Presentation on theme: "Turning Five Procedures: Focus on Child Development Presented by: Supervisors of School Psychologists 2008-2009."— Presentation transcript:
Turning Five Procedures: Focus on Child Development Presented by: Supervisors of School Psychologists 2008-2009
Turning 5 PD Goals IEP Team Clinicians will be able to: Understand Federal and NYS requirements of preschool outcome data Know the 5 Developmental Domains Understand Entry and Exit Assessment Know the 3 Outcome Areas Know how to apply outcome ratings in each area Know and apply the NYSED pre-K Learning Outcomes and PIs Know the major elements of the kindergarten curriculum Use and interpret an appropriate NYSED preferred assessment tool (e.g., DAYC, PES) Understand typical and atypical child development Explain the CPSE to CSE transition Discuss the ASD-Nest program
Why Do We Need Outcome Data? Pressure for Outcome Data at the Federal Level: GPRA (Government Performance and Results Act) IDEA (2004) goals and indicators established Indicators were established (and revised) for Part C and for 619 of IDEA
Linking Local Measures to OSEP Reporting Requirements 5-year-old level Group A reaches typical levels Group B makes some progress Group C made no progress 2-year-old level Entry Exit
Developmental Domains for Preschool Outcomes established in IDEA Physical Cognitive Language and Communication Social-Emotional Adaptive These domains inform us regarding the 3 outcome areas for indicator #7:
Indicator #7: 3 Preschool Outcomes Indicator #7 from the State Performance Plan-- Percent of preschool children with IEPs who demonstrate improved: Positive social-emotional skills (including social relationships); Acquisition and use of knowledge and skills (including early language/communication and early literacy); and Use of appropriate behaviors to meet their needs
Child Outcome Areas: The Details 1.Positive social-emotional skills (including social relationships): Relating with adults Relating with other children Following rules related to groups or interacting with others (if older than 18 months) 2.Acquisition and Use of Knowledge and Skills: Thinking, reasoning, remembering, and problem solving Understanding symbols Understanding the physical and social worlds 3.Use of Appropriate Behaviors to meet his/her needs: Taking care of basic needs (e.g., showing hunger, dressing, feeding, toileting, etc.) Contributing to own health and safety (e.g., follows rules, assists with hand washing, avoids inedible objects) (if older than 24 months) Getting from place to place (mobility) and using tools (e.g., forks, pencils, strings attached to objects)
EXIT ASSESSMENTS If a child is referred to the CSE, school district evaluation staff will provide the following exit assessment information to the CSE: complete tables and supporting evidence for questions 1a, 2a and 3a on the Child Outcomes Summary Form identifying: the source of information (name of assessment and edition), date the assessment was given, and a summary of relevant results in each of the three outcome areas.
EXIT ASSESSMENTS CSE must: indicate the date of the CPSE or CSE meeting, identify the persons attending the meeting and their role(s) and indicate the methods for collecting family information on the child’s functioning. review the information provided by the approved preschool evaluator or school district evaluation staff, the Child Outcomes Summary Form at entry and current assessment reports. determine the child’s continuing eligibility for preschool special education programs and/or services or his/her eligibility for special education as a school- aged student. determine in each of the three outcome areas identified in questions 1b, 2b and 3b whether the child has shown any new skill or behavior in the area and circle “yes” or “no”. If answering “yes”, then indicate what progress has been made. (*new data element) identify on a scale of 1-7 the child’s typical functioning (not his/her capacity to function under ideal circumstances) across typical settings in each of the three outcome areas identified in questions 1c, 2c, and 3c, that relate to the child’s behaviors and skills.
Definitions for Outcome Ratings (7) Completely means: Child shows behavior and skills are considered typical for his or her age (6) Between Completely and Somewhat (5) Somewhat means: Child shows behavior and skills expected for his or her age some of the time across situations (4) Between Somewhat and Emerging (3) Emerging means: Child shows emerging behaviors and skills expected of a child of his or her age in any situation (2) Between Emerging and Not yet (1) Not yet means: Child does not yet show behaviors and skills expected of a child his or her age in any situation.
1. POSITIVE SOCIAL-EMOTIONAL SKILLS (INCLUDING SOCIAL RELATIONSHIPS) demonstrate attachment with the significant caregivers in their lives; initiate and maintain social interactions; behave in a way that allows them to participate in a variety of settings and situations, for example, on a playground, at dinner, at the grocery store, in childcare, etc.; communicate wants and needs effectively; build and maintain relationships with children and adults; regulate their emotions; understand and follow rules; and solve social problems.
2. Acquisition and Use of Knowledge and Skills display an eagerness for learning; explore their environment; attend to people and objects; engage in daily learning opportunities; use knowledge and skills (e.g., vocabulary, complexity of language, problem-solving skills, general knowledge, etc.) in a variety of everyday routines and activities; acquire and use the precursor skills that will allow them to learn reading and mathematics in kindergarten; and show imagination and creativity in play.
3. Use of Appropriate Behaviors To Meet His/Her Needs meet their self-care needs (feeding, dressing, toileting, etc.); use objects (spoons, pencils, crayons, clay, scissors, other devices, etc.) as tools; move from place to place to participate in everyday activities and routines; seek help when necessary to move from place to place; seek help when necessary to assist with basic care or other needs; and follow rules related to health and safety.
Preferred Assessment Tools Used in New York State (NYSED, Feb. 2006) Battelle Developmental Inventory-2 nd ed. Bayley Scales of Infant Development-2 Brigance Inventory (Early Development) Carolina Curriculum for Preschoolers-2 nd ed. Developmental Assessment of Young Children (DAYC) Hawaii Early Learning Profile (2004) Preschool Evaluation Scale (PES) Vineland Social Emotional Early Childhood Scales (SEEC)
Learning Outcomes and Indicators NYSED Pre-K Learning Outcomes Personal Health and Safety Skills Social and Emotional Development Language Development and Communication Skills Cognitive Development/Intellectual Abilities Approaches to Learning Motor Development http://www.vesid.nysed.gov/specialed/publications /preschool/learnoutcomes.htm
Learning Outcomes and Indicators NYSED Pre-K Performance Indicators: ELA Reading Writing Listening Speaking Math Problem solving Strand Reasoning and Proof Strand Communications Strand Connections Strand
Physical and Motor Development
During the 2 nd year, typically developing children: Walk well (do not need hand held, do not lose balance easily) Run (but running may be clumsy) Climbs up and down stairs independently, with a step-to gait, using hands on wall or railing to assist Jump off a bottom step with two feet Can push a push toy Can kick a ball (but may not be accurate)
The 2 nd Year (continued) By approximately 2.5 years of age, typically developing children can walk on tiptoes jump up with both feet stand on one foot for 1 or 2 seconds throw a ball overhand for a distance of 2 or 3 feet catch a ball between the arms and body
Third Year of Life Ascends stairs while alternating feet, but may still need to use a handrail Continues to descend stairs with a handrail and step-to gait Rides a tricycle May be able to complete a single hop on the preferred foot
By the end of the Fourth Year, a typically developing child: Descends stairs with reciprocal gait Catches a ball with hands only Can learn to ride a small bicycle or use roller skates
During the Fifth Year, children learn to: Skip (but boys may refuse to do so) Broad jump approximately 2 feet Jump rope Perform “acrobatic tricks” (cartwheels, somersaults, etc) It is important to note that many of these higher level gross motor skills DO NOT develop without an opportunity to practice. For instance, a typically developing child may not know how to perform a cartwheel if never permitted to attempt it.
Atypical Gross Motor Development Often a result of disturbances in the neuromuscular or musculoskeletal system Parent may report delayed achievement of milestones, particularly crawling, standing, and walking
Warning Signs W-sitting (sitting on floor with hips and knees turned inward so feet outside hips) Using one or both hands on handrail to help pull self up stairs Leaning whole body on handrail or using two hands on handrail to go down stairs Inability to get up from floor without pulling on furniture or nearby adult Dragging feet when running or walking Frequent falls
Fine Motor and Visual Motor Development in the Second Year 18-24 months Inserts shapes into shape sorter independently Stacks 4-6 blocks Turns individual pages with a book with a thick cover and thick pages Imitates vertical strokes while scribbling
Fine Motor and Visual Motor Development for 2 year olds 24-36 months Begins using one hand to stabilize an object and the other to manipulate Removes lid with a screw-on top Strings beads Folds paper Imitates horizontal lines and circles Snips paper with scissors Puts on shoes, socks, shorts Removes socks, shorts Can feed self with spoon
Fine Motor and Visual Motor Development for 3 year olds 36-48 months Development of tripod grasp (holding a marker with the pads of thumb and index finger, marker resting on the side of middle finger with remaining fingers tucked into the palm) Transitions from full arm movements while scribbling to movement initiated from the forearm and wrist Buttons and unbuttons large buttons Imitates a cross (intersecting vertical and horizontal lines) Cuts a line across paper within ½ inch accuracy Traces a line (vertical or horizontal) within ½ inch accuracy Feeds self with little to no spilling, drinks from cup held in one hand
Fine Motor and Visual Motor Development for 4 year olds 48-60 months Consistently uses tripod grasp, using forearm and wrist movements to draw Performs serial opposition (touches each finger individually to thumb within 8 seconds) Imitates square Cuts circles and squares within ¼ inch accuracy Imitates complicated block designs Folds paper with edges parallel and within 1/8 inch of each other Begins coloring within the lines Can dress and undress completely Holds fork in fingers, can spoon soup without spilling
Fine Motor and Visual Motor Development for 5 year olds 60-72 months Mature use of scissors (smoothly coordinating both hands together) Cuts out small circles, squares and triangles Strings small beads, reproducing color and shape sequence Copies from models of letters and numbers in correct sequence Imitates diagonal lines Uses mature dynamic tripod grasp (with movement initiated through the fingers) Uses knife for spreading, and beginning to cut
Warning Signs Lack of consistent dominant hand use Lack of ability to stabilize objects with one hand while manipulating with the other Holding writing implements with a fisted grasp or with all five fingers on the tool Movement of full arm when drawing instead of isolating movement to wrist and hand
Warning Signs (continued) Performing fine motor tasks (writing, cutting, manipulating small objects) with thumb facing floor and palm facing away from the body Inability to use scissors* Inability to copy vertical, horizontal or circular lines, square or cross* * Note that scissor or copying skills may not be present if child has not had previous experiences with these skills
Educational model vs. Clinical model ED Focus: Therapy addresses access to special education & school environment ED Focus: Works toward independence and participation ED Focus: Intervention for usually chronic problems that interfere with the educational process
Occupational Therapy OT must be required if it is to assist the student to benefit from special education. This implies: The student has a disability The OT service is educationally relevant and clear in purpose The OT service is necessary in order for the student to access the general education curriculum
Occupational Therapy In all, students can benefit from some services that are not educationally necessary, but may be desired by parents and non- educational service providers. If OT does not meet educational relevance, this may mean the service is not the responsibility of the public school system.
Cognitive and Academic Development
Skill Domains in Mathematics Numbers can be used to tell us how many, describe order, and measure Numbers & Operations Geometry can be used to understand and to represent the objects directions, locations in our world and relationships between them Geometry Comparing and measuring can be used to specify “how much” of an attribute (e.g. length) objects possess. Measurement Data analysis can be used to classify, represent, and use information to ask and answer questions. Data Analysis Patterns can be used to recognize relationships and can be extended to make generalizations. Algebra 41
Jean Piaget: Cognitive Development
Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Sensorimotor Stage Substage AgeBehavior Reflexes 0-1 mo.Sucking, rooting to nipple Circular Reactions I 1-4 mo.Suck bottle/pacifier Circular Reactions II 4-8 mo.Push & watch objects fall Secondary Schemes 8-12 mo. More deliberate actions Circular Reaction III 12-18 mo. Curiosity, experiments Mental Combinations 18-24 mo. Symbols, gestures
Cognitive Development: Piaget’s Preoperational Stage Qualities of Preoperational Thought (2-7 yrs.): Centration Irreversibility Egocentrism Animism Symbolic thought Empathy Theory of mind
Egocentrism: Piaget’s three- mountain task. A preoperational child is unable to describe the “mountains” from the doll’s point of view- an indication of egocentrism, according to Piaget.
Theory of Mind Hypothesis developed by Uta Frith, Simon Barron Cohen and colleagues (1985) Refers to the notion that persons with ASDs do not understand that others have their own plans, thoughts and points of view People with ASDs have difficulty comprehending when others don’t know something. People with ASDs appear to be self centered, eccentric, or uncaring
Theory of Mind: False Beliefs
Warning Signs of Cognitive Delay 13-18 months Does not point to or show others things that interest him / her Does not respond to name Doesn't imitate actions or attempt to imitate speech or songs
Early Warning Signs: Cognitive 19-24 months Does not recognize pictures of familiar objects or persons by pointing or verbally labeling Does not interact with others during play (for example, showing, giving, looking up for a reaction)
Early Warning Signs: Cognitive 25-36 months Does not listen to stories with pictures Does not name pictures Does not follow simple directives Does not answer questions about recent experiences Does not follow two- or three-part directives
Speech and Language issues
Print Knowledge They demonstrate knowledge of the units of print (letters, words) and ability to translate print to sound and sound to print (letter-to-sound) and understanding of book and print concepts. Phonological Awareness They demonstrate sensitivity to, manipulation of, and use of sounds in words. 53 Oral Language They acquire vocabulary that informs them about the world; they use language to construct relationships and categories, to figure things out, and to solve problems. They also use language to express ideas and participate in social contexts. Three Key Domains Research Says Predict Reading Success
Language Development Receptive Language- the ability to derive meaning from incoming auditory or visual messages. Understanding a message from another person Expressive Language- the combination of linguistic symbols to form meaningful messages that is conveyed to another person using speech, signing, or writing
Language Disorders and/or Delays A language disorder can involve both receptive and expressive language. It is generally classified according to the four major components of the linguistic system: 1. Semantics- meaning of words, phrases and sentences. Impairments can take the form of reduced vocabulary, word retrieval deficits, poor word association skills, and difficulty with figurative language forms. 2. Morphology- the structure of words and the construction of individual word forms from the basic elements of of meaning. Deficits are manifested as difficulties with plurals, past tense, auxiliary verbs, possessives, etc
Delays: Four Major Components of the Linguistic System 3. Syntax-rules governing the order and combination of words to construct well-formed sentences. Deficits are characterized by problems with simple and complex sentence types such as negatives, interrogatives, passives, and relative clauses. 4. Pragmatics-rules governing the use of language in a social context. Impairments can include a reduced repertoire of communicative intentions, turn-taking difficulties in conversation, inability to repair messages that are not understood by the listener, and difficulty with narrative discourse (storytelling).
Language Development: Preschoolers 24-36 months (2-3 years)- Phrases of 2-3 words turn into 4-5 word sentences. Child will ask questions “why”, “what”, and “where”. Will mispronounce many sounds at this age. 36-48 months (3-4 years)- Uses increasingly complex sentences. Can recount stories and events that happen from the recent past. Can be the year for the occurrence of nonfluency or dysfluency. 48-60 months (4-5 years)- Vocabulary exceeds well over 2000 words. Tells long stories and talks about their feelings. Sentences are grammatically correct 90% of the time. Is generally easy to understand by others, however child may still make a few errors in speech sounds.
Language Development: Kindergarten 60-72 months (5-6 years)- By age six, the child is able to understand from 13,000-over 20,000 words. The average length of the child’s expressive language is 6.6 words. At this stage the child makes leaps from the spoken, signed, or cued word to the written, and then to reading words.
Warning Signs for Possible Speech and Language Delays/Disorders
Language Delays: Turning 5 4-5 years Doesn’t ask several questions a day Has difficulty formulating sentences, as shown by word omissions, confused word order, or deleted word-endings Can’t retell a simple story that links several thoughts together in an orderly sequence Can’t talk about the past and future Can’t follow instructions involving three or more steps
Language Delays: Kindergarten 5-6 years Can’t verbalize her/his name and basic information about where she/he lives Doesn’t attend to a task for more than a few minutes Becomes frustrated during shared reading time Struggles with pre-literacy skills like rhyming and sound recognition “Look Who’s Talking”: Laura Dyer, MCD, CCC-SLP, Meadowbrook Press
Unified Service Delivery System-Continuum of Services for Students with a Disability: Related Services Eligibility for Related Services Frequency and Duration Group/Individual Services and Group Size Continuation, Modification or Termination of Services Considerations for Type and Intensity of Services
Key Early Social Domains Understanding Emotions: Inferring basic emotions from expressions or situations and understanding the consequence of basic emotions. Behavioral & Emotion Regulation: Use of emotional gestures and verbalizations to express feelings in a social situation; inhibition of socially disapproved expressions of emotion (hitting, tantrums, biting) Initiating and Maintaining Positive Engagement with Peers: Ability to be effective in interactions with peers, the result of organized behaviors that meet short-term and long-term developmental needs (cooperating, listening, turn taking, seeking help)
Connect expectations to those that lay ahead… Social Skills Primary Grades Adjustment: Control of emotions, behavior Social Competence: Cooperative, pro- social, Makes friends, takes initiative Preschool Regulation of: Attention, emotions, behavior Cooperating with requests Sharing Turn Taking Link Preschool Skills to Kindergarten Skills 64
Early Warning Signs: Social-Emotional 25-36 months Does not engage in symbolic play (for example, using a banana for a phone, or a block for a car) Does not show objects to another person Does not give objects to another person Does not respond to or initiate joint attention Shows negativism, tantrums, anger, aggression Overactivity/hyperactivity Anxiety
Severe Social-Emotional Warning Signs Interest in nonfunctional elements of play materials/toys Sensory examination of self and others Stereotypic mannerisms, hand-flicking Self-injurious behavior Repetitive or stereotyped interests
Warning Signs: Maladaptive Behavior Hurtful to Self. Behavior that causes injury to a person's own body. Hurtful to Others. Problem behavior that causes physical pain to other people or to animals. Destructive to Property. Problem behaviors such as deliberately breaking, defacing, or destroying things. Disruptive Behavior. Problem behavior that interferes with the activities of others. Unusual or Repetitive Habits. Problem behavior that involves excessive repetition of unusual actions. Socially Offensive Behavior. Problem behavior that is offensive to other people. Withdrawal or Inattentive Behavior. Problem behavior that reflects the individual's difficulty in associating with other people or maintaining attention. Uncooperative Behavior. Problem behavior that reflects difficulty in following rules or working with other people.
Ingram-Troxell Preschool Observation Checklist for Autism Screening Tool 15 items General Scoring ½ or more checked, than high chance of autism 5 Key Items (1,2,3,7,10) Pointing to show interest or direct attention Uses another’s body to obtain a desired object or action Communication triad Fails to look-up or orient when name called in normal tone Does not exhibit functional or symbolic play
Ingram-Troxell Preschool Observation Checklist for Autism 1. Rarely uses pointing to show interest or direct attention but may point to request a desired object 2. Hand leads or uses another’s body to obtain a desired object or action 3. Does not pair gestures with eye gaze and verbalizations/vocalizations (communication triad) 4. Exhibits lack of meaningful functional communication 5. Does not understand words out of context 6. Does not direct attention of others to an object or event in their environment 7. Fails to look-up or orient when their name is called in a normal tone of voice 8. Is not attentive to or interested in activities or events in their environment 9. Exhibits minimal spontaneous engagement in reciprocal play activities 10. Does not exhibit functional or symbolic play 11. Displays restricted interest in specific toys or activities 12. Has difficulty adjusting to unexpected or unplanned changes in their environment 13. Has difficulty self-regulating or gaining control of their emotions or behaviors 14. Exhibits unusual or repetitive mannerisms involving hands/fingers 15. Exhibits the need for specific rituals or routines
Functional Behavior Observation Checklist for Autism- Playground Ingram & Troxell (Copyright 2005) Developed to provide a structured framework to observe children at play 10-items that are operationally defined 15 minute playground observation Scoring: 1= behavior is present and observed 0= behavior is absent or not observed
Ingram & Troxell Playground Observation Checklist (Copyright 2005) 1. Engages in social play with peers 2. Uses playground equipment functionally 3. Shows awareness and adherence to the rules of a game 4.Shows a response to winning or losing 5.Initiates a communication with other children 6. Does not exhibit social isolation from other children 7. Engages in reciprocal social conversation 8. Respects boundaries and personal space 9. Does not exhibit gross motor incoordination 10. Does not exhibit socially inappropriate behavior such as picking nose or skin, fondling genitals, or other behaviors that are considered socially inappropriate or offensive
Transition from Preschool to Kg. CPSE to CSE
Comparison of CSE vs. CPSE There is a continuum of service rationale from Early Intervention all the way through to public school age services EI→ medical model Preschool → school readiness with an emphasis on “extra push” of services to allow children to be ready for school School age → academic structured curriculum. “Services at CPSE are fundamentally different in nature and concept from CSE services” “CPSE services are designed to support children wherever they are- home, day- care, preschool…” “Emphasis at this age is the development of adaptive, social and communication skills. Pull out from the classroom or having a facilitator is an integral part of the educational program especially if the child isn’t attending school full-time” “Kindergarten is the entry into the educational arena where the emphasis is on academics. Special education service is based on LRE and the continuum of school based services.”
SEIT What is a SEIT?? SPECIAL EDUCATION ITINERANT TEACHER SEITs have to be special ed teachers, not ABA providers, speech therapists, undergraduate students working part-time… SEIT is a service that was devised to serve the preschool population and is based on preschool LRE principles. What is LRE for a preschooler?- Natural setting (home, day-care, pre-k…) SEITs is a less restrictive option compared to Integrated, special ed preschools. A SEIT goes to the home/ day care where there is no special ed teacher because you can’t expect the parent/ day care provider to focus on this aspect of the child’s development. There is simply no need for an itinerant teacher in a program that has a teacher in it already – this is the reason why is discontinued through the turning 5 process. Teacher within teacher programs simply do not exist here or any where else in the country We educate children in groups not one on one.
ASD-Nest Program If you think a child may be appropriate, speak to a contact at the preschool/ SEIT provider so that they can approach the parents… Gauge the parent’s interest after the preschool’s/ SEIT’s initial response and request permission from the parents to forward the child’s information to the Nilofer Naqvi, point person at CSE 9. The NEST program consideration occurs in parallel to the turning 5 process. Checklist items…. Consider with care…
Special Education Transportation Eligibility Medical and other forms