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Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Preventing School Violence in Turkey: Good Practices and Innovative Policies Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D.

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Presentation on theme: "Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Preventing School Violence in Turkey: Good Practices and Innovative Policies Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Preventing School Violence in Turkey: Good Practices and Innovative Policies Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University Faculty of Education Ankara, Turkey

2 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Number of Schools, Students and Teachers Type of SchoolNumber of Schools Number of StudentsNumber of Teachers Pre-School13,692358,49919,122 Primary School36,11710,479,538384,029 High School2,8311,983,99886,051 Vocational School 3,6811,050,39473,998 Higher Education 721,841,54678,804 Total56,3931,5713,975642,004

3 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Schools in Turkey

4 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey What is violence? Diffrent deffinitions exists, Violence in educational environments is a deliberate physical, psychological or social attack or intervention towards students or teachers and result in physical or psychological pain in individuals.

5 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey What is violence? the intentional use of physical force or power, threatened or actual, against onself, another person, or against a group or community, that either results in or has a high likelihood of resulting in injury, death, psychological harm, maldevelopment or deprivation (WHO)

6 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey SCHOOL VIOLENCE IN TURKEY INCIDENCETOTAL% Pyhsical Abuse 81432,9 Alcohol and Drug Abuse 843,4 Bullying 49119,8 Gender Violence 652,6 Vandalism 2349,5 Stealing 1847,4 Use of Weapons and rifles 1967,9 Forming Gangs and Gang Membership 271,1 Using knifes 471,9 Gossiping and Name Calling 32313,1 Killing at Schools 90,4 TOTAL 2474%100 TOTAL NUMBER of Students who involve these incedence = 6224 * the data collected after

7 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Problem Areas in Relation with School Violence in Educational System Low school attendence Low rates of primary school completion High drop-out rates especially for girls Early marriage for girls Teen-age pregnancy Traditional and religious beliefs Gender stereotypes

8 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs Educational Student Support Services School – Home – Community Linkages Environmental / Technological School Policies and Procedures The Others

9 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: Educational Pece education Cooperative learning Conflict resolution Peer mediation Gang prevention / reduction Crime prevention and law- related education Handgun violence prevention education Life skills training / social competence Relationship / family violence prevention Prejudice reduction / cultural awareness Stress management Positive anger release Street-smart kids Personal power Self-esteem Dealing with death Bullying prevention Aggression reducation

10 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: Student Support Services Mentors and role models Career exploration Work experience placement School-based health clinics Peer-counseling Student support groups Individual counseling Group counseling Student leadership Drop-out prevention Extracurricular activities

11 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: School-Home-Community Linkages Family support programs Parent-skills training Volunteer-parent patrols School-business partnership Interagency collaborations School-community task forces School advisory committees

12 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: Environmental / Technological Metal dedectors Gun-free school zones Locker search Bookbag bans Classroom phones Safe coridor/safe haven policies Closed-circuit TV Dress codes X-ray machines Gun and drug sniffing dogs Locker removal Closed campuses Magnetic door locks Student I.D. cards School security staff

13 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: School Policies and Procedures School safety plans Zero tolerance policies Suspension, expulsion and formal charges Staff development Multicultural awareness Sensitivity training Gang elimination procedures Student / staff conduct discipline codes Student arbitration boards

14 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Type of School Based Prevention Programs: The Others Alternative curriculums Alternative schools Improvements to school campuses Youth crime watch Crisis management teams Violence hotlines Student speak-outs

15 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey School violence prevention: What works? Perspective-taking Problem-solving Family behavior management Family problem-solving Decreasing gun access Decrasing media violence

16 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey School violence prevention: What doesnt works? Scare tactics Didactic programs Programs focusing only on self-esteem Segregating aggressive / antisocial students Programs focusing only on anger- management

17 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey School violence prevention: Whats promising / limited testing? Peer mediation Mentoring Social skills training Classroom-management techniques

18 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Current Efforts for Preventing Violence at Schools in Turkey REPUBLIC OF TURKEY MINISTRY OF NATIONAL EDUCATION PREVENTING AND REDUCING VIOLENCE IN EDUCATIONAL ENVIRONMENTS STRATEGY AND ACTION PLAN ( )

19 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Main Strategies in Strategy and Action Plan An information based management notion A multi-sectoral and multi-disciplinary approach Holistic approach Developmental approach Prevention, protection and intervention approach Capacity building Sustainability of services Monitoring and Evaluation

20 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Intervention Areas I. Management process II.Teachers and school administrators III. Students IV. Educational environment and its surroundings V.Familiy

21 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Social Strategy Violence Prevention Service Delivery Shared responsibility Increased role for professions Multi-disciplinary Multi-skilled, dedifferentiated work force Increased outreach from traditional specialty base Linkages with Employment Linkages with Health Linkages with Social Services Voluntary Organizations FOCUS

22 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Strategic Framework: School Violence Promotation Most policy initiatives are concerned predominantly on treatment and prevention of school violence interventions Need to focus on protective factors that have a mediating role on impact of stressful life events, e.g., response to trauma or loss Need a strategic framework for School Violence promotion to strike a balance between reducing risk factors and strengthening positive protective factors Strengthening resilience within the school

23 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Meeting the Needs: Vision Diverse Agenda: Promotion and public education Primary Prevention Social Supports Intersectoral linkages Community Services Specialist Services SCHOOL VIOLENCE PROMOTION PREVENTION INTER-SECTORAL AND COMMUNITY SERVICES CLINICAL SERVICES INDIVIDUAL WORK

24 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey School Violence Prevention Work Essentials ChangeConceptsResearch Outcomes Stakeholders DomainsProvisionResources Context

25 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey A Five-Year Perspective Time to overcome: Community scepticism Political concerns Bureaucratic concerns Professional resistance Scarce resources

26 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Social Strategy Educational Service Delivery Shared responsibility Increased role for Student Personnel Services (School counselors, school psychologists) Multi-disciplinary Multi-skilled, dedifferentiated work force Linkages with Employment Linkages with Health Linkages with Social Services Voluntary Organizations FOCUS

27 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Three Key Elements in School Violence Prevention Effords Knowledge base Social strategies Political will

28 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Key Element 1: School Violence Prevention Knowledge Base Evidence Based Research Causal and Risk Mechanisms Clinical Effectiveness of Interventions

29 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Evidence-based organizations Individuals who practice evidence-based decision making Individuals shape organizations Organizations facilitate the development of individuals

30 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Key Element 2 School Violence Prevention Social Strategies Central level Provincial level Community level Individual and Family level

31 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Key Element 3 School Violence Prevention Political Will Priorities Stewardship Justice Vision PoliticalWill

32 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Dimensions of Public Policy

33 Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey Preventing School Violence: Good Practices and Innovative Policies Tuncay Ergene, Ph.D. Assoc. Prof. Hacettepe University Faculty of Education Department of Educational Sciences Program of Counseling and Guidance 0653, Beytepe, Ankara, Turkey Phone: Fax:


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