervisors Duties A supervisor, under the Occupational Health and Safety Act, means a person who has charge of a workplace or authority over a worker Supervisors must take action to fix hazards when a hazard is found or reported If fixing a hazard is not possible, action must be taken to minimize the immediate risk to health and safety

88 Summary Everyone should… Look out for hazards
Report hazards to the supervisor of the work area Help fix hazards by providing recommendations Take action to avoid, eliminate or minimize risks Follow safe work methods and use PPE as required

89 Safety first, because accidents last!
Remember… Safety first, because accidents last!

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