Presentation on theme: "Slavery and Creolization, Education vs. Indigenous Cultures"— Presentation transcript:
1 Slavery and Creolization, Education vs. Indigenous Cultures The Caribbean Area:Slavery and Creolization,Education vs. Indigenous Cultures
2 What are the themes we have covered so far? South AsiaRacial Composition in India, Pakistan, Sri LankaReligion: Indian gods: Krishna & Ganesh; Religion in IranGender and Bride-Bride gameWest & South AfricaIn Nigeria (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba); Liberia (Bassa vs. Congo)Folk belief (Sangoma, dibia man, mask)Love of eating sweets, bullying at school EducationCommon Themes – Children’s Experience ofCivil Wars (displacement – child soldier)Racial, Class, Language and Cultural DifferencesCity (Mumbai, Rio, Jos, Nsukka, Johannesburg) vs. Country
3 Caribbean Disapora Cultures What color is Friday’s skin? (Friday from Robinson Crusoe) Not yellow, because the aborigines were mostly eliminated there. The few Caribs left were mixed with the black slaves, who get associated with Cannibalism Can Friday speak? Does Caliban only know how to curse? (The Tempest: Prospero, Miranda and Caliban)(The Middle Passage) Slavery Colonial EducationCreolization (in people and language)Caribbean Disapora CulturesImage source
4 Recent News in the Caribbean Area Haiti: Earthquake 2010, 1, 12Rachel Wheeler– a 12-year-old that raised 250,000 US dollars to build 27 homes in Haiti (source)famous for its legends of pirates (source 《金銀島》Treasure Island; Pirates of the Caribbean ）drug dealingTourism, cruising in the area
5 Outline The Caribbean Area: Creolization: Definitions Definitions & History of colonizationThe Texts We ReadCreolization: DefinitionsEnglish language & of peopleRace Relations Conflicts and Displacement;Caribbean Poetry and Music at a Glance:Caribbean poetry; Derek Walcott & dub poetryPopular culture: Different ways; Calypso, (Raggae & Rap)Our Course: Thematic Continuity, Geographic Expansion
6 Definition (1): the Caribbean –3 groups 1. the Bahamas to the North East of Cuba the Greater AntillestheLesserAntilles
8 Definition (2): the Caribbean Don’t forget the triangular trade!!!“discovered” by Columbus in late 15th c., Spanish colonization, followed by the British, French and Dutch.names:West Indies (Anglophone) –a misnomer (also East Indians);the Antilles (Francophone)the Caribbean as a term encompassing bothComposed of immigrants only: diaspora (離散族群)the aboriginal communities [Amerindians-- Arawaks, Caribs, etc.] exterminated;Immigrants from Africa, Asia and Europe.Columbus & Arawak--
9 Image of the CaribbeanJan van de Straet’s engraving “America”--the new world as a woman
10 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Columbus’s “discovery” of the West Indies16th-18th centuries --Colonial period: also a period of wars among colonial nations and pirates, and conflicts between the white masters, black slaves and mulatto.The Middle Passage:Rebellion (1) –the Maroons*e.g. Abeng – (from a West Africa); used primarily as a signaling device; served as a vital means of communication when the Maroons were at war with the British (e.g.)e.g. in Sugar Cane AlleyDuring the 18th century, the powerful Maroons, escaped ex-slaves who settled in the mountains of Jamaica, carved out a significant area of influence.
11 Ways of rebellion (2): petit marronage (小走私) in francophone islands pretend sickness, steal, or even poison their masters.with music, dance, religion (voodon), or simply their different ways of living;examples: the school children’s tales of zombies; the songs the laborers sing—at the field, after Madouze dies-- in Sugar Cane Alley;open rebellion
12 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Britain and USA abolished slave trade; complete abolition of slavery in British colonies1845 East Indian indentured laborers in Trinidad; Chinese indenture in French colonies (e.g. Wide Sargasso Sea)
13 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area seen as Slums of the Empire.Negritude (Aimé Césaire);Back to Africa movement (started in the 19th century; supported later by MARCUS GARVEY) Rastafari movementMadouze’s account in SGAriots & strikes in and afterwards
14 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Since the 50’sColonization in reverse: West Indian migration to England restrictions imposed to Canada, etc.Independence movements:The Federation of the West Indiesindependence Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago;1966 Barbados and Guyana;
15 American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf. Bob Marley siteEconomicthe area becomes the tourists’ heaven and a cheap labor factory (capital, technology and management shipped to the area to use the labor power without leaving the profits there.)Cultural domination –music styles – the emergence of reggae (e.g. from rhythm & blue to Ska to reggae )
16 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area Neo-Colonialism of the U.S.A.military intervention (e.g. "Caribbean Basin Initative"– bribing Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean to support the armed confrontation in Grenada and the war in El Salvador.
17 The Caribbean Texts and Their Locations The Wide Sargasso Sea (1966) –1840’s (Martinique), (Grandbois) Dominica, Jamaica (near Spanish town)Abeng (1984) by Michelle Cliff -- Jamaica 1950’sSugar Cane Alley (1983) –Martinique 1930’sOlive Senior "Bright Thursdays" -- JamaicaAnnie John (1985) –Antigua 1950’s"Children of the Sea" (from Krik, Krak! 1955) -- Port-au-Prince Haiti 1960’s – 90’s
18 Creolization (1): Dictionary Definition A. language: mixture of languages, esp. in Southern US and the Caribbean area.B. People1). Orignal meaning: Native, local,”pure”;2). Native-born whites; (e.g. Antoinette in WSS)3). Hybrid (mixed-blood)
19 Definition (2): Creolization in the Caribbean Language –the mixture of English and African tribal languages into some special kinds of native languages (Patois, such as French Patois, Jamaican Patois). Ee.g. Beijan: The English used in Barbados-- closest to standard English (e.g. 1); Jamaican creole,"postcreole continuum“*(後新生語連續體)-- parallels the social hierarchy to some degrees (--those speaking in creole are looked down upon). Postcolonial usage of creole dub poetry—the empire strikes backpostcreole continuum: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-creole_continuum) between acrolect and basilect .e.g.It has been suggested (Rickford 1977; Dillard 1972) that African American Vernacular English is a decreolized form of a slave creole. Once blacks acquired recognition of equality under the law, opportunities for interaction created a strong influence of standard (American) English onto the speech of blacks so that a continuum exists today with Standard English as the acrolect and varieties closest to the original creole as the basilect.In Jamaica, a continuum exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois.
20 Color System in the Caribbean Society People --Europeans born in the Caribbean,mulatto“Dying to raise their color all of them” (199) (e.g. “Bright Thursday”)The color triangle: whitebrowndark
21 Race Relations: multiple division Post-emancipation period – conflictsbetween different races (e.g. the English vs. the French),between plantation owners and small farmers, ex-slaved and contract laborersbetween the newly rich and the declining aristocrats.Discriminated: mulatto and creole.In the contemporary Caribbean area and diaspora: the Bajan vs. the Jamaican, all against Haitian, etc.WSS
22 Consequences of creolization racial conflicts;split sense of identity – in between Europe and Africa (e.g. Black Skin, White Mask –Frantz Fanon from Martinique)diverse and dynamic culture (Walcott on its music, painting and language)
23 Caribbean poetry (introd.) The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry – Ref.As I worked, watching the rotting waves come past the bow that scissor the sea like milk, I swear to you all, by my mother's milk, by the stars that shall fly from tonight's furnace, that I loved them, my children, my wife, my home; I loved them as poets love the poetry that kills them, as drowned sailors the sea.You ever look up from some lonely beach and see a far schooner? Well, when I write this poem, each phrase go be soaked in salt; I go draw and knot every line as tight as ropes in this rigging; in simple speech my common language go be the wind, my pages the sails of the schooner Flight. But let me tell you how this business begin. (from “The Schooner Flight”Caribbean poetry (introd.)Derek Walcott (e.g.) –combination of Western culture and creolized culture and island landscape“I happen to have been born in an English and a Creole place, and love both languages. …”“ I who am poisoned with the blood of both, Where shall I turn, divided to the vein?”"A Far Cry From Africa“ Derek Walcott, 1957
24 Dub poetry: forerunner of hip-hop The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean PoetryDub poetry: forerunner of hip-hopan extension of reggae culture (“new raggae”)a form of performance poetry having its roots in popular Jamaican culture, and more particularly in reggae and Rastafarianism. The movement has served to bring poetry back to the people
25 Dub poetryopenness to pop culture and esp. to music (reggae and calypso); appeal of public performance; acceptance of social responsibility poetry has a “function” (poetry vs fiction as a middle-class genre)amateur poetic practice in the WI (e.g. Jamaican creole )e.g. Edward Braithwaite,
26 Kamau Brathwaite “Wings of a Dove” About a Rasta Man“Brother Man the Rasta man, beard full of lichens地衣 brain full of lice watched the mice ”After smoking his pipe of his gangja, he speaks of his people in ‘Bablylon town’“So beat dem drums dem, spreaddem wings dem, watch dem flydem, soar dem high dem,clear in the glory of the Lord.Watch dem ship dem come to town demfull o' silk dem full o' food deman' dem 'plane dem come to groun' demfull o' flash dem full o' cash demsilk dem food dem shoe dem wine demthat dem drink dem an' consume dempraisin' the glory of the Lord.
27 Kamau Brathwaite “Wings of a Dove” So beat dem burn dem, learndem that dem got dem nothin'but dem bright bright baublesthat will burst dem when the flame demfrom on high dem raze an' roar deman' de poor dem rise an' rage demin de glory of the Lord. Bob Marley, a Rasta
28 Mikey Smith “Black and White” Different implications of “black” Michael Smith;Image source
29 “Colonization in Reverse” (1) Louise Bennett What a joyful news, Miss Mattie;Ah feel like me heart gwine burs--Jamaica people colonizinEnglan in reverseBy de hundred, by de tousanFrom country an from town,By de ship-load, by the plane-load,Jamaica is Englan boun. (source)
30 “Colonization in Reverse” (2) Dem a pout out a Jamaica;Everybody future planIs fi get a big-time jobAn settle in de motherlanWhat a islan! What a people!Man an woman, ole and youngJussa pack dem bag an baggageAn tun history upside dung!--Louis Bennett (e.g.) (source)
31 Mutabaruka“dis poem”starts with middle passage, but extends to all kinds of racism all over the world.Note: nyahbingi drummingMusic video of the 2006 song Della and Mutabaruka
32 The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture Calypso: originated in the songs of African slaves who worked in the plantation fields of Trinidad. Forbidden to talk to each other, they used calypso to communicate feelings and information.e.g. Work songs in Sugar Cane Alley.e.g. "Dan is the Man".
33 "Dan is the Man" In education, he is taught to be “a block-headed mule”with his world filled with nonsensical nursery rimes.How about the education in the film Sugar Cane Alley?
34 The Caribbean Texts – and their Themes Sugar Cane Alley –a boy’s experience of 1930’s labor exploitation; Western education vs. local cultures; cultural identitiesThe Wide Sargasso Sea –1830’s (abolishment of slavery) poor creole women (girls) vs. a black girl, TiaAbeng by Michelle Cliff – another creole girl whose great grandfather, Judge Savage, burned his hundred slaves on the eve of their emancipation. * Claire and ZoeOlive Senior's "Bright Thursdays" –a creole girl’s experience and fear of white culture and open spaceAnnie John –a black girl’s growth to reject of her mother/culture."Children of the Sea" –refugees from Haiti; two voices
35 Thematic Continuation in our course AreaCultures, race & gender(neo-)olonizationdiasporaIndianSubcon-tinentReligions gender (purdah, sati, marriage), caste system, partition children and (lack of) education; sisters, War--UK. Departure--Hollywood--South Africa, the Caribbean, and to USWest & SouthAfrica1) War and children2) Apartheid, politics & power land and body, religion, gender, language, children and education1) Congo in Liberia2) Boer war Afrikaaner vs. Bantu (Writing vs. silence)Exile & ReturnThe Carib-beanDiaspora + refugee; Creolization language, race & gender children & education; sisters, mother-daughterSlavery & Contract laborers; US.“Back” to Africa or UK
36 The Caribbean area and the Caribbean diaspora CanadaThe U.S.“Children of the Sea”; FugeesAnnie JohnM. Cliff, B. MarleyWide Sargasso SeaSugar Cane AlleyDerek WalcottEnglandFrance India
37 ReferencesThe Evolution of Afro-Caribbean Music <http://www.cariwave.com/Evolution_Afro_Caribbean_Music.htm>Caribbean Poetry: Barbados <http://www.courses.vcu.edu/ENG-snh/Caribbean/Barbados/index.html >