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Establishing a Mexican Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) Program Keith L. Pardieck 1, Humberto A. Berlanga 2, Connie M. Downes 3, Bruce G. Peterjohn 1, David.

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Presentation on theme: "Establishing a Mexican Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) Program Keith L. Pardieck 1, Humberto A. Berlanga 2, Connie M. Downes 3, Bruce G. Peterjohn 1, David."— Presentation transcript:

1 Establishing a Mexican Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) Program Keith L. Pardieck 1, Humberto A. Berlanga 2, Connie M. Downes 3, Bruce G. Peterjohn 1, David J. Ziolkowski, Jr. 1, and Brian Collins 3 1 USGS Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Beech Forest Road, Laurel, MD U.S.A. 2 Comisión Nacional Para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad, Liga Periférico-Insurgentes Sur No.4903, Col. Parques del Pedregal, Delegacion Tlalpan, C.P México, DF, México. 3 Canadian Wildlife Service, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa, ON K1A 0H3 Canada Fig. 1. BBS route location figure including locations of Mexican pilot project routes BBS is an Important Conservation Tool The North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) forms the foundation of non-game, land bird conservation in the U.S. and Canada, providing large-scale, long-term population data for > 400 species. Established in 1966, the (BBS) is a long-term, avian monitoring program with the purpose of providing scientifically credible measures of status and trends of North American bird populations at continental and regional scales to inform biologically sound conservation and management actions. These data, along with other indicators, are used by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Canadian Wildlife Service, state agencies, Partners in Flight and many others to assess avian population trends and set national and regional conservation priorities. Analogous population trend data are largely unavailable for most of Mexico’s breeding bird species, severely limiting bird conservation planning efforts there. Currently, the BBS is a joint effort by the U.S. Geological Survey and Canadian Wildlife Service. BBS consists of over 4100 roadside routes (Fig. 1) randomly placed throughout the continental U.S. and Canada of which approximately 3000 routes are sampled annually. BBS data provide an index of avian population abundance that are used to estimate population trends and relative abundances across various geographic scales. BBS Methodology 24.5-mile (39.2 km) long routes containing 50 stops spaced at 0.5-mile (800-m) intervals are randomly dispersed using a stratified random design. Routes are sampled once per year during the height of the breeding season (June for most routes). Observers (75% are volunteers) skilled in avian identification collect the data. A 3-minute point count is conducted at each stop. All birds seen within 0.25-mile (400-m) radius, or heard, are recorded by the observer. Sampling begins 30 minutes before local sunrise and takes approximately 4.5 hours to complete. Data are either submitted electronically via the Internet, or via the postal service to be scanned by the national BBS office. Why Establish a Mexican BBS? The avian conservation community in Mexico has grown substantially in the last decade mirroring their increasing need for better trend assessment of breeding bird populations. Dunn et al. (2005) report that a Mexican BBS program could provide adequate population trend estimates for over 80 species of northern Mexican birds. Although the results of the 3-year pilot project reported here suggest this total is likely to be much higher, especially as the BBS becomes established throughout Mexico. In addition to providing vital avian population data for Mexico’s conservation efforts, a Mexican BBS would also complete the continental picture for many species whose breeding populations are shared between nations. For example, BBS population trend information for most North American species extends only to the U.S. and Mexican border as depicted by the USGS trend maps for Swainson’s Hawk (Figure 2) and Painted Bunting (Figure 3). However with the inclusion of data from a Mexican BBS, as simulated by data from the ’93-’95 pilot project, a more complete range-wide population picture for these species becomes apparent and available (Figures 2, 3 and 4). Mexican BBS Background Efforts to expand the BBS to a truly comprehensive North American program began in earnest in the early 1990s, when the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and numerous Mexican and U.S. citizens initiated a 3-year pilot project to examine the feasibility of expanding the BBS into northern Mexico using established BBS methodology. Between 1993 – 1995, 87 routes were sampled in five northern Mexican states by 34 participants: ● 1993 – 26 routes surveyed in four Mexican states: Chihuahua, Coahuila, Nuevo Leon, and Tamaulipas. ● 1994 – 28 routes surveyed including eight in Sonora. ● 1995 – 33 routes surveyed between the five states. A total of 218 species was detected (Table 1), including 29 ranked of continental importance in the Partners in Flight’s Southwest Avifaunal Biome (Rich et al. 2004; species in blue). Lessons Learned: ► Existing BBS methodology feasible for sampling bird populations in northern Mexico. ► At that time, operational infrastructure and skilled volunteer base lacking to sustain program. ► Research needed to further evaluate/optimize for sub-tropical habitats of southern Mexico. Future Directions Mexico’s National Commission for the Knowledge and Use of Biodiversity has partnered with the U.S. Geological Survey and Canadian Wildlife Survey in developing a Mexican Breeding Bird Survey program to be implemented by Current efforts include: Conducting a workshop at 4th NAOC to form partnerships and identify participants, outline implementation plan, and identify program needs and time line. Evaluating an optimal BBS methodology for Mexico. Developing training courses. Establishing randomized BBS routes. Fig. 4. Brown Jay simulated trend map Dunn et al. (2005) estimated that a Mexican BBS program could provide adequate population trend estimates for > 80 bird species found in northern Mexico. The results of the 3-year pilot project indicate that the number is likely to be much higher, somewhere in the order of 150+, especially once the program is well established. The Brown Jay is an example of one of those species and, in being largely restricted to Mexico in the program, also serves as a good example of the results that local and regional planners can expect to see in the future. Fig.2. Swainson’s Hawk trend map , with Mexican trend simulated from pilot project Within an extensive breeding range stretching from northern Mexico to southern Canada, Swainson’s Hawk populations have experienced declines of 2% per year or more since 1980 in portions of the US and Canada. That appraisal prompted Partners in Flight to include the species on its Watch List and has since spurred more intensive investigations into prey availabilities, habitat degradation, and pesticide exposure. Exploratory data from the 3-year pilot project suggest that Swainson’s Hawk populations in northern Mexico declined 93.2% (N=10, P=0.01) between 1993 and This period corresponds with widely reported large-scale poisonings of wintering birds in Argentina and illustrates the value of Mexican BBS routes in both local and continental scale conservation planning. Fig. 3. Painted Bunting trend map , with Mexican trend simulated from pilot project Another Partners in Flight Watchlist species, Painted Bunting has experienced a steady population decline in the southern United States over the survey’s 40 year history (-1.6% per year; P = 0.01, N = 359). Range-wide culprits include habitat degradation and loss, but an active pet trade in Mexico further impacts the species’ welfare there. Long-term population data from Mexico is needed to identify the particularities of local demographics as well as frame a more comprehensive conservation assessment of the species. Table 1. Species detected during Mexican Pilot Project (blue = PIF Watchlist species) Acknowledgments Kinard Boone assisted with graphical design; Allison Sussman and Mark Wimer provided route location figure; John Sauer, Jim Hines and Jane Fallon provided USGS trend maps. Mexican Pilot Project Participants: Miguel Angel Cruz, Guadalupe Avila, Alejandra Carrera, Carlos Castillo, Mario Cirett-Galan, Enrique Cisneros, Liliana Coronado, Leonardo Corral, Marco Corti, Ernesto Enkerlin, Jorge Franco, Daniel Garza, Aldequndo Garza, Eduardo Gomez, Carmen Gonzalez, Antonio Guerra, Martin Haro, Guillermo Herrera, Benito Leal, Gabriela Leon, Arturo Lerma, Bonnie Mckinney, Cristina Melendez, Cesar Mendez, Guadalupe Morales, Arnulfo Moreno-Valdez, Rafaela Paredes, Elvira Rogero, Teresa Solis, Mario Trevino, Jose Trevino, Julian Trevino-Villarr., Andros Villarreal, and Ruperto Zapien. References Dunn, E. H., B. L. Altman, J. Bart, C. J. Beardmore, H. Berlanga, P. J. Blancher, G. S. Butcher, D.W. Demarest, R. Dettmers, W. C. Hunter, E. E. Iñigo-Elias, A. O. Panjabi, D. N. Pashley, C. J. Ralph, T. D. Rich, K. V. Rosenberg, C. M. Rustay, J. M. Ruth, and T. C. Will High priority needs for range-wide monitoring of North American landbirds. Partners in Flight Technical Series No. 2. Partners in Flight website: Strategic Plan for North American Breeding Bird Survey: in press. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Discipline, Circular. English NameScientific NameTotal Ind. Routes Thicket TinamouCrypturellus cinnamomeus413 Black-bellied Whistling-DuckDendrocygna autumnalis1175 Fulvous Whistling-DuckDendrocygna bicolor21 Muscovy DuckCairina moschata72 Mexican DuckAnas platyrhynchos216 Ruddy DuckOxyura jamaicensis131 Plain ChachalacaOrtalis vetula3695 Crested GuanPenelope purpurascens11 Wild TurkeyMeleagris gallopavo4310 Scaled QuailCallipepla squamata44026 Elegant QuailCallipepla douglasii61 Gambel's QuailCallipepla gambelii72013 Northern BobwhiteColinus virginianus31113 Montezuma QuailCyrtonyx montezumae123 Brown PelicanPelecanus occidentalis41 Neotropic CormorantPhalacrocorax brasilianus72 Double-crested CormorantPhalacrocorax auritus31 Great Blue HeronArdea herodias148 Great EgretArdea alba92 Snowy EgretEgretta thula384 Little Blue HeronEgretta caerulea11 Tricolored HeronEgretta tricolor11 Cattle EgretBubulcus ibis538 Green HeronButorides virescens96 White IbisEudocimus albus31 White-faced IbisPlegadis chihi62 Black VultureCoragyps atratus98524 Turkey VultureCathartes aura OspreyPandion haliaetus63 White-tailed KiteElanus leucurus53 Northern HarrierCircus cyaneus11 Cooper's HawkAccipiter cooperii22 Gray HawkAsturina nitida42 Common Black-HawkButeogallus anthracinus11 Harris's HawkParabuteo unicinctus11025 Roadside HawkButeo magnirostris63 Swainson's HawkButeo swainsoni5514 White-tailed HawkButeo albicaudatus43 Red-tailed HawkButeo jamaicensis12733 Golden EagleAquila chrysaetos33 English NameScientific NameTotal Ind.Routes Collared Forest-FalconMicrastur semitorquatus11 Crested CaracaraCaracara plancus378 American KestrelFalco sparverius7922 Bat FalconFalco rufigularis11 Peregrine FalconFalco peregrinus22 Prairie FalconFalco mexicanus33 American CootFulica americana132 KilldeerCharadrius vociferus4112 Black-necked StiltHimantopus mexicanus21 Laughing GullLarus atricilla22 unid. TernSternid sp21 Rock PigeonColumba livia547 Red-billed PigeonPatagioenas flavirostris954 Band-tailed PigeonPatagioenas fasciata11 White-winged DoveZenaida asiatica Mourning DoveZenaida macroura Inca DoveColumbina inca23619 Common Ground-DoveColumbina passerina10015 Ruddy Ground-DoveColumbina talpacoti22 White-tipped DoveLeptotila verreauxi1135 Green ParakeetAratinga holochlora232 Maroon-fronted ParrotRhynchopsitta terrisi402 Red-crowned ParrotAmazona viridigenalis282 Red-lored ParrotAmazona autumnalis241 Yellow-headed ParrotAmazona oratrix292 Yellow-billed CuckooCoccyzus americanus114 Greater RoadrunnerGeococcyx californianus10935 Groove-billed AniCrotophaga sulcirostris1806 Eastern Screech-OwlMegascops asio42 Great Horned OwlBubo virginianus94 Ferruginous Pygmy-OwlGlaucidium brasilianum83 Elf OwlMicrathene whitneyi11 Burrowing OwlAthene cunicularia174 Mottled OwlCiccaba virgata11 Lesser NighthawkChordeiles acutipennis5011 Common NighthawkChordeiles minor10213 Common PauraqueNyctidromus albicollis143 Tawny-collared NightjarCaprimulgus salvini21 Whip-poor-willCaprimulgus vociferus112 White-throated SwiftAeronautes saxatalis31 English NameScientific NameTotal Ind.Routes Broad-Billed HummingbirdCynanthus latirostris22 Buff-bellied HummingbirdAmazilia yucatanensis43 Magnificent HummingbirdEugenes fulgens94 Lucifer HummingbirdCalothorax lucifer73 Black-chinned HummingbirdArchilochus alexandri83 Costa's HummingbirdCalypte costae31 Broad-tailed HummingbirdSelasphorus platycercus191 unid. HummingbirdTrochilid sp74 Elegant TrogonTrogon elegans1515 Blue-crowned MotmotMomotus momota81 Ringed KingfisherCeryle torquatus11 Green KingfisherChloroceryle americana11 Acorn WoodpeckerMelanerpes formicivorus2447 Gila WoodpeckerMelanerpes uropygialis52214 Golden-fronted WoodpeckerMelanerpes aurifrons26419 Ladder-backed WoodpeckerPicoides scalaris11621 Hairy WoodpeckerPicoides villosus32 Red-shafted FlickerColaptes auratus195 Gilded FlickerColaptes chrysoides205 Northern FlickerColaptes auratus ssp.103 Lineated WoodpeckerDryocopus lineatus62 Pale-billed Woodpecker Campephilus guatemalensis22 unid. WoodcreeperDendrocolaptid sp42 Northern Beardless-TyrannuletCamptostoma imberbe31 Greater PeweeContopus pertinax22 Western Wood-PeweeContopus sordidulus102 unid. EmpidonaxEmpidonax sp32 Black PhoebeSayornis nigricans226 Eastern PhoebeSayornis phoebe194 Say's PhoebeSayornis saya4315 Vermilion FlycatcherPyrocephalus rubinus2512 Ash-throated FlycatcherMyiarchus cinerascens33123 Brown-crested FlycatcherMyiarchus tyrannulus12615 Great KiskadeePitangus sulphuratus284 Social FlycatcherMyiozetetes similis52 English NameScientific NameTotal Ind. Routes Couch's KingbirdTyrannus couchii1459 Cassin's KingbirdTyrannus vociferans8216 Thick-billed KingbirdTyrannus crassirostris11 Western KingbirdTyrannus verticalis54 Scissor-tailed FlycatcherTyrannus forficatus15116 Rose-throated BecardPachyramphus aglaiae72 Masked TityraTityra semifasciata41 Loggerhead ShrikeLanius ludovicianus10221 White-eyed VireoVireo griseus21 Bell's VireoVireo bellii1699 Blue-headed VireoVireo solitarius11 Warbling VireoVireo gilvus21 Yellow-green VireoVireo flavoviridis72 Steller's JayCyanocitta stelleri414 Green JayCyanocorax yncas465 Brown JayCyanocorax morio1844 Western Scrub-JayAphelocoma californica292 Mexican JayAphelocoma ultramarina41212 Tamaulipas CrowCorvus imparatus2524 Sinaloa CrowCorvus sinaloae21 Chihuahuan RavenCorvus cryptoleucus55028 Common RavenCorvus corax63534 Horned LarkEremophila alpestris634 Purple MartinProgne subis356 Northern Rough-winged SwallowStelgidopteryx serripennis669 Cliff SwallowPetrochelidon pyrrhonota221 Cave SwallowPetrochelidon fulva845 Barn SwallowHirundo rustica58433 Mexican ChickadeePoecile sclateri183 Bridled TitmouseBaeolophus wollweberi752 Black-crested TitmouseBaeolophus atricristatus567 VerdinAuriparus flaviceps23412 BushtitPsaltriparus minimus202 White-breasted NuthatchSitta carolinensis11 Brown CreeperCerthia americana131 English NameScientific NameTotal Ind.Routes Cactus WrenCampylorhynchus brunneicapillus82428 Rock WrenSalpinctes obsoletus102 Canyon WrenCatherpes mexicanus6010 Carolina WrenThryothorus ludovicianus185 Bewick's WrenThryomanes bewickii275 House WrenTroglodytes aedon377 Blue-gray GnatcatcherPolioptila caerulea347 Black-tailed GnatcatcherPolioptila melanura39420 Eastern BluebirdSialia sialis264 Western BluebirdSialia mexicana416 Brown-backed SolitaireMyadestes occidentalis81 Clay-colored RobinTurdus grayi423 American RobinTurdus migratorius456 Northern MockingbirdMimus polyglottos Long-billed ThrasherToxostoma longirostre528 Curve-billed ThrasherToxostoma curvirostre40833 European StarlingSturnus vulgaris22 PhainopeplaPhainopepla nitens1239 Tropical ParulaParula pitiayumi352 Yellow WarblerDendroica petechia63 Gray-crowned YellowthroatGeothlypis poliocephala332 Painted RedstartMyioborus pictus142 Yellow-breasted ChatIcteria virens1596 Hepatic TanagerPiranga flava41 Summer TanagerPiranga rubra54 White-Collared SeedeaterSporophila torqueola152 Yellow-faced GrassquitTiaris olivacea121 Olive SparrowArremonops rufivirgatus2507 Eastern TowheePipilo erythrophthalmus403 Canyon TowheePipilo fuscus6513 Cassin's SparrowAimophila cassinii1405 Rufous-crowned SparrowAimophila ruficeps639 Chipping SparrowSpizella passerina53 Black-chinned SparrowSpizella atrogularis22 Lark SparrowChondestes grammacus13412 English NameScientific NameTotal Ind.Routes Black-throated SparrowAmphispiza bilineata81127 Savannah SparrowPasserculus sandwichensis11 Grasshopper SparrowAmmodramus savannarum21 Song SparrowMelospiza melodia405 Yellow-eyed JuncoJunco phaeonotus664 Grayish SaltatorSaltator coerulescens11 Northern CardinalCardinalis cardinalis43029 PyrrhuloxiaCardinalis sinuatus59829 Black-headed GrosbeakPheucticus melanocephalus455 Blue GrosbeakGuiraca caerulea25029 Lazuli BuntingPasserina amoena112 Indigo BuntingPasserina cyanea11 Varied BuntingPasserina versicolor349 Painted BuntingPasserina ciris31913 DickcisselSpiza americana121 Red-winged BlackbirdAgelaius phoeniceus48616 Eastern MeadowlarkSturnella magna48614 Western MeadowlarkSturnella neglecta37615 Melodius BlackbirdDives dives242 Great-tailed GrackleQuiscalus mexicanus Bronzed CowbirdMolothrus aeneus34026 Brown-headed CowbirdMolothrus ater42226 Orchard OrioleIcterus spurius123 Hooded OrioleIcterus cucullatus11516 Bullock's OrioleIcterus bullockii32 Altamira OrioleIcterus gularis1107 Audubon's OrioleIcterus graduacauda696 Scott's OrioleIcterus parisorum7715 House FinchCarpodacus mexicanus25325 Red CrossbillLoxia curvirostra11 Pine SiskinCarduelis pinus11 Lesser GoldfinchCarduelis psaltria415 House SparrowPasser domesticus70431 Percent Change per Year Less than to >-0.25 to 0.25 >0.25 to +1.5 Greater than +1.5 = detections, = > 1 detection, To learn more about, or assist with, the Mexican BBS program please contact: Humberto Berlanga, CONABIO ) Keith Pardieck, USGS ) Connie Downes, CWS )


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