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Slavery and Creolization, Education vs. Indigenous Cultures

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1 Slavery and Creolization, Education vs. Indigenous Cultures
The Caribbean Area: Slavery and Creolization, Education vs. Indigenous Cultures

2 What are the themes we have covered so far?
South Asia Racial Composition in India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka Religion: Indian gods: Krishna & Ganesh; Religion in Iran Gender and Bride-Bride game West & South Africa In Nigeria (Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba); Liberia (Bassa vs. Congo) Folk belief (Sangoma, dibia man, mask) Love of eating sweets, bullying at school  Education Common Themes – Children’s Experience of Civil Wars (displacement – child soldier) Racial, Class, Language and Cultural Differences City (Mumbai, Rio, Jos, Nsukka, Johannesburg) vs. Country

3 Caribbean Disapora Cultures
What color is Friday’s skin? (Friday from Robinson Crusoe)  Not yellow, because the aborigines were mostly eliminated there. The few Caribs left were mixed with the black slaves, who get associated with Cannibalism Can Friday speak? Does Caliban only know how to curse? (The Tempest: Prospero, Miranda and Caliban) (The Middle Passage) Slavery  Colonial Education Creolization (in people and language) Caribbean Disapora Cultures Image source

4 Recent News in the Caribbean Area
Haiti: Earthquake 2010, 1, 12 Rachel Wheeler– a 12-year-old that raised 250,000 US dollars to build 27 homes in Haiti (source) famous for its legends of pirates (source 《金銀島》Treasure Island; Pirates of the Caribbean ) drug dealing Tourism, cruising in the area

5 Outline The Caribbean Area: Creolization: Definitions
Definitions & History of colonization The Texts We Read Creolization: Definitions English language & of people Race Relations  Conflicts and Displacement; Caribbean Poetry and Music at a Glance: Caribbean poetry; Derek Walcott & dub poetry Popular culture: Different ways; Calypso, (Raggae & Rap) Our Course: Thematic Continuity, Geographic Expansion

6 Definition (1): the Caribbean –3 groups
1. the Bahamas to the North East of Cuba  the Greater Antilles the Lesser Antilles

7 Brazil 背風群島 向風群島

8 Definition (2): the Caribbean
Don’t forget the triangular trade!!! “discovered” by Columbus in late 15th c., Spanish colonization, followed by the British, French and Dutch. names: West Indies (Anglophone) –a misnomer (also East Indians); the Antilles (Francophone) the Caribbean as a term encompassing both Composed of immigrants only: diaspora (離散族群) the aboriginal communities [Amerindians-- Arawaks, Caribs, etc.] exterminated; Immigrants from Africa, Asia and Europe. Columbus & Arawak--

9 Image of the Caribbean Jan van de Straet’s engraving “America”--the new world as a woman

10 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area
Columbus’s “discovery” of the West Indies 16th-18th centuries --Colonial period:  also a period of wars among colonial nations and pirates, and conflicts between the white masters, black slaves and mulatto. The Middle Passage: Rebellion (1) –the Maroons* e.g. Abeng – (from a West Africa); used primarily as a signaling device; served as a vital means of communication when the Maroons were at war with the British (e.g.) e.g. in Sugar Cane Alley During the 18th century, the powerful Maroons, escaped ex-slaves who settled in the mountains of Jamaica, carved out a significant area of influence.

11 Ways of rebellion (2): petit marronage (小走私) in francophone islands
pretend sickness, steal, or even poison their masters. with music, dance, religion (voodon), or simply their different ways of living; examples: the school children’s tales of zombies; the songs the laborers sing—at the field, after Madouze dies-- in Sugar Cane Alley; open rebellion

12 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area
Britain and USA abolished slave trade; complete abolition of slavery in British colonies 1845 East Indian indentured laborers in Trinidad; Chinese indenture in French colonies (e.g. Wide Sargasso Sea)

13 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area
  seen as Slums of the Empire. Negritude (Aimé Césaire); Back to Africa movement (started in the 19th century; supported later by MARCUS GARVEY)  Rastafari movement Madouze’s account in SGA riots & strikes in and afterwards

14 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area
Since the 50’s Colonization in reverse: West Indian migration to England  restrictions imposed  to Canada, etc. Independence movements: The Federation of the West Indies independence  Jamaica, Trinidad and Tobago;1966  Barbados and Guyana;

15 American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf
American Imperialism in the Caribbean Area (Cf. Bob Marley site Economic the area becomes the tourists’ heaven and a cheap labor factory (capital, technology and management shipped to the area to use the labor power without leaving the profits there.) Cultural domination – music styles – the emergence of reggae (e.g. from rhythm & blue to Ska to reggae )

16 History of Colonization in the Caribbean Area
Neo-Colonialism of the U.S.A. military intervention (e.g. "Caribbean Basin Initative"– bribing Jamaica and the rest of the Caribbean to support the armed confrontation in Grenada and the war in El Salvador. 

17 The Caribbean Texts and Their Locations
The Wide Sargasso Sea (1966) –1840’s (Martinique), (Grandbois) Dominica, Jamaica (near Spanish town) Abeng (1984) by Michelle Cliff -- Jamaica 1950’s Sugar Cane Alley (1983) –Martinique 1930’s Olive Senior "Bright Thursdays" -- Jamaica Annie John (1985) –Antigua 1950’s "Children of the Sea" (from Krik, Krak! 1955) -- Port-au-Prince Haiti 1960’s – 90’s

18 Creolization (1): Dictionary Definition
A. language: mixture of languages, esp. in Southern US and the Caribbean area. B. People 1). Orignal meaning: Native, local,”pure”; 2). Native-born whites; (e.g. Antoinette in WSS) 3). Hybrid (mixed-blood)

19 Definition (2): Creolization in the Caribbean
Language – the mixture of English and African tribal languages into some special kinds of native languages (Patois, such as French Patois, Jamaican Patois).   E e.g. Beijan: The English used in Barbados-- closest to standard English (e.g. 1); Jamaican creole, "postcreole continuum“*(後新生語連續體)-- parallels the social hierarchy to some degrees (--those speaking in creole are looked down upon).  Postcolonial usage of creole  dub poetry— the empire strikes back postcreole continuum: (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Post-creole_continuum) between acrolect and basilect . e.g. It has been suggested (Rickford 1977; Dillard 1972) that African American Vernacular English is a decreolized form of a slave creole. Once blacks acquired recognition of equality under the law, opportunities for interaction created a strong influence of standard (American) English onto the speech of blacks so that a continuum exists today with Standard English as the acrolect and varieties closest to the original creole as the basilect. In Jamaica, a continuum exists between Jamaican English and Jamaican Patois.[4]

20 Color System in the Caribbean Society
People -- Europeans born in the Caribbean, mulatto “Dying to raise their color all of them” (199) (e.g. “Bright Thursday”) The color triangle: white brown dark

21 Race Relations: multiple division
Post-emancipation period – conflicts between different races (e.g. the English vs. the French), between plantation owners and small farmers, ex-slaved and contract laborers between the newly rich and the declining aristocrats. Discriminated: mulatto and creole. In the contemporary Caribbean area and diaspora: the Bajan vs. the Jamaican, all against Haitian, etc. WSS

22 Consequences of creolization
racial conflicts; split sense of identity – in between Europe and Africa (e.g. Black Skin, White Mask –Frantz Fanon from Martinique) diverse and dynamic culture (Walcott on its music, painting and language)

23 Caribbean poetry (introd.)
The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry – Ref. As I worked, watching the rotting waves come past the bow that scissor the sea like milk, I swear to you all, by my mother's milk, by the stars that shall fly from tonight's furnace, that I loved them, my children, my wife, my home; I loved them as poets love the poetry that kills them, as drowned sailors the sea. You ever look up from some lonely beach and see a far schooner? Well, when I write this poem, each phrase go be soaked in salt; I go draw and knot every line as tight as ropes in this rigging; in simple speech my common language go be the wind, my pages the sails of the schooner Flight. But let me tell you how this business begin. (from “The Schooner Flight” Caribbean poetry (introd.) Derek Walcott (e.g.) –combination of Western culture and creolized culture and island landscape “I happen to have been born in an English and a Creole place, and love both languages. …” “ I who am poisoned with the blood of both, Where shall I turn, divided to the vein?” "A Far Cry From Africa“ Derek Walcott, 1957

24 Dub poetry: forerunner of hip-hop
The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Caribbean Poetry Dub poetry: forerunner of hip-hop an extension of reggae culture (“new raggae”) a form of performance poetry having its roots in popular Jamaican culture, and more particularly in reggae and Rastafarianism.  The movement has served to bring poetry back to the people

25 Dub poetry openness to pop culture and esp. to music (reggae and calypso); appeal of public performance; acceptance of social responsibility poetry has a “function” (poetry vs fiction as a middle-class genre) amateur poetic practice in the WI (e.g. Jamaican creole ) e.g. Edward Braithwaite,

26 Kamau Brathwaite “Wings of a Dove”
About a Rasta Man “Brother Man the Rasta man, beard full of lichens地衣 brain full of lice watched the mice ” After smoking his pipe of his gangja, he speaks of his people in ‘Bablylon town’ “So beat dem drums dem, spread dem wings dem, watch dem fly dem, soar dem high dem, clear in the glory of the Lord. Watch dem ship dem come to town dem full o' silk dem full o' food dem an' dem 'plane dem come to groun' dem full o' flash dem full o' cash dem silk dem food dem shoe dem wine dem that dem drink dem an' consume dem praisin' the glory of the Lord.

27 Kamau Brathwaite “Wings of a Dove”
So beat dem burn dem, learn dem that dem got dem nothin' but dem bright bright baubles that will burst dem when the flame dem from on high dem raze an' roar dem an' de poor dem rise an' rage dem in de glory of the Lord.  Bob Marley, a Rasta

28 Mikey Smith “Black and White” Different implications of “black”
Michael Smith; Image source

29 “Colonization in Reverse” (1) Louise Bennett
What a joyful news, Miss Mattie; Ah feel like me heart gwine burs-- Jamaica people colonizin Englan in reverse By de hundred, by de tousan From country an from town, By de ship-load, by the plane-load, Jamaica is Englan boun. (source)

30 “Colonization in Reverse” (2)
Dem a pout out a Jamaica; Everybody future plan Is fi get a big-time job An settle in de motherlan What a islan! What a people! Man an woman, ole and young Jussa pack dem bag an baggage An tun history upside dung! --Louis Bennett (e.g.) (source)

31 Mutabaruka “dis poem” starts with middle passage, but extends to all kinds of racism all over the world. Note: nyahbingi drumming Music video of the 2006 song Della and Mutabaruka

32 The people’s resistance to colonialism: some examples of Popular Culture
Calypso: originated in the songs of African slaves who worked in the plantation fields of Trinidad. Forbidden to talk to each other, they used calypso to communicate feelings and information. e.g. Work songs in Sugar Cane Alley. e.g. "Dan is the Man".

33 "Dan is the Man" In education, he is
taught to be “a block-headed mule” with his world filled with nonsensical nursery rimes. How about the education in the film Sugar Cane Alley?

34 The Caribbean Texts – and their Themes
Sugar Cane Alley –a boy’s experience of 1930’s labor exploitation; Western education vs. local cultures; cultural identities The Wide Sargasso Sea –1830’s (abolishment of slavery)  poor creole women (girls) vs. a black girl, Tia Abeng by Michelle Cliff – another creole girl whose great grandfather, Judge Savage, burned his hundred slaves on the eve of their emancipation. * Claire and Zoe Olive Senior's "Bright Thursdays" –a creole girl’s experience and fear of white culture and open space Annie John –a black girl’s growth to reject of her mother/culture. "Children of the Sea" –refugees from Haiti; two voices

35 Thematic Continuation in our course
Area Cultures, race & gender (neo-)olonization diaspora Indian Subcon-tinent Religions gender (purdah, sati, marriage), caste system, partition  children and (lack of) education; sisters,  War --UK. Departure --Hollywood --South Africa, the Caribbean, and to US West & SouthAfrica 1) War and children 2) Apartheid, politics & power land and body, religion, gender, language,  children and education 1) Congo in Liberia 2) Boer war Afrikaaner vs. Bantu  (Writing vs. silence) Exile & Return The Carib-bean Diaspora + refugee; Creolization  language, race & gender  children & education; sisters, mother-daughter Slavery & Contract laborers; US. “Back” to Africa or UK

36 The Caribbean area and the Caribbean diaspora
Canada The U.S. “Children of the Sea”; Fugees Annie John M. Cliff, B. Marley Wide Sargasso Sea Sugar Cane Alley Derek Walcott England France India

37 References The Evolution of Afro-Caribbean Music <http://www.cariwave.com/Evolution_Afro_Caribbean_Music.htm> Caribbean Poetry: Barbados <http://www.courses.vcu.edu/ENG-snh/Caribbean/Barbados/index.html >


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