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Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012. PENGANTAR  Technology development is key to ensure environmental efficiency and legal compliance when applying.

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Presentation on theme: "Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012. PENGANTAR  Technology development is key to ensure environmental efficiency and legal compliance when applying."— Presentation transcript:

1 Diabstraksikan oleh: Smno.psl.ppsub.jun2012

2 PENGANTAR  Technology development is key to ensure environmental efficiency and legal compliance when applying EMAS:  Links between EMAS and environmental technologies can be summarized in the following aspects:  Environmental policy might include the will to use cleaner technologies or Best Available Technology’s  Skills and competences of the labour force have to be sufficiently updated and balanced with technology used.  Objectives and targets have to be designed taking into account environmental performance (planned and actual) and technology changes.  Operational control and non-compliance management require a periodic assessment and review of the technological means.  Auditing process and team shall correspond to the technology development of the organization. TEKNOLOGI PENGELOLAAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Environmental technology (abbreviated as envirotech) or green technology (abbreviated as greentech) or clean technology (abbreviated as cleantech) is the application of one or more of environmental science, green chemistry, environmental monitoring and electronic devices to monitor, model and conserve the natural environment and resources, and to curb the negative impacts of human involvement. The term is also used to describe sustainable energy generation technologies such as Photovoltaics, Wind Turbines, Bioreactors, etc. Sustainable development is the core of environmental technologies. The term environmental technologies is also used to describe a class of electronic devices that can promote sustainable management of resources.

3 PENDAHULUAN  Several environmental technologies are presented, covering the following issues: -LIMBAH -POLUSI UDARA -Air limbah -Tanah -KEBISINGAN -PEMANTAUAN Module covers environmental technologies suitable for small and medium enterprises, public agencies and environmental organizations, taking into account investment costs and know-how. Expensive or high-developed technologies might have not been presented in the module then. TEKNOLOGI LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH = Sewage treatment Sewage treatment is conceptually similar to water purification. Sewage treatments are very important as they purify water per levels of its pollution. The more polluted water is not used for anything, and the least polluted water is supplied to places where water is used affluently. It may lead to various other concepts of environmental protection, sustainability etc.

4 GREEN TECHNOLOGY Diunduh dari: The term "technology" refers to the application of knowledge for practical purposes. The field of "green technology" encompasses a continuously evolving group of methods and materials, from techniques for generating energy to non- toxic cleaning products. The present expectation is that this field will bring innovation and changes in daily life of similar magnitude to the "information technology" explosion over the last two decades. In these early stages, it is impossible to predict what "green technology" may eventually encompass. The goals that inform developments in this rapidly growing field include: 1.Sustainability - meeting the needs of society in ways that can continue indefinitely into the future without damaging or depleting natural resources. In short, meeting present needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. 2."Cradle to cradle" design - ending the "cradle to grave" cycle of manufactured products, by creating products that can be fully reclaimed or re-used. 3.Source reduction - reducing waste and pollution by changing patterns of production and consumption. 4.Innovation - developing alternatives to technologies - whether fossil fuel or chemical intensive agriculture - that have been demonstrated to damage health and the environment. 5.Viability - creating a center of economic activity around technologies and products that benefit the environment, speeding their implementation and creating new careers that truly protect the planet.

5 Environmental technologies - EU definition Diunduh dari: Environmental technologies – […] include all technologies whose use is less environmentally harmful than relevant alternatives […]. They encompass technologies and processes to manage pollution (e.g. air pollution control, waste management), less polluting and less resource-intensive products and services and ways to manage resources more efficiently (e.g. water supply, energy-saving technologies). Thus defined, they pervade all economic activities and sectors, where they often cut costs and improve competitiveness by reducing energy and resource consumption, and so creating fewer emissions and less waste (ETAP, 2004). Environmental technologies : are any technology, that either directly or indirectly improves the environment. It includes technologies for limiting pollution with the held of cleaning, more environmentally friendly products and production processes, more efficient energy and ressource management as well as technological systems that reduce the environmental impact. Examples include e.g. technology flue gas cleaning, wind turbines, water treatment, enzymes for animal feed and washing powder, biofuel production, energy-efficient pumps and substitution of chemicals with more environmentally friendly solutions.

6 PERMASALAHAN Waste management is one of the most important environmental problem of the world. Exist different technologies to apply to manage the waste that human activities generate. Best option to combat the wastes accumulation problems, is always the reduce of generation wastes, then the reuse of wastes, and finally the recycling of wastes. Sometimes is necessary the treatment and disposal of wastes. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: The Waste Management Continuum has two axes. One is the horizontal stakeholder scale, ranging from municipalities and local governments to the community. The other is the vertical technology scale ranging from high tech/high energy disposal systems to low tech low energy systems.

7 IDENTIFIKASI DAN KLASIFIKASI Waste is identified and classified according Directive 2000/532/CE, related with the source of waste. Organization of the waste list is set by codes, giving a two-digit code to type of industry or industrial processes that generate waste. A four-digit code is associated to subindustrial sectors or subprocesses from waste is generated. Finally, each type of waste has a six-digit code. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: hierarchy. WASTE MANAGEMENT HIERARCHY The waste management hierarchy is a nationally and internationally accepted guide for prioritising waste management practices with the objective of achieving optimal environmental outcomes. It sets out the preferred order of waste management practices, from most to least preferred. The waste management hierarchy is one of the guiding principles of the Zero Waste SA Act 2004, and is regarded in South Australia’s Waste Strategy 2011 – 2015 as a key element for guiding waste management practices in South Australia, while still recognising the need for flexibility based on local and regional economic, social and environmental conditions.South Australia’s Waste Strategy 2011 – 2015

8 TEKNIK-TEKNIK The techniques used to manage wastes are of three types: Volume Reduction technologies (mechanical, physical and chemical) Treatment and disposal of wastes technologies (biodegradation, solidification, stabilization,..) Ultimate disposal of wastes PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Clean Technologies Trends in Waste Management Because Waste Treatment and Disposal are No Longer Enough

9 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Volume reduction technologies Concentrating methods as vacuum filtration, rotatory drum pre coat-filter, pressure filtration, centrifuge dewatering thickeners. Size reduction methods, as hammer mills, shredding machines, crushers, pulverisers and hoggers. Treatment and disposal wastes technologies Recycling wastes is the most effective technology to prevent the environmental problems. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

10 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Physical methods of waste treatment as primary treatment, polishing, secondary treatment, disposal resource recovery and discharge recycle. Chemical treatment as: acid / base neutralization,chemical precipitation, electrolysis, hydrolysis, chemical extraction and leaching, ion exchange Photolytic reactions as a technique to transform hazardous wastes in arid wastes with free photons of ultraviolet radiation. Thermal treatment methods of incineration systems like rotary-klin incineration, liquid injection, fixed-hearth incinerators and fluidized bed incinerators. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies

11 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Biodegradation wastes as the process to convert a by biological processes an organic wastes in a inorganic wastes. Processes as biodegradability, aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment. Land treatment and composting. Land treatment is the technique to modify the characteristics of soil to treat the wastes inside this. And composting is the technique to biodegrade the wastes introducing the wastes inside the soil, keeping act the natural reactions of the same soil. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:http://www.ied.edu.hk/biotech/eng/classrm/class_env2.html. Biodegradation A biodegradable substance is one that can be reduced to carbon dioxide and water by microbes.

12 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Pembuangan akhir limbah (sampah) Landfilling as the technique that dispose the wastes in the land,other techniques are: disposal aboveground, surface impoundment of liquids and deep-well disposal of liquids Incineration as a ultimate disposal of wastes when the ash of this incineration result arid wastes. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: garbage/.

13 Tipe-tipe Limbah The types of wastes are divided in: Limbah domestik Limbah Medis Limbah Berbahaya Limbah Industri PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Municipal Waste Combustion in Texas Space for landfills has been plentiful in the past, but is becoming harder to find in large urban areas. Recycling programs have reduced the amount of matter going into landfills, but combustion may become more viable in some urban areas if landfill sites become scarce or if energy prices make combustion more economically viable.

14 TIPE-TIPE LIMBAH Limbah Domestik Determining waste generation. The most commonly used method is the estimating the waste quantity is to weight the waste requiring disposal. The second,method is to determine the volume of waste which is being generated and use known density factors to convert this into the associated weight. And the third method is to determine the population of the area and then multiply this by typical waste generation factors. Reuse reduce and recycling these three methods are the most important methods in strategic plans of waste management for municipalities. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Reduce Reuse Recycle Reduce, Reuse and Recycle is one clever way to lessen the amount of waste produced even at home. It is basically a process of waste management. REDUCE Shop less, use less, reduce waste. Basically, that’s the main idea on this. People just need to buy less and use less to reduce the waste products. REUSE There are a lot of things at home that is when used at the first time are still reusable for how many more times. RECYCLE Aside from reusable stuff at home, the most common things we can see and check at home are the recyclable stuff. Instead of immediately throwing the used materials at home, it would be better to make use of them in other ways.

15 TIPE-TIPE LIMBAH Combustion is one of the most used technology to eliminate waste. Can comprise at same time, different types of incineration systems. And finally landfilling is the historical method to treat the wastes, but many countries have not sufficient land to keep on involving. Limbah Medis Packaging and storage, is an important factor of this kind of waste, for the condition of infectious waste. Treatment and disposal of infectious waste with processes as thermal, melting, shredding, grinding, tearing or breaking. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

16 TIPE-TIPE LIMBAH Incineration, hospital waste incineration involves the application of combustion processes under controlled conditions to convert wastes infectious and pathological material to inert mineral residues and gases. The incineration systems are the same than other type of wastes. Microwaving, chemical disinfections processes, irradiation processes and plasma systems are other kind of techniques to treat the medical wastes. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies

17 Pengolahan Limbah Berbahaya Physical methods as: separation, filtration, transition, distillation, evaporation, precipitation, transfer, extraction, sorption, membrane separations, reverse osmosis, hyper-and ultra filtration. Chemical treatments as chemical precipitation, oxidation / reduction Ion exchange, acid / base neutralization and chemical extraction and leaching reduction. Thermal methods as incineration, the same systems than before. And biodegradability as a technique to convert the hazardous wastes into a nonhazardous wastes. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Biodegradation A biodegradable substance is one that can be reduced to carbon dioxide and water by microbes.

18 LIMBAH INDUSTRI The methods and techniques to manage the industrial wastes are the same methods and techniques to manage wastes: Reduce, Reuse dan Recycling Medote Reduksi Limbah Metode Pengolahan Limbah Sistem Insenerasi Penimbunan di Lahan = Landfilling PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Landfill Design

19 SELECTING TECHNOLOGY Options for treatment techniques for the various types of waste, types treatment equipment, treatment sites and various waste handling practices all need to be carefully evaluated. The selection of available options at a facility depends upon a number of factors such as the nature of the waste, the quantity of waste generated, the availability of equipment for treatment on site and of site, regulation constraints, and cost considerations. We recommend the opinion of environment engineers experts to decide which technique apply in any case. PENGELOLAAN LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Improving the Waste Management Hierarchy “The Sustainability Hierarchy” Mr. Cary Perket President The Envirobiz Group An evolution in waste management ideology is reflected in the Resource Recovery Act of One aspect of the evolution was the incorporation of resource conservation into waste management ideology as such it is one of the earliest federal regulations incorporating the ideology of the 3Rs. It is also significant from a historical perspective as the formal beginning of federal efforts to address the special wastes (e.g., hazardous waste) that were not suitable for disposal in sanitary landfills. The Waste Management Hierarchy represents an expansion of the 3Rs ideology in that indicates a preference for certain types of waste management.

20 PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: STRATEGI PENGENDALIAN A control strategy is a set of discrete and specific measures identified and implemented to achieve reductions in air pollution. These measures may vary by source type, such as stationary or mobile, as well as by the pollutant that is being targeted. The purpose of these measures is to achieve the air quality standard or goal. Costs and benefits are assessed in the development of the control strategy. Control strategy development is the process of assessing specific abatement measures, management practices, or control technologies to determine the best combination of approaches to provide the emission reductions necessary to achieve the air quality standard or goal. Three primary considerations in designing an effective control strategy are: (1) Environmental: factors such as equipment locations, ambient air quality conditions, adequate utilities (i.e., water for scrubbers), legal requirements, noise levels, and the contribution of the control system as a pollutant; (2) Engineering: factors such as contaminant characteristics (abrasiveness, toxicity, etc.), gas stream characteristics, and performance characteristics of the control system; and (3) Economic: factors such as capital cost, operating costs, equipment maintenance, and the lifetime of the equipment. Air pollution officials should also consider pollution prevention which includes eliminating as much of the pollution emissions as possible at the source, substituting raw (and less toxic) materials, considering alternative manufacturing processes, and improving process control measures.

21 PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Perlindungan Kualitas Udara The main air pollutants discharged from a thermal plant are sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and soot and dust. We are making efforts to control emissions through the fuel measures including the use of high-quality fuel and the facility improvement measures including the installation of denitrification facilities, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization facilities, as well as through the complete combustion management while seeking prevention of air pollution by implementing the operation measures such as monitoring of emission sources. Sarana Pengendalian Kualitas Udara

22 PERMASALAHAN Controlling the emission of pollutants from industrial and domestic sources is important in protecting the quality of air. Air pollutants can exist in the form of particulate matter or as gases. Air cleaning devices have been reducing pollutant emissions from various sources for many years. Originally, air cleaning equipment was used only if the contaminant was highly toxic or had some recovery value. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Tip-tip Udara Bersih Your heating and cooling system is designed to make your home and familycomfortable but if not properly maintained it could contribute to your allergy problems and also higher energy bill which is at an all time high. Change or clean filters once a month. When using air conditioning, set thermostat to degrees. When using the heating, set thermostat to degrees If main ducts are equipped with volume dampers (which are located in the main supply duct above air handler) regulate level to direct most of cool air to top level in summer; then in winter leave all control handles in the fully open position (hot air rises, cold air falls). When using cooling, close all vents located in the basement (except cold air return).

23 PERALATAN Equipment used to control particulate emissions are: Gravity settlers (often referred to as settling chambers) Mechanical collectors (cyclones) Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) Scrubber Filter Fabrik Sistem Hybrid PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. CEROBONG ASAP Factories use static electricity to reduce pollution coming from their smokestacks. They give the smoke an electric charge. When it passes by electrodes of the opposite charge, most of the smoke particles cling to the electrodes. This keeps the pollution from going out into the atmosphere. How a smokestack electrostatic precipitator works From BBC - Electrostatic PrecipitatorsBBC - Electrostatic Precipitators

24 Pengendap Gravitasi = Gravity settler (Bilik atau Ruang Pengendapan) Gravity settlers, or gravity settling chambers, are used industrially for the removal of solid and liquid waste materials from gaseous streams. Advantages accounting for their use are simple construction, low initial cost and maintenance, low pressure losses, and simple disposal of waste materials. Kolektor Mekanik (cyclones) Centrifugal separators, commonly referred to as cyclones, are widely used in industry for the removal of solid and liquid particles (or particulates) from gas streams. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. PERALATAN

25 Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) They are satisfactory devices for removing small particles from moving gas streams at high collection efficiencies. They have been used almost universally in power plants for removing fly ash from the gases prior to discharge. Two major types of high-voltage ESP configurations currently used are tubular and plate. Tubular precipitators consist of cylindrical collection tubes with discharge electrodes located on the axis of the cylinder. Vast majority of ESPs installed are of the plate type. Collected particles are usually removed by rapping. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Electrostatic precipitator Small particles are statically charged The electrically charged metal plates attract the particles, removing them

26 PERALATAN Scrubbers (venturi scrubbers) 1. Wet scrubbing involves the technique of bringing a contaminated gas stream into intimate contact with a liquid. 2. Wet scrubbers include all the various types of gas absorption equipment. 3.The term "scrubber" will be restricted to those systems which utilize a liquid, usually water, to achieve or assist in the removal of particulate matter from a carrier gas stream. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Wet scrubber A caustic spray neutralizes the acidity This produces a sludge which must be landfilled or otherwise disposed of

27 PERALATAN Filter Fabrik (bag houses) Filtration process may be conducted in many different types of fabric filters.Differences may be related to: –Type of fabric –Cleaning mechanism –Equipment –Mode of operation Gases to be cleaned can be either "pushed" or "pulled" through the bag house. In the pressure system (push through) the gases may enter through the cleanout, hopper in the bottom or through the top of the bags. In the suction type (pull through) the dirty gases are usually forced through the inside of the bag and exit through the outside. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.. Removal of Particulate Pollutants The bag house filter is common for removal of particulates Its operating principle is similar to a home vacuum cleaner

28 PERALATAN Hybrid systems are defined as those types of control devices that involve combinations of control mechanisms-for example, fabric filtration combined with electrostatic precipitation. Four of the major hybrid systems found in practice today include: –Wet electrostatic precipitators, –Ionizing wet scrubbers, –Dry scrubbers, –Electrostatically augmented fabric filtration. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Modern electrostatic devices and methods for exhaust gas cleaning: A brief review Anatol Jaworek, Andrzej Krupa, Tadeusz Czech Journal of Electrostatics. Volume 65, Issue 3, March 2007, Pages 133–155 Conventional electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) have been modernized over the last few decades. In recent years, many new methods of construction have been proposed with the goal of increasing cleaning efficiency, particularly for particles in the submicrometer size range. Adding electrical forces to traditional filters has also resulted in an increase in their collection efficiency for removing dust particles.

29 Teknik-TEKNIK Applicability of a given technique depends on the physical and chemical properties of the pollutant and the exhaust stream. More than one technique may be capable of controlling emissions from a given source Techniques used to control gaseous emissions are: Absorption CombustionCondensation Adsorption PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Diunduh dari: purification/cs2-condensation.html. CS2-Condensation The technology behind the condensation of carbon disulfide from highly concentrated waste gas streams represents the most efficient and at the same time the most economic variant for the recovery of CS 2. In the process specially developed for applications in the viscose industry, a mixture of steam, CS 2 and air, with a temperature of around 95°C, is sucked off from the fleece forming unit (CS 2 box). Most of the vapor is condensed in the vapor condenser by mixing with warm water. The actual condensation of CS 2 takes place in the water jet apparatus which is loaded with chill water. The gaseous phase is then separated from the liquid phase by means of an air separator. The gaseous phase contains air and all the non-condensed gases whereas the liquid phase consists of process water and condensed CS 2. As a result of the higher density of CS 2 compared to water, the carbon disulfide precipitates in the settler and can be directly led back to viscose fi ber production. The overfl ow (water) from the settler is cooled and then led to the circuit water system of the water jet apparatus.

30 Penyerapan = Absorpsi Mass transfer operation in which a gas is dissolved in a liquid. A contaminant (pollutant exhaust stream) contacts a liquid, and the contaminant dif­fuses from the gas phase into the liquid phase. The liquid most often used for absorption is water. Reagents can be added to the absorbing water to increase the removal efficiency of the system. Gas absorbers or wet scrubbers are designed to provide good mixing of the gas and liquid phases. The devices used for gas absorption are often the same as those used in particulate emission scrubbing. These include packed towers, plate towers, spray columns, and venturi scrubbers. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: ABSORPTION Absorption processes use the solubility of sulfur dioxide in aqueous solutions to remove it from the gas stream. Once sulfur dioxide has dissolved in solution to form sulfurous acid (H 2 SO 3 ), it reacts with oxidizers to form inorganic sulfites and sulfates. This process prevents the dissolved sulfur dioxide from diffusing out of solution and being re-emitted. The most common type of sulfur dioxide absorber is the limestone wet scrubber.

31 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Penjerapan = Adsorption Mass transfer process that involves removing a gaseous contaminant by adhering it to the surface of a solid. It can be classified as physical or chemical. In physical adsorption, a gas molecule adheres to the surface of the solid due to an imbalance of natural forces (electron distribution). In chemisorption, once the gas molecule adheres to the surface, it reacts chemically with it. The major distinction is that physical adsorption is readily reversible whereas chemisorption is not. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Pengambilan CO2 dari Polusi dan Atmosfer The scientists used a polymer called polyethylenimine (PEI) as the basis for adsorbing carbon dioxide. Adsorption occurrs when atoms stick to a material's surface, as against the absorption process where atoms permeate material. Nitrogen in the polymer forms a link to carbon when carbon dioxide is present. When the adsorber material is heated to 100C, the link breaks releasing the carbon allowing for easy and relatively cheap way to collect and concentrate carbon dioxide.

32 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Pembakaran = Combustion Combustion is defined as rapid, high-temperature gas-phase oxidation. Simply, the contaminant (a carbon-hydrogen substance) is burned with air and converted to carbon dioxide and water vapor. The operation of any combustion source is governed by the three T's of combustion; temperature, turbulence, and time. Combustion devices can be categorized as flares, thermal incinerators, or catalytic incinerators PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Incineration is the thermal destruction of waste. It is as old as throwing food wastes on a wood fire, and in many developing nations, garbage is still routinely burned in drums and boxes on city streets. Injeksi Cairan. The chemical industries generate liquid wastes that contain toxic organics. Typical wastes from the agricultural and pharmaceutical plants may contain compounds such as chlorinated benzenes, vinyl chloride, toluene, phosphorous, and naphthalene. On-site liquid injection incinerators are used to destroy these wastes. Liquid injection incinerators are refractory-lined

33 TEKNIK-TEKNIK Pengembunan = Condensation Process in which the volatile gases are removed from the contaminant stream and changed into a liquid. It is usually achieved by reducing the temperature of a vapor mixture until the partial pressure of the condensable component equals its vapor pressure. Requires low temperatures to liquefy most pure contaminant vapors. It is affected by the composition of the contaminant gas stream. Condensers are normally used in combination with primary control devices. Condensers can be located upstream of (before) an incinerator, adsorber, or absorber. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Polutan Gas – Kondensasi Condensation is the process of converting a gas or vapor to liquid. Any gas can be reduced to a liquid by lowering its temperature and/or increasing its pressure. The most common approach is to reduce the temperature of the gas stream, since increasing the pressure of a gas can be expensive. A simple example of the condensation process is droplets of water forming on the outside of a glass of cold water. The cold temperature of the glass causes water vapor from the surrounding air to pass into the liquid state on the surface of the glass. Condensers are widely used to recover valuable products in a waste stream. Condensers are simple, relatively inexpensive devices that normally use water or air to cool and condense a vapor stream. Condensers are typically used as pretreatment devices. They can be used ahead of adsorbers, absorbers, and incinerators to reduce the total gas volume to be treated by more expensive control equipment. Condensers used for pollution control are contact condensers and surface condensers. In a contact condenser, the gas comes into contact with cold liquid. In a surface condenser, the gas contacts a cooled surface in which cooled liquid or gas is circulated, such as the outside of the tube. Removal efficiencies of condensers typically range from 50 percent to more than 95 percent, depending on design and applications.

34 FAKTOR-FAKTOR There are a number of factors to be considered prior to selecting a particular piece of air pollution control hardware. Environ mental Economic Engineering PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

35 FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN Lokasi Peralatan Ruang yang tersedia Kondisi Ambien Availability of adequate utilities (i.e., power, water, etc.) and ancillary system facilities (i.e., waste treatment and disposal, etc.) Maximum allowable emissions (air regulations) Pertimbangan Estetika Contribution of air pollution control system to wastewater and solid waste Contribution of air pollution control system to plant noise levels Environ mental PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

36 FAKTOR-FAKTOR EKONOMI Biaya Kapital (equipment, installation, engineering, etc.) Biaya Operasional (utilities, maintenance, etc.) Masa Pakai Peraltaan dan Nilai Penyusutan Economic PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

37 FAKTOR-FAKTOR KETEKNIKAN Contaminant characteristics (i.e., physical and chemical properties, concentration, particulate shape and size) Gas stream characteristics (i.e., volume flow rate, temperature, pressure, humidity, composition, viscosity, density, reactivity, combustibility, corrosivity, toxicity, etc.) Design and performance characteristics of the particular control system(i.e., size and weight, fractional efficiency curves, etc) Engineering PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

38 MEMILIH TEKNOLOGI Final choice in equipment selection is usually dictated by that equipment capable of achieving compliance with regulatory codes at the lowest uniform annual cost (amortized capital investment plus operation and maintenance costs). In order to compare specific control equipment alternatives, knowledge of the particular application and site is essentials. A preliminary screening, however, may be performed by reviewing the advantages and disadvantages of each type of air pollution control equipment. PENGENDALIAN POLUSI UDARA Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. AIR QUALITY PRESERVATION MEASURES The main air pollutants discharged from a thermal plant are sulfur oxide (SOx), nitrogen oxide (NOx), and soot and dust. We are making efforts to control emissions through the fuel measures including the use of high-quality fuel and the facility improvement measures including the installation of denitrification facilities, electrostatic precipitators, and flue gas desulfurization facilities, as well as through the complete combustion management while seeking prevention of air pollution by implementing the operation measures such as monitoring of emission sources. As a result of these efforts, the emission intensity in FY2005 amounted to 0.31 g/kWh for SOx and 0.36 g/kWh for NOx, respectively, achieving the world's top- level actual results. Outline of Air Pollution Control Measures

39 PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Wastewater treatment Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical, and biological processes and operations to remove solids, organic matter and, sometimes, nutrients from wastewater. General terms used to describe different degrees of treatment, in order of increasing treatment level, are preliminary, primary, secondary, and tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment. In some countries, disinfection to remove pathogens sometimes follows the last treatment step.. The principal objective of wastewater treatment is generally to allow human and industrial effluents to be disposed of without danger to human health or unacceptable damage to the natural environment. Irrigation with wastewater is both disposal and utilization and indeed is an effective form of wastewater disposal (as in slow-rate land treatment).

40 Lingkup Kajian Wastewater treatment principles Wastewater treatment plants Primary treatment Secondary treatment Tertiary treatment PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

41 PERMASALAHAN Basic objective of the field of water quality engineering is the determination of the environmental controls that must be instituted to achieve a specific environmental quality objective Role of the water quality engineer and scientist is to analyze water quality problems by dividing the problem into its principal components: –Inputs - discharge of residue into the environment from man' s and nature's activities. –Reactions and physical transport - chemical and biological transformations and water movement that result in different levels of water quality at different locations in time in the aquatic ecosystem. –Output - the resulting concentration of a substance, at a particular location in the water body during a particular time of the year or day PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: EFFLUENT STORAGE Although not considered a step in the treatment process, a storage facility is, in most cases, a critical link between the wastewater treatment plant and the irrigation system. Storage is needed for the following reasons: i.To equalize daily variations in flow from the treatment plant and to store excess when average wastwater flow exceeds irrigation demands; includes winter storage. ii.To meet peak irrigation demands in excess of the average wastewater flow. iii.To minimize the effects of disruptions in the operations of the treatment plant and irrigation system. Storage is used to provide insurance against the possibility of unsuitable reclaimed wastewater entering the irrigation system and to provide additional time to resolve temporary water quality problems.

42 PERMASALAHAN There are several points at which the water quality in a system can be controlled. The initial concentration at the outfall can be controlled by: –Reducing the effluent concentration of the waste input –Reducing the upstream concentration and effluent volume –Increasing the upstream flow by low flow augmentation The choice of the mix of the above controls involves issues of: –The costs of the controls - Iocally, regionally, and nationally. –The expected benefits of water quality in water use. –The technological bounds (e.g., available storage for low flow augmentation) on the controls. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF VARIOUS SEWAGE TREATMENT SYSTEMS CriteriaPackage plant Activated sludge plant Extended aeration activated sludge Biological filter Oxidation ditch Aerated lagoon Waste stabilizatio n pond system Plant performa nce BOD removalFFFFGGG FC removalPPFPFGG SS removalFGGGGFF Helminth removal PFPPFFG Virus removalPFPPFGG Economi c factors Simple and cheap construction P (poor)PPPFFG Simple operation PPPFFPG Land requirement G (good)GGGGFP Maintenance costs PPPFPPG Energy demandPPPFPPG Sludge removal costs PF (fair)FFPFG

43 PRINSIP-PRINSIP PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH If untreated wastewater is allowed to accumulate, the decomposition of the organic materials it contains can lead to the production of offensive odors and gases. Untreated wastewater contains numerous pathogenic microorganisms, released from the human intestinal system. It contains nutrients which can stimulate the growth of aquatic life, and it may also contain toxic compounds. Immediate removal from its sources, followed by treatment and disposal are the priorities when managing wastewater. Removal Treatment Disposal PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

44 UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH Purpose of any ww treatment plant is to convert the components in raw wastewater, with its inherent characteristics, into a relatively harmless final effluent for discharge to a receiving body of water and to safely dispose of the solids (sludge) produced in the process. Wastewater treatment plant must satisfy these conditions : –requirements for aesthetics and minimization of obnoxious odors at treatment and disposal –to prevent contamination of water supplies from physical, chemical, and biological agents; –to prevent destruction of fish, shellfish, and other aquatic life; –to protect against the spread of disease from crops grown on sewage irrigation or sludge disposal; –to encourage other beneficial uses of effluent. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Energy flows in facultative stabilization ponds (Marais 1970) Diunduh dari: FACULTATIVE PONDS The effluent from anaerobic ponds will require some form of aerobic treatment before discharge or use and facultative ponds will often be more appropriate than conventional forms of secondary biological treatment for application in developing countries. Primary facultative ponds will be designed for the treatment of weaker wastes and in sensitive locations where anaerobic pond odours would be unacceptable. Solids in the influent to a facultative pond and excess biomass produced in the pond will settle out forming a sludge layer at the bottom.

45 UNIT PENGOLAHAN AIR LIMBAH Wastewater treatment plants utilize a number of individual or unit operations and processes to achieve the desired degree of treatment. Collective treatment schematic is called a flow scheme, a flow diagram, a flow sheet, a process train, or a flow schematic. Unit operations and processes are grouped together to provide what is known as primary, secondary, and tertiary (or advanced) treatment. Primary (FISIKA) Secondary (KIMIA) Tertiary (BIOLOGI) PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Diunduh dari: Ways of Wastewater Treatment Posted by flavio on May 21, 2012 in News Wastewater treatment is a process through which wastewater and household sewage is made free from the contaminants and pollutants existing in it. It is disposed of from domestic/residential settlements as well as industrial establishments and takes the form of liquid waste from bathrooms, kitchens, sinks, washing machines and industrial waste from factories etc.

46 PENGOLAHAN PRIMER Treatment methods in which the application of physical forces predominate are known as physical unit operations. These were the first methods to be used for wastewater treatment. Screening, mixing, flocculation, sedimentation, flotation, and filtration are typical unit operations for primary treatment processes. Primary Treatment PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Diunduh dari: art8,%20chp1.pdf. WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub-focus in recent decades has been to reduce waste materials’ effect on the natural world and the environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid, liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage between countries or regions. The waste hierarchy (ie reduce, reuse and recycle) classifies waste management strategies according to their desirability. The waste hierarchy has taken many forms, but the basic concept has remained the cornerstone of most waste minimization strategies. The aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products and to generate the minimum amount of waste.

47 PENGOLAHAN PRIMER Klarifikasi (Sedimentasi) Process of separating the settleable solids from the liquid Some treatment systems employing two or more stages of treatment and clarification, the terms primary, secondary, and final clarification are used. The actual physical sizing of the clarifier (depth, surface area, inlet structure, etc.) is highly dependent upon the quantity and composition of the flow. Clarification units can be either circular or rectangular and are normally designed to operate on a continuous flow-through basis: –circular units are generally called clarifiers, –whereas rectangular units are commonly referred to as sedimentation tanks. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. PRIMARY TREATMENT The objective of primary treatment is the removal of settleable organic and inorganic solids by sedimentation, and the removal of materials that will float (scum) by skimming. Approximately 25 to 50% of the incoming biochemical oxygen demand (BOD 5 ), 50 to 70% of the total suspended solids (SS), and 65% of the oil and grease are removed during primary treatment. Some organic nitrogen, organic phosphorus, and heavy metals associated with solids are also removed during primary sedimentation but colloidal and dissolved constituents are not affected. The effluent from primary sedimentation units is referred to as primary effluent. (diunduh dari:

48 PENGOLAHAN PRIMER Flotasi = Flotation Separates these particles by their density by the introduction of air into the system. Fine bubbles adhere to, or are absorbed by, the solids, which are then lifted to the surface. Flotation separator tanks can be either rectangular or circular in shape and constructed of either concrete or steel It is an appropriate technology for treating suspended solids and oil and grease in industrial waters. Process will achieve 40-65% suspended solids removal and 60% of oil and grease removal. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: CFS Process "Combination Flotation/Sedimentation" process recognizes that most wastewater contains fines and heavier material and is designed to remove sludge from the top and bottom while extracting the cleaned water from the center. Induced air accelerates the separation and polymers are used to help accumulate the sludges for a faster, continuous, and simple to operate wastewater treatment system.

49 SEPARASI MINYAK-AIR In practically all manufacturing industries, oil and grease can be found in a plant's wastewater The configuration of the separator is that of a flow-through tank. The basic principle by which oil-water separators work is the differential between the specific gravities of water and the oils to be removed. Major advantage of oil-water separators is their ability to treat wastewater which is heavily laden with oil compounds. They represent a very simple treatment operation which minimizes personnel requirements; its operating costs are minimized. It results in a more "pure" oil which can make recycling much easier. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Horizontal Three Phase Separator The fluid enters the separator and hits an inlet diverter. This sudden change in momentum does the initial gross separation of liquid and vapor as discussed in Two Phase Separator. In most designs, the inlet diverter contains a downcomer that directs the liquid flow below the oil/water interface. This forces the inlet mixture of oil and water to mix with the water continuous phase in the bottom of the vessel and rise through the oil/water interface. This process is called “water-washing,” and it promotes the coalescence of water droplets which are entrained in the oil continuous phase. The inlet diverter assures that little gas is carried with the liquid, and the water wash assures that the liquid does not fall on top of the gas/oil or oil/water interface, mixing the liquid retained in the vessel and making control of the oil/water interface difficult.

50 PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER Treatment methods in which the removal or conversion of contaminants is brought about by the addition of chemicals or by other chemical reactions are known as chemical unit processes. Precipitation, gas transfer, adsorption, and disinfections are the most common examples used in secondary wastewater treatment. Secondary Treatment PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: SECONDARY TREATMENT The objective of secondary treatment is the further treatment of the effluent from primary treatment to remove the residual organics and suspended solids. In most cases, secondary treatment follows primary treatment and involves the removal of biodegradable dissolved and colloidal organic matter using aerobic biological treatment processes. Aerobic biological treatment (see Box) is performed in the presence of oxygen by aerobic microorganisms (principally bacteria) that metabolize the organic matter in the wastewater, thereby producing more microorganisms and inorganic end-products (principally CO 2, NH 3, and H 2 O). Several aerobic biological processes are used for secondary treatment differing primarily in the manner in which oxygen is supplied to the microorganisms and in the rate at which organisms metabolize the organic matter. High-rate biological processes are characterized by relatively small reactor volumes and high concentrations of microorganisms compared with low rate processes. Consequently, the growth rate of new organisms is much greater in high-rate systems because of the well controlled environment. The microorganisms must be separated from the treated wastewater by sedimentation to produce clarified secondary effluent. The sedimentation tanks used in secondary treatment, often referred to as secondary clarifiers, operate in the same basic manner as the primary clarifiers described previously. The biological solids removed during secondary sedimentation, called secondary or biological sludge, are normally combined with primary sludge for sludge processing.

51 PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER: COAGULATION - PRECIPITATION Involves two discrete steps. Rapid mixing is employed to ensure that the chemicals are thoroughly dispersed Next, the wastewater undergoes flocculation which provides for particle contact, so that the particles can agglomerate to a size large enough for removal. Finally precipitation occurs, that is really the same as settling. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: flocculation-process/. Coagulation and Flocculation The primary purpose of the coagulation and flocculation is to destabilize the charged colloidal particles in water and make them to settle so as to remove turbidity from the water. In addition to removing turbidity from the water, coagulation and flocculation process removes many bacteria which are suspended in the water and can be used to remove color from the water. Colloids have a sufficiently small mass that collusion with molecular size particles in water will cause constant movement of the colloids. The phenomenon of constant random movement of colloids is known as Brownian motion. The combination of positive and negative charge, results in a neutral, or lack of charge. As a result, the particles no longer repel each other. When enough particles have joined together, they become floc and will settle out of the water. Proses Koagolasi

52 PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER: NETRALISASI Coagulation-precipitation is capable of removing from industrial wastewater pollutants such as BOD, COD, and TSS. It can remove additional pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen compounds, and metals. This technology is attractive to industry because a high degree of classification and toxic pollutants removal can be combined in one treatment process. Neutralization Involves adding an acid or a base to a wastewater to offset or neutralize the effects of its counterpart in the wastewater flow, namely, adding acids to alkaline wastewaters and bases to acidic wastewaters. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: flocculation-process/. CHEMISTRY OF COAGULATION AND FLOCCULATION The chemistry of coagulation and flocculation is primarily based on electricity. Electricity is the behavior of negatively and positively charged particles due to their attraction and repulsion. Like charges (two negatively charged particles or two positively charged particles) repel each other while opposite charges (a positively charged particle and a negatively charged particle) attract. Most particles dissolved in water have negative charge, so they tend to repel each other. As a result, they stay dispersed and dissolved or Coagulation process colloidal in the water. Addition of positively charged particles in the coagulation process is aimed to destabilizing the colloids. So treatment involving coagulation and flocculation is typical of surface water. The purpose of addition of coagulant chemicals is to neutralize the negative charges on the colloidal particles to prevent those particles from repelling each other. Coagulants due to their positive charge attract negatively charged particles in the water. Coagulation is a unit process of addition of coagulant chemicals to water and rapid mixing so as to neutralize the electrical charges of the colloidal particles in the water, and allow them to come closer and form fine clumps or micro flocs.

53 PENGOLAHAN SEKUNDER: NETRALISASI The most important considerations in neutralization treatment are the wastewater constituents so that the proper neutralizing chemicals are used, and proper monitoring to ensure that the required quantities of these chemicals are used and that the effluent is in fact neutralized. For acid waste streams, lime, soda ash, and caustic soda are the most common base chemicals used In alkaline waste streams, sulfuric, hydrochloric, and nitric acid are generally used for neutralization PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Lime neutralization in a high density sludge (HDS) process configuration is the industry standard for impacted mine water neutralization for of the following reasons: 1.Relative low cost of lime 2.Efficient use of lime 3.High density of waste sludge requiring a smaller site for disposal 4.Scale control on treatment plant structures, pipelines, equipment, and instrumentation 5.Good solids/water separation 6.Robust process, able to treat variable flows and acidity/metals loadings Basic HDS Process Configuration

54 TERTIARY TREATMENT Treatment methods in which the removal of contaminants is brought about by biological activity are known as biological unit processes. Biological treatment is used primarily to remove the biodegradable organic substances (colloidal or dissolved) in wastewater. Basically these substances are converted into gases that can escape to the atmosphere or into biological cell tissue that can be removed by settling. Designed to remove those constituents that are not adequately removed in the secondary treatment plants, such as N, P, and other soluble organic and inorganic compounds. Tertiary Treatment PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: TERTIARY AND/OR ADVANCED TREATMENT Tertiary and/or advanced wastewater treatment is employed when specific wastewater constituents which cannot be removed by secondary treatment must be removed. The individual treatment processes are necessary to remove nitrogen, phosphorus, additional suspended solids, refractory organics, heavy metals and dissolved solids. Because advanced treatment usually follows high-rate secondary treatment, it is sometimes referred to as tertiary treatment. However, advanced treatment processes are sometimes combined with primary or secondary treatment (e.g., chemical addition to primary clarifiers or aeration basins to remove phosphorus) or used in place of secondary treatment (e.g., overland flow treatment of primary effluent).

55 A comparative evaluation of money-based and energy-based cost–benefit analyses of tertiary municipal wastewater treatment using forested wetlands vs. sand filtration in Louisiana Jae-Young Ko, John W Day, Robert R Lane, Jason N Day Ecological Economics. Volume 49, Issue 3, 1 July 2004, Pages 331–347Volume 49, Issue 3 Diunduh dari: Forested wetlands have been used to provide advanced secondary and tertiary treatment for municipal wastewater for a number of cities in southern Louisiana. Wetland assimilation provides the same services as conventional methods in improving wastewater quality, while having positive impacts on wetlands. Suspended solids and nutrients in wastewater increase net primary productivity (NPP), which leads to increased organic soil formation. This leads to increased elevation that offsets subsidence, a major cause of coastal wetland loss in Louisiana. The City of Breaux Bridge, LA, has discharged secondarily treated municipal wastewater into a forested wetland since 1950, and wetland assimilation was permitted by the Louisiana Department of Environmental Quality and the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) in We compared benefits and costs of utilizing forested wetlands and conventional sand treatment using money-based and energy-based cost– benefit analyses (CBA). The wetland method had a higher benefit–cost ratio than conventional treatment by 6.0 times based on dollar-based CBA, and by 21.7 times from the energy analysis. Methodologically, dollar-based CBA is a market price-based assessment, liming to an anthropocentric framework, while embodied energy analysis accounts for monetary and nonmonetary values such as carbon sequestration by wetlands, which contributes a more complete assessment of the interaction between the natural environment and the human economy. Wetlands treat more wastewater per unit of energy and with less financial cost than conventional methods, because the wetland method utilizes natural energies such as sunlight, wind and rain, while conventional treatment methods depend on imported nonrenewable energies and materials such as chemicals and electricity and require additional capital investment. Increasing application of natural energies is becoming more important with depleting fossil fuels. Further, wastewater addition increases NPP and wetland elevation, which has potential for wetland mitigation credit.

56 A comparative evaluation of money-based and energy-based cost–benefit analyses of tertiary municipal wastewater treatment using forested wetlands vs. sand filtration in Louisiana Jae-Young Ko, John W Day, Robert R Lane, Jason N Day Ecological Economics. Volume 49, Issue 3, 1 July 2004, Pages 331–347Volume 49, Issue 3 Diunduh dari: Diagram of the wetland treatment method. Wetlands remove nutrients and retain suspended solids by physical settling, chemical precipitation, adsorption, and biological metabolism. The processes are controlled by natural energies such as sunlight, wind, and rain. Permanent nutrient pathways are burial, vegetation uptake, and denitrification. A diagram of the sand filtration method (modified from Hernandez, 1978, p. 8, fig. 1). Polymer is added to increase flocculation of suspended solids for increased efficiency of sedimentation and filtration. The process is operated by electrical energy.Hernandez, 1978, p. 8, fig. 1

57 TERTIARY TREATMENT Many of these constituents must be removed to meet stringent water quality standards and to allow reuse of the effluent for municipal, industrial, irrigation, recreation, and other water needs. The most commonly used advanced wastewater treatment processes are among other: –Chemical precipitation of phosphorus, –Nitrification and Denitrification, –Ammonia stripping, –Break­point chlorination, –Filtration, –Carbon adsorption, –Ion exchange PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: DISINFECTION Disinfection normally involves the injection of a chlorine solution at the head end of a chlorine contact basin. The chlorine dosage depends upon the strength of the wastewater and other factors, but dosages of 5 to 15 mg/l are common. Ozone and ultra violet (uv) irradiation can also be used for disinfection but these methods of disinfection are not in common use. Chlorine contact basins are usually rectangular channels, with baffles to prevent short-circuiting, designed to provide a contact time of about 30 minutes. However, to meet advanced wastewater treatment requirements, a chlorine contact time of as long as 120 minutes is sometimes required for specific irrigation uses of reclaimed wastewater. The bactericidal effects of chlorine and other disinfectants are dependent upon pH, contact time, organic content, and effluent temperature.

58 TERTIARY TREATMENT Aerobic Suspended Growth Processes (Activated Sludge) Process in which the biological growth products (microorganisms) are kept in suspension in a liquid medium consisting of entrapped and suspended colloidal and dissolved organic and inorganic materials. It uses metabolic reactions of the microorganisms to attain an acceptable effluent quality by removing these substances exerting an oxygen demand. In the suspended growth processes, wastewater enters a reactor basin, concrete­steel-earthen tank(s) where microorganisms are brought into contact with the organic components of the wastewater by some type of mixing device. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: ACTIVATED SLUDGE - LUMPUR AKTIF In the activated sludge process, the dispersed-growth reactor is an aeration tank or basin containing a suspension of the wastewater and microorganisms, the mixed liquor. The contents of the aeration tank are mixed vigorously by aeration devices which also supply oxygen to the biological suspension. Aeration devices commonly used include submerged diffusers that release compressed air and mechanical surface aerators that introduce air by agitating the liquid surface. Hydraulic retention time in the aeration tanks usually ranges from 3 to 8 hours but can be higher with high BOD 5 wastewaters. Following the aeration step, the microorganisms are separated from the liquid by sedimentation and the clarified liquid is secondary effluent. A portion of the biological sludge is recycled to the aeration basin to maintain a high mixed- liquor suspended solids (MLSS) level. The remainder is removed from the process and sent to sludge processing to maintain a relatively constant concentration of microorganisms in the system. Several variations of the basic activated sludge process, such as extended aeration and oxidation ditches, are in common use, but the principles are similar.

59 TERTIARY TREATMENT Aerobic Lagoons (Stabilization Ponds) Large, shallow earthen basins that are used for wastewater treatment by utilizing natural processes involving both algae and bacteria. The objective is microbial conversion of organic wastes into algae. Aerobic conditions prevail throughout the process. In aerobic photosynthesis, the oxygen produced by the algae through the process of photosynthesis is used by the bacteria in the biochemical oxidation and degradation of organic waste. Carbon dioxide, ammonia, phosphate, and other nutrients released in the biochemical oxidation reactions are, in turn, used by the algae, forming a cyclic-symbiotic relationship. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies WASTEWATER STABILIZATION PONDS A recent World Bank Report (Shuval et al. 1986) came out strongly in favour of stabilization ponds as the most suitable wastewater treatment system for effluent use in agriculture. Stabilization ponds are the preferred wastewater treatment process in developing countries, where land is often available at reasonable opportunity cost and skilled labour is in short supply. DIUNDUH DARI: /t0551e05.Htm

60 TERTIARY TREATMENT Aerobic lagoons are used for treatment of weak industrial wastewater containing negligible amounts of toxic and for non-biodegradable substances. Anaerobic Lagoon Earthen ponds built with a small surface area and a deep liquid depth of 3-7 m. They are anaerobic throughout their depth, except for an extremely shallow surface zone. Raw wastewater enters near the bottom of the lagoon (often at the center) and mixes with the active microbial mass in the sludge blanket. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: EFFLUENT STORAGE Although not considered a step in the treatment process, a storage facility is, in most cases, a critical link between the wastewater treatment plant and the irrigation system. Storage is needed for the following reasons: 1.To equalize daily variations in flow from the treatment plant and to store excess when average wastwater flow exceeds irrigation demands; includes winter storage. 2.To meet peak irrigation demands in excess of the average wastewater flow. 3.To minimize the effects of disruptions in the operations of the treatment plant and irrigation system. Storage is used to provide insurance against the possibility of unsuitable reclaimed wastewater entering the irrigation system and to provide additional time to resolve temporary water quality problems.

61 TERTIARY TREATMENT Discharge is located near one of the sides and submerged below the liquid surface. Excess undigested grease floats to the top. Excess sludge is washed out with the effluent. Anaerobic lagoons are effective prior to aerobic treatment of high-strength organic wastewater that also contains a high concentration of solids. BOD removal efficiencies of up to 85% are possible. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: MACROPHYTE TREATMENT Maturation ponds which incorporate floating, submerged or emergent aquatic plant species are termed macrophyte ponds and these have been used in recent years for upgrading effluents from stabilization ponds. Macrophytes take up large amounts of inorganic nutrients (especially N and P) and heavy metals (such as Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn) as a consequnce of the growth requirements and decrease the concentration of algal cells through light shading by the leaf canopy and, possibly, adherence to gelatinous biomass which grows on the roots. Floating macrophyte systems utilizing water hyacinth and receiving primary sewage effluent in Florida have achieved secondary treatment effluent quality with a 6 day hydraulic retention time, water depth of 60 cm and hydraulic loading 1860 m 3 /ha d (Reddy and Debusk 1987). The same authors suggested that similar results had also been observed for artificial wetlands using emergent macrophytes. In Europe, the land area considered to be necessary for treatment of preliminary-treated sewage is estimated at 2-5 m 2 per population equivalent to achieve a secondary effluent quality (Cooper et al. 1988).

62 Diunduh dari: FLOATING AQUATIC MACROPHYTE SYSTEMS Floating macrophyte species, with their large root systems, are very efficient at nutrient stripping. Although several genera have been used in pilot schemes, including Salvinia, Spirodella, Lemna and Eichornia (O'Brien 1981), Eichornia crassipes (water hyacinth) has been studied in much greater detail. In tropical regions, water hyacinth doubles in mass about every 6 days and a macrophyte pond can produce more than 250 kg/ha d (dry weight). Nitrogen and phosphorus reductions up to 80% and 50% have been achieved. In Tamil Nadu, India, studies have indicated that the coontail, Ceratophyllum demersum, a submerged macrophyte, is very efficient at removing ammonia (97%) and phosphorus (96%) from raw sewage and also removes 95% of the BOD 5. It has a lower growth rate than Eichornia crassipes, which allows less frequent harvesting. In such macrophyte pond systems, apart from any physical removal processes which might occur (especially sedimentation) the aquatic vascular plants serve as living substrates for microbial activity, which removes BOD and nitrogen, and achieves reductions in phosphorus, heavy metals and some organics through plant uptake. The basic function of the macrophytes in the latter mechanism is to assimilate, concentrate and store contaminants on a short-term basis. Subsequent harvest of the plant biomass results in permanent removal of stored contaminents from the pond treatment system. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies

63 Diunduh dari: EMERGENT MACROPHYTE TREATMENT SYSTEMS In recent years, natural and artificial wetlands and marshes have been used to treat raw sewage and partially-treated effluents. Natural wetlands are usually unmanaged, whereas artificial systems are specially designed to maximize performance by providing the optimum conditions for emergent macrophyte growth. The key features of such reed bed treatment systems are: 1.Rhizomes of the reeds grow vertically and horizontally in the soil or gravel bed, opening up 'hydraulic pathways'. 2.Wastewater BOD and nitrogen are removed by bacterial activity; aerobic treatment takes place in the rhizosphere, with anoxic and anaerobic treatment taking place in the surrounding soil. 3.Oxygen passes from the atmosphere to the rhizosphere via the leaves and stems of the reeds through the hollow rhizomes and out through the roots. 4.Suspended solids in the sewage are aerobically composted in the above- ground layer of vegetation formed from dead leaves and stems. 5.Nutrients and heavy metals are removed by plant uptake. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies The growth rate and pollutant assimilative capacity of emergent macrophytes such as Phragmites communis and Scirpus lacstris are limited by the culture system, wastewater loading rate, plant density, climate and management factors. More than 50 percent of the nutrients were stored in below-ground portions of the plants, tissues difficult to harvest to achieve effective nutrient removal. However, because emergent macrophytes have more supportive tissue than floating macrophytes, they might have greater potential for storing the nutrients over a longer period. Consequently, frequent harvesting might not be so necessary to achieve maximum nutrient removal although harvesting above-ground biomass once a year should improve overall nutrient removal efficiency.

64 Diunduh dari: GROWTH AND NUTRIENT (N & P) CONTENTS OF SELECTED MACROPHYTES Source: Reddy and De Busk (1987) PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies BiomassTissue composition Standing cropGrowth ratesNP t (dw) ha -1 t ha -1 yr g kg FLOATING MACROPHYTES: Eichhornia crasspipes (water hyacinth) Pistia stratiotes (water lettuce) Hydrocotyle spp. (pennywort) Alternanthera spp. (alligator weed) Lemna spp. (duckweed) Salvinia spp EMERGENT MACROPHYTES: Typha (cattail) Juncus (rush) Scirpus (bulrush) Phragmites (reed) Eleocharis (spike rush) Saururus cernuus (lizardis tail)

65 Diunduh dari: NUTRIENT FILM TECHNIQUE The nutrient film technique (NFT) is a modification of the hydroponic plant growth system in which plants are grown directly on an impermeable surface to which a thin film of wastewater is continuously applied. Root production on the impermeable surface is high and the large surface area traps and accumulates matter. Plant top-growth provides nutrient uptake, shade for protection against algal growth and water removal in the form of transpiration, while the large mass of self-generating root systems and accumulated material serve as living filters. Jewell et al. (1983) have hypothesized the following mechanisms, taking place in three plant sections: 1.Roughing or preliminary treatment by plant species with large root systems capable of surviving and growing in a grossly polluted condition. Large sludge accumulations, anaerobic conditions and trace metal precipitation and entrapment characterize this mechanism and a large portion of wastewater BOD and suspended solids would thereby be removed. 2.Nutrient conversion and recovery due to high biomass production. 3.Wastewater polishing during nutrient-limited plant production, depending on the required effluent quality. PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies The highest loading rates achieved were equivalent to treating the sewage generated by a population of 10,000 on an area of 2 ha. Plants other than reed canary grass were also tested and those that flourished best in the NFT system were: cattails, bulrush, strawflowers, Japanese millet, roses, Napier grass, marigolds, wheat and phragmites.

66 Diunduh dari: Nutrient film technique variation of hydroponic plant production systems (Jewell et al. 1983) PENGENDALIAN AIR LIMBAH Environment technologies

67 PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Diunduh dari: REMEDIATION METHODS AND PROCEDURES “Ex situ” methods 1.Soil excavation 2.Depending on the degree of contamination 3.Decontamination or disposal at a controlled dumping site 4.Decontamination technology: Land farming Biodegradation using special bacterial or fungal cultures “In situ” methods 1.Conventional or pulsed remediation pumping 2.Vacuum pumping 3.Venting 4.Bioventing 5.Air sparging 6.Combined methods

68 Diunduh dari: SOIL POLLUTION SURVEYS AND REMEDIAL TECHNIQUES Soil, together with water and air comprises an essential part of the environment for human beings and other organisms, and plays the vital role of the mother's womb of the ecological chain. Compared to water and air, however, soil has diverse compositions which give rise to complicated reactions with other substances. Once polluted by harmful substances, soil remains polluted for an extended period of time. That is an important factor of its innate nature is its accumulative properties. Our company provides an integrated solution to soil pollution ranging from soil surveys to remedies for chlorine-based organic solvent, heavy metal, and PCB pollution.

69 PERMASALAHAN Contaminated soils is one of the environmental problems historically ignored by humans. Lately, its relation with human health’ safety and ecological impacts was discovered. Most widely used techniques applied to polluted soils are removal and placement in a more secure landfill environment. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: REMEDIASI TANAH Soil Remediation Operations can offer you comprehensive integrated services from investigation of site contamination, to remediation of existing conditions, to post-clean-up monitoring. We will assess any and all hazardous conditions and environmental risks comprehensively and select the best treatment method, such as: soil washing, chemical/thermal decomposition, or biological decomposition (Bioremediation). We address contaminants of all sorts: not only heavy metals, etc., but also VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), from oil pollution to buried wastes and complex contamination. Flowchart of Soil Remediation:

70 PERMASALAHAN Although this simply moves contaminated soil from one place to another, it can be of significant benefit due to improvements in landfill design. Often early landfills were sited in wetlands or adjacent to rivers and encouraged contaminant migration and ultimately exposure to at- risk populations. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Tjaša Bulc, Nevenka Ferfila, Danijel Vrhovšek, (2004) "Sustainable reclamation of landfill sites“ Management of Environmental Quality: An International Journal, Vol. 15 Iss: 1, pp.55 – 61 The most common form of municipal waste disposal in the EU continues to be landfilling, from which leachate could seriously contaminate ground water aquifers that serve as drinking water sources. Constructed wetland is considered as a sustainable option as it facilitates water recycling in landfill sites using closed loop technology. In Slovenia constructed wetlands have been successfully developed and there are already 6 landfills that have been remediated using this technique. An innovative co-natural approach that has been applied on the landfill site at Ormoz (1.5ha), allows a landfill site to become a bioreactor by permitting controlled infiltration. Leachate is purified using a constructed wetland covering 1,000m2. The average hydraulic load is 12m3/d. Purified water will then be recycled through an underground irrigation system to fast growing trees. We assume that this solution will allow rapid stabilisation of the landfill site as the infiltrated water in the landfill site stimulates microbes to mineralise organic waste. There is no risk of leaks as the root systems of trees follow the non-uniform settling of waste. Owing to the closed hydrological and pollution cycle, the impact on the environment and especially the risk of water contamination will be reduced.

71 PERMASALAHAN Wastes could be stabilised after removal and before or during placement to further reduce mobility after placement. Stabilisation might include solidification with concrete or a similar material or direct chemical treatment of certain contaminants. Incineration or thermal treatment of the contaminated soil could be used to eliminate organic contaminants susceptible to destruction or removal by these means. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: SOIL REMEDIATION PROCESS OVERVIEW Every one of our Soil Stabilisation machines uses an integrated system, whereby the blending of the soil with the binder takes place within a confined mixing drum, which feeds the lime or cement powder through a sealed hopper. The percentage of the binder additive is computer controlled which ensures the spread rate of powder is gauged by the speed of the drum; therefore the correct volumne of binder is ensured, with virtually no dust emission to the atmosphere. All powder is stored on site in sealed silos and the binder is pumped via compressed air into the machine. Technical Lime Modification and Stabilisation The addition of lime to cohesive soil results in immediate improvements in strengh and plasticity (modificaiton). Longer term soil-lime pozzolanic reactions lead to the formation of compounds by which the modified material becomes cemented, thus increasing strength and durability (stabilisation). The advantages in drying, workability and performance of the lime ameded soil lends the process to numerous applications including: 1.improvement of bulk fill and sub-grade or capping layers 2.temporary (or permanent) Haul Road Construction 3.Drying out and controlling the moisure condition and compactability of wet or plastic soils 4.construction of embankments 5.treatment of sludge

72 PERMASALAHAN A variety of other processes have been employed to treat contaminated soils once excavated and removed from a site. Included among these are biological degradation in dedicated bioreactors and sophisticated extraction schemes, for example, supercritical extraction, followed by the application of destruction processes to the effluent. An alternative to removal options of remediating soil is the use of in situ means that do not require soil removal. These are generally the options of choice if they can be demonstrated effective at reducing the volume, toxicity, or exposure to the wastes. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: BIODEGRADATION, decontamination of excavated soil, remediation Decontamination of soil from organic substances within a special area, so-called bioremediation or organic decontamination. Decontamination may also have the form of landforming, i.e. the use of indigenous bacterial cultures in soil and optimization of conditions for their activity, or using special bacterial strains, i.e. using added special bacterial strains complementing the original soil microflora.

73 TECHNIQUES The principle option to decontaminate soils are: Removal options for soil remediation In situ soil remediation processes PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: SOIL REMEDIATION is the collective term for various strategies that are used to purify and revitalize soil. This process of soil cleanup is part of a broader effort known as environmental remediation, which can also include efforts to purify the air and other wise repair damage done to the ecological balance of the planet. Many countries are actively engaged in some type of land remediation. Soil remediation is sometimes accomplished using a process known as pump and treat. Essentially, this approach involves the removal of contaminated ground water, then using various methods to purify the extracted liquid. While the water is purified, the soil is also extracted and filtered to remove various contaminants, then returned to its original position. The purified water is pumped back into the purified soil, effectively restoring the ecological balance of the area. There are a number of different methods currently employed in the process of dealing with soil contamination. Often, the selection of the most effective strategy will depend on the nature of the contamination, how the method will impact surrounding wildlife or humans living in the general vicinity, and the degree of success that can be anticipated from the soil remediation effort. It is not unusual for a given tract of land to undergo more than one cleanup operation in order to deal with the presence of multiple contaminants.

74 Removal options for soil remediation These techniques are techniques that consists in to take the contaminated soil and apply a method to decontaminate. This techniques are: Incineration, landfilling, stabilization and solidification, and ex situ bioremediation. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: The use of chelating agents in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils: A review Domen Leštan, Chun-ling Luo, Xiang-dong Li. Environmental Pollution. Volume 153, Issue 1, May 2008, Pages 3–13Volume 153, Issue 1 This paper reviews current remediation technologies that use chelating agents for the mobilization and removal of potentially toxic metals from contaminated soils. These processes can be done in situ as enhanced phytoextraction, chelant enhanced electrokinetic extraction and soil flushing, or exsitu as the extraction of soil slurry and soil heap/column leaching. Current proposals on how to treat and recycle waste washing solutions after soil is washed are discussed. The major controlling factors in phytoextraction and possible strategies for reducing the leaching of metals associated with the application of chelants are also reviewed. Finally, the possible impact of abiotic and biotic soil factors on the toxicity of metals left after the washing of soil and enhanced phytoextraction are briefly addressed. Flow chart of ex situ soil heap/column leaching.

75 IN SITU SOIL REMEDIATION PROCESSES These techniques consist in treat the soil in the same land or place where is contaminated. The techniques or methods are: Pump and treat extraction of contaminated groundwater, enhancement of pump and treat processes, vacuum extraction in the unsaturated zone and in situ bioremediation of soils. Pump and treat extraction of contaminated groundwater is the technique that remove the contaminated groundwater or separate contaminated phases via withdrawal wells for above-ground treatment. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: BIOREMEDIATION Jim C Philp, Napier University, Edinburgh, UK Ronald M Atlas, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky, USA Colin J Cunningham, Contaminated Land Assessment and Remediation Research Centre, Edinburgh, UK Published online: March 2009 (a)Leakage from an underground storage tank. The contaminated soil and groundwater can be bioremediated in situ or ex situ. (b)Diagram of in situ bioremediation of subsurface hydrocarbon- contaminated soil and groundwater. (c)In situ bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated aquifer by injection of hydrogen peroxide to provide a source of molecular oxygen and nitrate and phosphate to provide nutrients for the growth of hydrocarbon degraders.

76 TECHNIQUES Enhancement of pump and treat processes are methods of remediation of soils. These methods are of limited usefulness when significant quantities of NAPLs exist. Due to the low solubility of most soil contaminants, large volumes of water are required to remove contaminants present in a separate phase even if it were possible to maintain the water at saturation. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: To reclaim infertile soil Clean soil is physically isolated from infertile saline soil by the Guilspare barrier so no transfer of salt from outside the barrier can take place

77 TECHNIQUES Vacuum extraction in the unsaturated zone is a process that is similar conceptually to pump and treat of groundwater is soil vacuum extraction (SVE) in the water-unsaturated zone. A vacuum is applied to the unsaturated zone by placing a vacuum pump on a well screened in the unsaturated zone. This pulls vapours through the soil, removing any volatile components that have volatilised in the subsurface PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: SOIL VAPOR EXTRACTION (SVE) Also known as soil venting or vacuum extraction, is an in situ remedial technology that reduces concentrations of volatile constituents in petroleum products adsorbed to soils in the unsaturated (vadose) zone. In this technology, a vacuum is applied to the soil matrix to create a negative pressure gradient that causes movement of vapors toward extraction wells. Volatile constituents are readily removed from the subsurface through the extraction wells. The extracted vapors are then treated, as necessary, and discharged to the atmosphere or reinjected to the subsurface (where permissible)

78 TECHNIQUES In situ bioremediation of soils is perhaps the most desirable of all treatment processes is in situ biodegradation to render the soil harmless and to naturally recycle the contaminants. There are a number of compounds that undergo detoxification by microbial processes at rates that are sufficient to justify natural recovery of contaminated soils. PENGENDALIAN PENCEMARAN TANAH Environment technologies Diunduh dari: BIOREMEDIASI TANAH Bioremediation which occurs without human intervention other than monitoring is often called natural attenuation. This natural attenuation relies on natural conditions and behavior of soil microorganisms that are indigenous to soil. Biostimulation also utilizes indigenous microbial populations to remediate contaminated soils. Biostimulation consists of adding nutrients and other substances to soil to catalyze natural attenuation processes. Bioaugmentation involves introduction of exogenic microorganisms (sourced from outside the soil environment) capable of detoxifying a particular contaminant, sometimes employing genetically altered microorganism.

79 Diunduh dari: RHIZO-REMEDIASI TANAH TERCEMAR Rhizoremediation is a process where microorganisms degrade soil contaminants in the rhizosphere (arrow region of soil that is directly influenced by root secretions and associated soil microorganisms).soilrootmicroorganisms Soil pollutants that are remediated by this method are generally organic compounds that cannot enter the plant because of their high hydrophobicity. Plants are generally not considered as the main mode of remediation in this technique. Rather, the plant creates a niche for rhizosphere microorganisms to do the degradation. Rhizosphere microorganisms are served by the plant acting as a solar- powered pump that draws in water and the pollutant while producing substrates that benefit microbial survival and growth. Root exudates and root turnover can serve as substrates for microorganisms that perform pollutant degradation.

80 Diunduh dari: RHIZO-REMEDIASI TANAH TERCEMAR Typical organic contaminants (organics) such as petroleum hydrocarbons, gas condensates, crude oil, chlorinated compounds, pesticides, and explosive compounds can be remediated using bioremediation. Typical inorganic contaminants (inorganics) that can be addressed include salts (salinity), heavy metals, metalloids, and radioactive materials can be treated with Bioremediation.

81 Diunduh dari: FITO-REMEDIASI TANAH TERCEMAR. In some cases, the application of bioremediation can have an immediate effect on contaminant concentrations upon planting. In other cases, it may require several seasons before the plant can interact with a contaminated zone at depth. Examples of plants applied in phytoremediation Plant name Common name Phytoremediation function Agropyron repens Wheat grass Stabilization of lead in soil Bambusa Bamboo Useful in waste management Bouteloua gracilisBlue grama Rhizodegradation of hydrocarbons Brassica oleracea Broccoli Bench tests for metal accumulation Eichhornia crassipesWater hyacinth Metals accumulation, biosorption Marsilea drummondii Nardoo TNT transformation

82 PENGENDALIAN BISING Environment technologies Diunduh dari: What types of instruments are used for measuring noise? The most common instruments used for measuring noise are the sound level meter (SLM), the integrating sound level meter (ISLM), and the noise dosimeter. It is important that you understand the calibration, operation and reading the instrument you use. The user's manual provided by the instrument manufacturer provides most of this information. Guidelines for Instrument Selection Type of MeasurementAppropriate Instruments (in order of preference) ResultComments Personal noise exposure1) DosimeterDose or equivalent sound level Most accurate for personal noise exposures 2) ISLM*Equivalent sound levelIf the worker is mobile, it may be difficult to determine a personal exposure, unless work can be easily divided into defined activities. 3) SLM**dB(A)If noise levels vary considerably, it is difficult to determine average exposure. Only useful when work can be easily divided into defined activities and noise levels are relatively stable all the time. Noise levels generated by a particular source 1) SLM**dB(A)Measurement should be taken 1 to 3 metres from source (not directly at the source). 2) ISLM**Equivalent sound level dB(A)Particularly useful if noise is highly variable; it can measure equivalent sound level over a short period of time (1 minute). Noise survey1) SLMdB(A)To produce noise map of an area; take measurements on a grid pattern. 2) ISLMEquivalent sound level dB(A)For highly variable noise. Impulse noise1) Impulse SLMPeak pressure dB(A)To measure the peak of each impulse. * SLM stands for Sound Level Meter ** ISLM stands for Integrating Sound Level Meter

83 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Noise Control Treatment Strategies Fundamentals Of Noise Control Problem Solving

84 PERMASALAHAN Noise pollution is traditionally not placed among the top environmental problems facing the society; however, it is one of the more frequently encountered sources Sources of noise pollution are extremely diverse and are constantly increasing as more and more noise-generating products become available to consumers. An estimated 6% citizens are exposed to noise that poses a threat to their hearing. In today's mechanized world it is virtually impossible for an active person to avoid exposure to potentially harmful sound levels. PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Why measure noise in the workplace? Measuring noise levels and workers' noise exposures is the most important part of a workplace hearing conservation and noise control program. It helps identify work locations where there are noise problems, employees who may be affected, and where additional noise measurements need to be made. How do you identify noise problems in the workplace? The first step is to determine whether or not noise is a potential problem in your workplace. A walk-through survey helps in making this decision. The indicators of potentially hazardous noise level include: 1.noise is louder than busy city traffic, 2.people have to raise their voice to talk to someone at one metre (3 feet) away, 3.at the end of work shift people have to increase the volume of their radio or TV to a level too loud for others, and 4.after working for a few years at that workplace, employees find it difficult to communicate in a crowd or party situation where there are other sounds or many voices. Noise measurement data from studies in similar situations are very helpful in assessing the potential noise problem.

85 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN General control measures include alteration of machines and equipment to gather up-dated machinery regarding noise prevention. Noise can be tackled through: Reduksi Di Sumber Change to quieter methods Pencegahan atau Reduksi Perbanyakannya PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Distance : Increase the distance between the source of the noise and the people Increasing the distance between a person and the noise source can reduce noise exposure considerably. Some examples of this are: 1.direct the discharge from exhausts well away from workers, eg by fitting a flexible hose to discharge exhaust several metres away from the operator. Similarly, on a mobile machine powered by an internal combustion engine the exhaust can be kept well away from the driving position; 2.use remote control or automated equipment to avoid the need for workers to spend long periods near to machines; 3.separate noisy processes to restrict the number of people exposed to high levels of noise, eg test engines in test cells which need to be entered only occasionally, make arrangements for quiet inspection tasks to be carried out away from noisy manufacturing areas, and locate unattended air compressors and refrigeration plant in separate rooms.

86 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN It is often possible to reduce noise radiation from production equipment, material handling, and work in progress; for example by damping sound radiating panels, quietening power sources and transmissions, and reducing noise from compressed air exhausts. Sometimes machine alterations or enclosures do not give sufficiently good results, and if it is the work process itself which causes intense noise it can be difficult to predict the results of noise control measures. In such cases effort might be better aimed at changing the working methods and processes themselves. REDUKSI Di Sumber PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Sound-Absorbing-Material-|-India html. NOISE CONTROL MEASURES There are ways which acoustic insulation can be used to control noise: 1.Controlling Transmission Loss – Transmission loss is the reduction in the amount of sound energy passing through the building element or assemblyroof- wall-floor. This is expressed in decibels (dB). Noise can be either impact sound or airborne 2.Controlling Sound Absorption – Typically hard surfaces have a characteristic of reflecting sound and amplifying noise reverberation. 3.Internal lining and ceiling systems – Acoustic performance systems are available from specialist suppliers.

87 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Changing the method of work is the only way to get to grips with noise generation; it requires that production equipment or part of it must be replaced and one must be aware of the availability of less noisy equipment for both production and material handling. Requires cooperation between the buyer, supplier, designer, and safety organization. Change to quieter methods PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Design and lay out the workplace for reduced noise exposure When considering using noise- absorbing materials to change the acoustic characteristics of a work area remember: environmental and workplace factors: absorption materials are available in forms which are designed to withstand physical impacts, and can be adapted to hygienic environments or where absorption of oil, water etc may be a problem; there may be a reduction in the natural light if absorption is placed in the roof; adding absorbent materials to walls and ceiling areas will only affect the reflected, reverberant sound – not the direct path of sound.

88 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Prevent propagation to avoid noise pollution can result economically more efficient than corrective measures. The noise in a workshop is often dominated by a relatively small number of intense noise sources.Try to enclose all noise sources points or keep them away from workers in the same room. By setting up sound absorbing ceiling and wall panels, noise levels within the room far from the noise sources can be reduced. Alteration and replacement of production equipment may mean that personnel monitoring this machinery do not need to be in its vicinity if monitoring can be carried out in a sound insulated control room. Prevention or reduction of propagation PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Absorbing-Material-|-India html. The sound absorption coefficient of materials varies with the sound frequency hertz (Hz). Roof and wall sound insulation concerns only the airborne sound insulation of the roof and walls of the building facade to: 1.prevent excessive transmission of external noise, for example, road traffic, rail traffic, aircraft, etc. from outside to inside 2.prevent excessive transmission of internal noise, for example, machinery noise within industrial premises, from inside to outside Sound insulation criteria are dependant on country specific regulations and client specification requirements which may also include Planning Authority constraints.

89 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN For all noise control efforts a target noise level must be set. A highest level must be defined for each place of equipment or room Guideline noise levels for specific locations Tipe RuanganTingkat Suara Tertinggi (dB) Ruang Konferensi35 Kantor40 Kantor Workshop, Ruang Istirahat 45 Laboratory, measurement room 50 Kantin50 Changing room55 Repair shop60 Area Produksi75 Fan room, compressor room90 PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

90 TIP-TIP PENGENDALIAN BISING Machinery have to be adapted to new normative, relevant materials of the machines are key to ensure appropriate noise levels. Existing equipment must be attenuated without complicated operations. Handling material can be done by consider choosing conveyor belts and controlling the speed of conveyor belt transports. Enclosure of machines can reduce noise levels at its source very effectively. Attenuation by using absorbent materials is one of the key techniques to ensure that rooms and workshops do not communicate noise pollution to each other. To ensure so, best practices are providing sound isolated rooms. PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: WHAT IS A NOISE SURVEY? A noise survey takes noise measurements throughout an entire plant or section to identify noisy areas. Noise surveys provide very useful information which enables us to identify: 1.areas where employees are likely to be exposed to harmful levels of noise and personal dosimetry may be needed, 2.machines and equipment which generate harmful levels of noise, 3.employees who might be exposed to unacceptable noise levels, and 4.noise control options to reduce noise exposure. Noise survey is conducted in areas where noise exposure is likely to be hazardous. Noise level refers to the level of sound. A noise survey involves measuring noise level at selected locations throughout an entire plant or sections to identify noisy areas. This is usually done with a sound level meter ( SLM). A reasonably accurate sketch showing the locations of workers and noisy machines is drawn. Noise level measurements are taken at a suitable number of positions around the area and are marked on the sketch. The more measurements taken, the more accurate the survey. A noise map can be produced by drawing lines on the sketch between points of equal sound level. Noise survey maps, like that in Figure 2, provide very useful information by clearly identifying areas where there are noise hazards.

91 HASIL-HASIL PENGENDALIAN BISING Mounting an absorbent roof or ceiling in a room will in general give a noise reduction of between 3 and 5 dB. Exceptionally, up to 10 dB can be obtained. Damping of vibration of small production machines by applying damping material can give between 3 and 10 dB attenuation. Factory-made screens can reduce noise from between 5 and 15 dB. Leakage where pipes pass through walls as well as acoustic leaks between walls, screens or enclosures, can produce large variations in the attenuation achieved. It is therefore important to seal air gaps carefully. PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies. NOISE CONTROL STRATEGIES FOR NATURALLY VENTILATED BUILDINGS M.H.F. De Salis, D.J. Oldham, S. Sharples Building and Environment. Volume 37, Issue 5, May 2002, Pages 471–484.Volume 37, Issue 5 Natural ventilation openings offer little resistance to noise passage as the introduction of conventional passive noisecontrol treatments will generally incur a large flow constraint. This paper reviews various noisecontrol techniques and assesses the variation of airflow characteristics with sound insulation to road traffic noise of a façade incorporating ventilation openings. It is suggested that reactive and active techniques can possibly supplement conventional passive attenuation especially in the limiting low frequency region while adding minimal flow constraint to the ventilation path. Using such hybrid systems useful broad band sound reduction may be a real possibility for natural ventilation openings.

92 PENGENDALIAN BISING PADA PROYEK BARU Noise control of new projects can be difficult to manage and implement, but very cost-effective at the long term. Implementing noise reduction measures at rooms, planning the building and purchase accurate machinery are necessary steps to execute a program for noise control. Noise abatement measures at the municipality level can reduce the background noise and establish an adequate framework to develop a detailed building code regarding noise reduction PENGENDALIAN KEBISINGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Screens and barriers - placing an obstacle between the noise source and the people Screens, barriers or walls can be placed between the source of the noise and the people to stop or reduce the direct sound. Barriers should be constructed from a dense material, eg brick or sheet steel, although chipboard and plasterboard can be used. Screens and barriers work best when they are placed close to the noise source or close to the people you are trying to protect. The higher and wider they are, the more effective they are likely to be. They work best in rooms with either high or sound- absorbent ceilings.

93 TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN Diunduh dari:.

94 LINGKUP KAJIAN PEMANTAUAN KUALITAS LINGKUNGAN Pemilihan Metode Sampling Air Sampling Groundwater Soil sampling Air sampling Noise sampling Sampling packment and shipment TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Trend and status of air quality at three different monitoring stations in the Klang Valley, Malaysia Siti Zawiyah AzmiSiti Zawiyah Azmi, Mohd Talib Latif, Aida Shafawati Ismail, Liew Juneng and Abdul Aziz JemainMohd Talib LatifAida Shafawati IsmailLiew Juneng Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health. Volume 3, Number 1 (2010), 53-64Volume 3, Number 1 Over the last decades, the development of the Klang Valley (Malaysia), as an urban commercial and industrial area, has elevated the risk of atmospheric pollutions. There are several significant sources of air pollutants which vary depending on the background of the location they originate from. The aim of this study is to determine the trend and status of air quality and their correlation with the meteorological factors at different air quality monitoring stations in the Klang Valley. The data of five major air pollutants (PM 10, CO, SO 2, O 3, NO 2 ) were recorded at the Alam Sekitar Sdn Bhd (ASMA) monitoring stations in the Klang Valley, namely Petaling Jaya (S1), Shah Alam (S2) and Gombak (S3). The data from these three stations were compared with the data recorded at Jerantut, Pahang (B), a background station established by the Malaysian Department of Environment. Results show that the concentrations of CO, NO 2 and SO 2 are higher at Petaling Jaya (S1) which is due to influence of heavy traffic. The concentrations of PM 10 and O 3, however, are predominantly related to regional tropical factors, such as the influence of biomass burning and of ultra violet radiation from sunlight. They can, though, also be influenced by local sources. There are relatively stronger inter-pollutant correlations at the stations of Gombak and Shah Alam, and the results also suggest that heavy traffic flow induces high concentrations of PM 10, CO, NO 2 and SO 2 at the three sampling stations. Additionally, meteorological factors, particularly the ambient temperature and wind speed, may influence the concentration of PM 10 in the atmosphere.

95 PERMASALAHAN In many instances, we are unaware that a problem exists until harm has been done. Damage may be in the form of disease to the surrounding population or destruction of the surrounding ecosystem. Monitoring problem areas or potential problem areas can help to limit future damage. Before beginning any sampling program, background research must be conducted to determine: -proper equipment for both sampling and personal protection, -proper sampling methodology and analytical methods, and -appropriate health and safety practices to be employed. This is especially important when handling materials which may be hazardous or radioactive. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Satellite monitoring of forest fires and associated smoke plumes occurring in Korea Y. S. Chung & H. S. Kim Air Qual Atmos Health (2008) 1:111–118 Operational research was carried out on satellite detection of forest fires and associated smoke plumes occurring in the Korean Peninsula. Forest fire data and satellite images obtained from 2004 to 2007 were examined. It was observed that at least three forest-fire episodes were caused by atmospheric lightning, while all other cases were recorded as anthropogenic causes, according to data gathered from the Korean meteorological and forestry services. For two episodes, there were 60~120 forest fires in North and South Korea, observations based on hotspots analysis. Smoke plumes transported over 1,200 km were observed. There was discussion of the role played by the emission of heated air and greenhouse gases in general warming and climate change in regional and global atmospheres, e.g., Arctic ice melting. With global warming, ice over the Arctic Ocean is melting significantly in summer (Chung and Le, Int J Remote Sens 25(2):front cover and 291–296, 2004). The suppression of forest fires caused by human activities is suggested to improve the atmospheric environment and to prevent climate change in the near future.

96 MEMILIH METODE Methods used to obtain data regarding contamination of soil, air, and water, have to take into account the following factors: -The program objective (documenting exposures. determining regulatory compliance -The type of material to be sampled (soil, vegetation, air, water, sludge, etc.). -The physical and chemical properties of the contaminant. -Other contaminants that affect the results. -Regulatory requirements and safety -Costs -Reliability. -Scale of sample area (small-scale site related to individual persons versus a large-scale site). -Short- versus long-term sampling requirement TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Role of science and judgment in setting national ambient air quality standards: how low is low enough? Roger O. McClellan Air Qual Atmos Health (2012) 5:243–258 The Clean Air Act (CAA) requires listing as criteria air pollutants those pollutants that arise from multiple sources and are found across the United States. The original list included carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, particulate matter, photochemical oxidants (later regulated as ozone), and hydrocarbons. Later, the listing of hydrocarbons was revoked and lead was listed. The CAA requires the EPA Administrator to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for these pollutants using the “latest scientific knowledge” at levels that, in the judgment of the Administrator, are “requisite to protect public health” while “allowing an adequate margin of safety” without considering the cost of implementing the NAAQS. I conclude that scientists should carefully distinguish between their interpretations of scientific knowledge on specific pollutants and their personal preferences as to a given policy outcome (i.e., specific level and form of the NAAQS), recognizing that these are policy judgments as to acceptable levels of risk if the science does not identify a threshold level below which there are no identifiable health risks. These policy judgments are exclusively delegated by the CAA to the EPA Administrator who needs to articulate the basis for their policy judgments on the level and form of the NAAQS and associated level of acceptable risk.

97 SAMPLING Several factors must be accomplished to carry on an adequate sampling practice:  samples must represent the conditions existing at the point taken.  samples must be of sufficient volume and must be taken frequently enough to permit reproducibility of testing requisite for the desired objective, as conditioned by the method of analysis to be employed.  the samples must be collected, packed, shipped, and manipulated prior to analysis in a manner that safeguards against change in the particular constituents or properties to be examined. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:. Community Capacity for Watershed Conservation: A Quantitative Assessment of Indicators and Core Dimensions Elliot Brinkman, Erin Seekamp, Mae A. Davenport and Joan M. BrehmMae A. Davenport Online First™, 10 August Environmental Management. Community capacity for watershed management has emerged as an important topic for the conservation of water resources. While much of the literature on community capacity has focused primarily on theory construction, there have been few efforts to quantitatively assess community capacity variables and constructs, particularly for watershed management and conservation. This study seeks to identify predictors of community capacity for watershed conservation in southwestern Illinois. A subwatershed-scale survey of residents from four communities located within the Lower Kaskaskia River watershed of southwestern Illinois was administered to measure three specific capacity variables: community empowerment, shared vision and collective action. Principal component analysis revealed key dimensions of each variable. Specifically, collective action was characterized by items relating to collaborative governance and social networks, community empowerment was characterized by items relating to community competency and a sense of responsibility and shared vision was characterized by items relating to perceptions of environmental threats, issues with development, environmental sense of place and quality of life. From the emerging factors, composite measures were calculated to determine the extent to which each variable contributed to community capacity. A stepwise regression revealed that community empowerment explained most of the variability in the composite measure of community capacity for watershed conservation. This study contributes to the theoretical understanding of community capacity by quantifying the role of collective action, community empowerment and shared vision in community capacity, highlighting the need for multilevel interaction to address watershed issues.

98 SAMPLING AIR Water sampling methodologies include: -Grab sample -Composite sample -Continuous flowing sample Collection of a grab sample of water at a specific site representing conditions only at the time of sampling. Applicable to sampling water from sources such as wells, rivers, streams, lakes and oceans for chemical, physical, bacteriological, or radiological analysis Collection of a composite sample at a specific site, portions of which are collected at varied time intervals. Alternatively, the composite may consist of portions collected at various sites or may consist of a combination of both site and time variables. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

99 SAMPLING AIR Continuous flowing sample, from one or more sampling sites, suitable for on-stream analysers. Applicable to sampling water from sources such as wells, rivers, streams, lakes, oceans, and reservoirs on a continual basis for chemical, physical, or radiological analyses Apparatus used are: -Delivery valve or pump. -Piping system. -Flow regulation system -Waste disposal system. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Ground-root sewage plant Ground-root sewage plants with willow or common reed beds seem to be especially efficient. In densely-populated areas where the buildings have sewage systems, the local community authorities together with the farmers, should try to build communal sewage disposal systems..

100 PEMANTAUAN AIR TANAH = GROUNDWATER MONITORING It is developed by delineating contamination plumes, and establishing the integrity of hazardous material management facilities. Goal in sampling groundwater monitoring wells is to obtain samples that are truly representative of the aquifer or groundwater in question. Water that stands within a monitoring well for a long period of time may become unrepresentative of formation water because chemical or biochemical change may cause water-quality alterations; and even if it is unchanged from the time it entered the well, the stored water may not be representative of formation water at the time of sampling. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: MEASURING HOW NITROGEN TRANSFORMS IN GROUNDWATER Single-well tracer tests involve injecting a tracer solution into one port of a multilevel sampling well, creating a tracer cloud in the groundwater, and then monitoring the water chemistry in the tracer cloud from the same well as the tracer cloud moves away from the well.

101 SAMPLING TANAH Two portions of the soil that are important to the environmental scientist: 0-15 cm layer Upper meter The surface layer (0-15 cm) reflects the deposition of airborne pollutants, especially those recently deposited pollutants. Pollutants that have been deposited by liquid spills or by long-term deposition of water-soluble materials may be found at depths ranging up to several meters. Plumes emanating from hazardous waste dumps or from leaking storage tanks may be found at considerable depths. The methods of sampling each of these are slightly different, but all make use of one of two basic techniques. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

102 PERLENGKAPAN SAMPLING TANAH Samples can be collected with some form of core sampling or auger device, or they may be collected by use of excavations or trenches. In the latter case, the samples are cut from the soil mass with spades or short punches. Techniques that are utilized should be closely coordinated with the analytical laboratory in order to meet the specific requirements of the analytical methods used. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Typical soil sampling procedures Chapter 4: Sampling and Analyzing Food Processing Residuals Figure 4.2 Typical soil sampling procedure

103 SAMPLING TANAH PERMUKAAN (TOPSOIL) Use of a punch or thin-walled steel tube that is cm long to extract short cores from the soil. Tube is driven into the soil with a wooden mallet; the core and the robe are extracted; and the soil is pushed out of the tube into a stainless steel mixing bowl. Using a seamless steel ring, approximately cm in diameter, the ring is driven into the soil to a depth of cm. The ring is extracted as a soil-ring unit, and the soil is removed for analysis. Perhaps the most undesirable sample collection device is the shovel or scoop. Often used in agriculture, but where samples are being taken for chemical pollutants, the inconsistencies are to be great. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: To desalinize soil under existing trees Without treatment, salt steadily accumulates. With treatment, salt levels fall to equilibrium with salt in water.

104 SAMPLING PERMUKAAN DANGKAL Sampling pollutants that have moved into the lower soil horizons requires the use of a device that will extract a longer core than can be obtained with the short probes or punches. Three basic methods are used for sampling these deeper soils -Soil probes or soil augers -Power-driven corers -Trenching Samples should be collected at least every 1.5 m or in each distinct stratum. Additional samples should be collected where sand lenses or thin silt and sand lovers appear in the profile. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: To fight against desertification through Nitrobacter activation Effect on the Nitrobacters with drip line irrigation.

105 SAMPLING UDARA Investigations of atmospheric contaminants involve the study of a heterogeneous mass under uncontrolled conditions. Interpretation of the data derived from the air-sampling program must often be based on the statistical theory of probability. Extreme care must be observed to obtain measurements over a sufficient length of time to obtain results that may be considered representative. Choice of sampling techniques and measurement methodology, the characteristics of the sites, the number of sampling stations, and the amount of data collected all depend on the objectives of the monitoring program MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies Diunduh dari: UCB (University of California, Barkeley) Air Sampling Experimental Setup - System A The air sampling system resides on the top of Etcheverry Hall and consists of three sets of air pumps that suction air through a tube connected to a flow meter and a 0.2 micron filter. Most air particles will be deposited within the filter and this is the media we use to detect radioactivity. After a period of time, the filters are removed from the pump apparatus and transported to our radiation counting laboratory. Our detector is a high-purity germanium (10%) detector that is surrounded by a 2" thick lead "cave" as shown below. The lead shields the detector from most normal background radiation that is emitted from materials such as concrete walls, floors, etc. within the laboratory. The filter is placed in a calibrated position near the detector and the cave is completely closed. Once the counting acquisition begins, if radioactive particles are present on the filter, the particles will decay and emit gamma radiation which may penetrate the detector surface and interact within the germanium semiconductor crystal. This will liberate electrons which produce a current proportional to the energy deposited by the gamma-ray photon. Our acquisition system then determines the energy by analyzing the signal pulse passed out of the detector to our computing system. After many interactions occur, the resulting spectra, shown below, will contain a number of discrete "lines" or "peaks" that are signatures used to discern the type of particles deposited within the filter.

106 TUJUAN SAMPLING UDARA TUJUAN SAMPLING UDARA HEALTH and VEGETATION EFFECTS STUDIES BACKGROUND EVAUATIONS AIR QUALITY CRITERIA and STANDARD SETTING POLLUTION ABATEMENT PROGRAMS ANALYSIS TREND ANALYSIS ACTIVATION of EMERGENCY PROCEDURES DEVELOPMENT of AIR POLLUTION CONTROL STRATEGIES CONTROL REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies Diunduh dari:.

107 FAKTOR SAMPLING UDARA The topography, demography, and micrometeorology of the area, as well as the contaminant measured, must be considered in determining the number of monitoring stations required in the area. A map of the locations of the sampling stations is desirable in describing the sampling station. Multiple samplers or monitors operating simultaneously upwind and downwind from the source are often very valuable and efficient. Choice of procedure for the air sampling is dependent on the contaminant to be measured. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: METODE SAMPLING UDARA PASIF Passive air sampling device consists of two stainless steel bowls attached to the common axes to form a protective chamber for the polyurethane foam filter. The filter is attached to the same rod and it is sheltered against the wet and dry atmospheric deposition, wind and UV light. Exposure times between four and twelve weeks enable determination of many compounds from the POP group. Average sampling rate was estimated to be 3.5 m3/day which roughly corresponds to 100 m3 of the air sampled during four weeks of deployment. Scheme of the passive air sampling device

108 PEDOMAN SAMPLING UDARA The height of the inlet to the sampling duct should normally be from 2.5 to 5 m above ground whenever possible. Height of the inlet above the sampling station structure or vegetation adjacent to the station should be greater than 1 m. Sampling should preferably be through a vertical inlet with an inverted cone over the opening. For a horizontal inlet, there should be a minimum of 2 m from the face of the structure. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies AL-SALEM, S. M.AL-SALEM, S. M. and KHAN, A R..KHAN, A R. Comparative assessment of ambient air quality in two urban areas adjacent to petroleum downstream/upstream facilities in Kuwait. Braz. J. Chem. Eng. [online]. 2008, vol.25, n.4, pp Air quality data (ground level ozone (O 3 ), NO, NOx, SO 2, CO, H 2 S and NH 3 ) of two Kuwaiti urban areas adjacent to petroleum processing facilities, Fahaheel and Al- Riqa, were analyzed and compared to evaluate: (1) the exceedances of the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA) air quality limits, (2) primary air pollution sources and their contribution to the ambient load, (3) diurnal patterns of air pollutants and (4) the "weekend effect"on O 3 levels. High O 3 levels, above the threshold limit for human health, were observed in both urban areas. CO, NOx and NO levels in Fahaheel were higher than in Al-Riqa. Combustion sources (which exist close to Fahaheel) drive both NOx and NO diurnal patterns in both areas. Emissions from downstream facilities and the activity of Fahaheel highway affect the CO levels in the areas. Concentration roses were plotted for annual durations to examine the primary dominant sources of air pollution in both study areas. By establishing a Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) model around the two receptor points in both areas, it was revealed that the downstream facilities sector was the main contributor of air pollutants in Fahaheel. CMB model gave a 70% average contribution of the sector to the Fahaheel receptor point. However, 70% of the total contribution of the studied sources in Al-Riqa urban area was from the traffic and line sources side. The examination of the rate of O 3 accumulation, during the high O 3 period in Kuwait (April-October), revealed the occurrence of two phases, a fast and a slow one, with different durations in each urban area. Regression equations were used to study the midweek effect of O 3 levels. This study supports the hypothesis that O 3 weekend variation is due to an NOx emission difference between weekends and weekdays and VOCs sensitivity.

109 PEDOMAN SAMPLING UDARA For access to representative ambient air in the area sampled, the elevation angle from the inlet to the top of nearby buildings should be less than 30°. To be representative of the area in which a large segment of the population is exposed to contaminants emitted by automobiles, the inlet should be at a distance greater than 15 m from the nearest high-volume traffic artery. Photochemical oxidants or ozone samplers should be located at distances greater than 50 m from high-volume-traffic locations. Particulate matter samplers should be sited at locations that are greater than 200 m from unpaved streets or roads. TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies GROSJEAN, EricGROSJEAN, Eric and GROSJEAN, Daniel.GROSJEAN, Daniel Formation of Ozone in Urban Air by Photochemical Oxidation of Hydrocarbons: Captive Air Experiments in Porto Alegre, RS. J. Braz. Chem. Soc. [online]. 1998, vol.9, n.2, pp Captive air experiments have been carried out at a downtown location in Porto Alegre, RS, where both methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and ethanol are being used as oxygenated fuels. In a captive air experiment, ambient air is introduced in a Teflon chamber and exposed to sunlight for several hours, thus allowing photochemical reactions to take place under "real-world" conditions. Parameters measured in six experiments, the first of their kind to be carried out in Brazil, included oxides of nitrogen (NO and NO 2 ), carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, ca. 75 non- methane hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, ethanol, MTBE, and the photochemical oxidants ozone and peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Photochemical conversion of NO to NO 2 and photochemical production of ozone (maximum concentrations ppb) and PAN (maximum ppb) were observed in all experiments, together with net (formation minus removal) photochemical production of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. For each experiment, the contributions of each pollutant to reaction with the hydroxyl radical (OH) and to the production of ozone have been calculated. The results indicate that on the average the following 10 compounds are the most important with respect to the production of ozone (listed in order of decreasing importance): ethylene, carbon monoxide, acetaldehyde, (m + p)-xylene, formaldehyde, propene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene, toluene, ethanol and trans-2- pentene. MTBE makes only a small contribution to reaction with OH (ranked #27) and to the production of ozone (ranked #30), and plays only a minor photochemical role in the atmosphere of Porto Alegre.

110 SAMPLING KEBISINGAN To avoid noise pollution, it is very relevant to have an appropriate estimation of noise level at the place of work through modern and accurate techniques and measuring tools. Background noise can be very relevant at factories located around main highways, close to the airports. Sound-level meter is best used attached to the person exposed. Noise sampling has to take into account internal and external measures to the workplace TEKNOLOGI PEMANTAUAN LINGKUNGAN Environment technologies Diunduh dari: Hearing/Pages/NoiseControl.aspx. Noise level measurement In, measuring sound levels, instruments are used which resemble the human ear in sensitivity to noise composed of varying frequencies. The instruments measure the "A-weighted sound level" in units called dB(A). Workplace noise measurements indicate the combined sound levels of tool noise from a number of sources (machinery and materials handling) and background noise (from ventilation systems, cooling compressors, circulation pumps, etc.).

111 . BIOCHAR INCORPORATION INTO PASTURE SOIL SUPPRESSES IN SITU NITROUS OXIDE EMISSIONS FROM RUMINANT URINE PATCHES Arezoo Taghizadeh-Toosi, Tim J. Clough, Leo M. Condron, Robert R. Sherlock, Craig R. Anderson and Robin A. Craigie JEQ Vol. 40 No. 2, p Diunduh dari: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/40/2/468.. Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) emissions from grazing animal excreta are estimated to be responsible for 1.5 Tg of the total 6.7 Tg of anthropogenic N 2 O emissions. This study was conducted to determine the in situ effect of incorporating biochar, into soil, on N 2 O emissions from bovine urine patches and associated pasture uptake of N. The effects of biochar rate (0–30 t ha −1 ), following soil incorporation, were investigated on ruminant urine-derived N 2 O fluxes, N uptake by pasture, and pasture yield. During an 86-d spring-summer period, where irrigation and rainfall occurred, the N 2 O fluxes from 15 N labeled ruminant urine patches were reduced by >50%, after incorporating 30 t ha −1 of biochar. Taking into account the N 2 O emissions from the control plots, 30 t ha −1 of biochar reduced the N 2 O emission factor from urine by 70%. The atom% 15 N enrichment of the N 2 O emitted was lower in the 30 t ha −1 biochar treatment, indicating less urine-N contributed to the N 2 O flux. Soil NO 3 − -N concentrations were lower with increasing biochar rate during the first 30 d following urine deposition. No differences occurred, due to biochar addition, with respect to dry matter yields, herbage N content, or recovery of 15 N applied in herbage. Incorporating biochar into the soil can significantly diminish ruminant urine- derived N 2 O emissions. Further work is required to determine the persistence of the observed effect and to fully understand the mechanism(s) of the observed reduction in N 2 O fluxes.

112 . EVALUATING CHANGES IN MATRIX-BASED, RECOVERY- ADJUSTED CONCENTRATIONS IN PAIRED DATA FOR PESTICIDES IN GROUNDWATER Tammy M. Zimmerman and Kevin J. Breen JEQ Vol. 41 No. 4, p Diunduh dari: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/41/4/ Pesticide concentration data for waters from selected carbonate-rock aquifers in agricultural areas of Pennsylvania were collected in 1993–2009 for occurrence and distribution assessments. A set of 30 wells was visited once in 1993–1995 and again in 2008–2009 to assess concentration changes. The data include censored matched pairs (nondetections of a compound in one or both samples of a pair). A potentially improved approach for assessing concentration changes is presented where (i) concentrations are adjusted with models of matrix-spike recovery and (ii) area-wide temporal change is tested by use of the paired Prentice-Wilcoxon (PPW) statistical test. The PPW results for atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, prometon, and an atrazine degradate, deethylatrazine (DEA), are compared using recovery- adjusted and unadjusted concentrations. Results for adjusted compared with unadjusted concentrations in 2008–2009 compared with 1993–1995 were similar for atrazine and simazine (significant decrease; 95% confidence level) and metolachlor (no change) but differed for DEA (adjusted, decrease; unadjusted, increase) and prometon (adjusted, decrease; unadjusted, no change). The PPW results were different on recovery-adjusted compared with unadjusted concentrations. Not accounting for variability in recovery can mask a true change, misidentify a change when no true change exists, or assign a direction opposite of the true change in concentration that resulted from matrix influences on extraction and laboratory method performance. However, matrix-based models of recovery derived from a laboratory performance dataset from multiple studies for national assessment, as used herein, rather than time- and study-specific recoveries may introduce uncertainty in recovery adjustments for individual samples that should be considered in assessing change. JEQ : JOURNAL OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

113 . RISK ASSESSMENT OF AQUIFER STORAGE TRANSFER AND RECOVERY WITH URBAN STORMWATER FOR PRODUCING WATER OF A POTABLE QUALITY Declan Page, Peter Dillon, Joanne Vanderzalm, Simon Toze, Jatinder Sidhu, Karen Barry, Kerry Levett, Sarah Kremer and Rudi Regel. JEQ. Vol. 39 No. 6, p Diunduh dari: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/39/6/2029. The objective of the Parafield Aquifer Storage Transfer and Recovery research project in South Australia is to determine whether stormwater from an urban catchment that is treated in a constructed wetland and stored in an initially brackish aquifer before recovery can meet potable water standards. The water produced by the stormwater harvesting system, which included a constructed wetland, was found to be near potable quality. Parameters exceeding the drinking water guidelines before recharge included small numbers of fecal indicator bacteria and elevated iron concentrations and associated color. This is the first reported study of a managed aquifer recharge (MAR) scheme to be assessed following the Australian guidelines for MAR. A comprehensive staged approach to assess the risks to human health and the environment of this project has been undertaken, with 12 hazards being assessed. A quantitative microbial risk assessment undertaken on the water recovered from the aquifer indicated that the residual risks posed by the pathogenic hazards were acceptable if further supplementary treatment was included. Residual risks from organic chemicals were also assessed to be low based on an intensive monitoring program. Elevated iron concentrations in the recovered water exceeded the potable water guidelines. Iron concentrations increased after underground storage but would be acceptable after postrecovery aeration treatment. Arsenic concentrations in the recovered water continuously met the guideline concentrations acceptable for potable water supplies. However, the elevated concentration of arsenic in native groundwater and its presence in aquifer minerals suggest that the continuing acceptable residual risk from arsenic requires further evaluation.

114 ENERGY EFFICIENT INDOOR VOC AIR CLEANING WITH ACTIVATED CARBON FIBER (ACF) FILTERS Sidheswaran, M.A.Sidheswaran, M.A.; Destaillats, H.; Sullivan, D.P.; S. Cohn; Fisk, W.J.Destaillats, H.Sullivan, D.P.S. Cohn Building and Environment, Issue 47, p (2012) Diunduh dari: cleaning-activated-carbon-fiber-acf-filters. This study explores the potential environmental and energy benefits of using activated carbon fiber (ACF) filters for air cleaning in HVAC systems. The parallel aims for the air cleaning system were to enable reduced indoor exposures to volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and to simultaneously allow reduced rates and energy consumption for outdoor-air ventilation. We evaluated the use of ACF media to adsorb VOCs from indoor air during repeated simulated 12-hour to 24-hour periods of occupancy. In a cyclic regeneration process, VOCs were desorbed from the ACF media and vented outdoors to enable the next cycle of air cleaning. The VOC removal efficiency of the ACF media was measured using a 9.5-cm2 ACF specimen exposed to a mixture of VOCs that included toluene, benzene, o-xylene, 1-butanol, limonene, undecane and formaldehyde at 29 oC and 30% relative humidity. The concentrations of these model pollutants upstream of the ACF media were in the range 20 to 30 ppb, to simulate realistic conditions. Velocities through the ACF media were typical of those in normal particle filter systems (~0.5 m s-1). Initial tests were conducted to develop a modified multi- component Freundlich isotherm and estimate the maximum adsorption capacity of the media, which was determined to be 90 mg VOC per gram of ACF. Three different ACF regeneration methods were explored using relatively cleaner outdoor air under ambient conditions, with this air humidified, and with the filter heated. It was found that heating the ACF media to ~ 150 oC by circulation of a DC current through the fibers for a short period (15 minutes) yielded the best VOC removal results, allowing for subsequent consistent removal efficiencies of 70 – 80% for most VOCs. Regeneration with unheated outdoor air was also effective and used less energy (subsequent removal efficiency was 50 – 60% for most VOCs). ACF did not perform as well in eliminating formaldehyde, for which a maximum removal of 25-30% was achieved with heated regeneration. A mass balance model indicated that the combination of ACF air cleaning and a 50% reduction in ventilation will decrease indoor concentrations of VOCs by 60% to 80% and reduce formaldehyde concentrations by 12% to 40%. Energy modeling indicated the potential to reduce the energy required for heating and cooling of ventilation air by 35% to almost 50%.

115 SECONDARY POLLUTANTS FROM OZONE REACTIONS WITH VENTILATION FILTERS AND DEGRADATION OF FILTER MEDIA ADDITIVES Destaillats, H.Destaillats, H.; Wenhao Chen; Apte, M.G.; Nuan Li; Spears, M.; Jérémie Almosni; Gregory Brunner; Jianshun (Jensen) Zhang; Fisk, W.J.Wenhao ChenApte, M.G.Nuan LiSpears, M.Jérémie AlmosniGregory BrunnerJianshun (Jensen) Zhang Atmospheric Environment, Volume 45, Issue 21, p (2011) Diunduh dari: ventilation-filters-and-degradation-filter-media. Prior research suggests that chemical processes taking place on the surface of particle filters employed in buildings may lead to the formation of harmful secondary byproducts. We investigated ozone reactions with fiberglass, polyester, cotton/polyester and polyolefin filter media, as well as hydrolysis of filter media additives. Studies were carried out on unused media, and on filters that were installed for 3 months in buildings at two different locations in the San Francisco Bay Area. Specimens from each filter media were exposed to ~150 ppbv ozone in a flow tube under a constant flow of dry or humidified air (50% RH). Ozone breakthrough was recorded for each sample over periods of ~1000 min; the ozone uptake rate was calculated for an initial transient period and for steady-state conditions. While ozone uptake was observed in all cases, we did not observe significant differences in the uptake rate and capacity for the various types of filter media tested. Most experiments were performed at an airflow rate of 1.3 L/min (face velocity = m/s), and a few tests were also run at higher rates (8 to 10 L/min). Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, two oxidation byproducts, were quantified downstream of each sample. Those aldehydes (m/z 31 and 45) and other volatile byproducts (m/z 57, 59, 61 and 101) were also detected in real-time using Proton-Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS). Low-ppbv byproduct emissions were consistently higher under humidified air than under dry conditions, and were higher when the filters were loaded with particles, as compared with unused filters. No significant differences were observed when ozone reacted over various types of filter media. Fiberglass filters heavily coated with impaction oil (tackifier) showed higher formaldehyde emissions than other samples. Those emissions were particularly high in the case of used filters, and were observed even in the absence of ozone, suggesting that hydrolysis of additives, rather than ozonolysis, is the main formaldehyde source in those filters. Emission rates of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde were not found to be large enough to substantially increase indoor concentrations in typical building scenarios. Nevertheless, ozone reactions on HVAC filters cannot be ignored as a source of low levels of indoor irritants

116 . Air Filter Materials, Outdoor Ozone and Building-Related Symptoms in the BASE Study Buchanan, I.S.Buchanan, I.S.; Mendell, M.J.; Mirer, A.G.; Apte, M.G.Mendell, M.J.Mirer, A.G.Apte, M.G. Indoor Air, Volume 18, p (2008) Diunduh dari: ozone-and-building-related-symptoms-base-study. Used ventilation air filters have been shown to reduce indoor environmental quality and worker performance and increase symptoms, with effects stronger after reaction of filters with ozone. We analyzed data from the U.S. EPA Building Assessment Survey and Evaluation (BASE) study to determine if ozone and specific filter media have interactive effects on building-related symptoms (BRS). We analyzed a subset of 34 buildings from the BASE study of 100 U.S. office buildings to determine the separate and joint associations of filter medium (polyester/synthetic (PS) or fiberglass (FG)) and outdoor ozone concentration (above/below the median, 67.6 mg/m3) with BRS. Using logistic regression models and general estimating equations, we estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for the association of filter medium, ozone, and filter medium*ozone with BRS. Relative to FG+low ozone, PS alone or high ozone alone each were significantly (p<0.05) associated only with fatigue/difficulty concentrating (ORs = 1.93, 1.54, respectively). However, joint exposure to both PS+high ozone, relative to FG+low ozone, had significant associations with lower and upper respiratory, cough, eye, fatigue, and headache BRS (ORs ranged from ). Joint ORs for PS+high ozone for lower and upper respiratory and headache BRS were much greater than multiplicative, with interaction p-values < Attributable risk proportion (ARP) estimates indicate that removing both risk factors might, given certain assumptions, reduce BRS by 26%-62%. These findings suggest possible adverse health consequences from chemical interactions between outdoor ozone and PS filters in buildings. Results need confirmation before recommending changes in building operation. However, if additional research confirms causality, ARP estimates indicate that appropriate filter selection may substantially reduce BRS in buildings, especially in high ozone areas. JIA : JOURNAL OF INDOOR AIR

117 . QUANTIFICATION OF THE ASSOCIATION OF VENTILATION RATES WITH SICK BUILDING SYNDROME SYMPTOMS Fisk, W.J.Fisk, W.J.; Mirer, A.G.; Mendell, M.J.Mirer, A.G. Proceedings of the Indoor Air 2008, Copenhagen, Denmark, Paper 730 (2008) Diunduh dari: ventilation-rates-sick-building-syndrome-symptoms. Data from published studies were combined and analyzed to develop best-fit equations and curves quantifying the change in sick building syndrome (SBS) symptom prevalence with ventilation rate. For each study, slopes were calculated, representing the fractional change in SBS symptom prevalence per unit change in ventilation rate per person. Values of ventilation rate, associated with each value of slope, were also calculated. Linear regression equations were fit to the resulting data points, after weighting by study size. Integration of the slopeventilation rate equations yielded curves of relative SBS symptom prevalence versus ventilation rate. Based on these analyses, relative SBS symptom prevalence increases approximately 23% (12% to 32%) as the ventilation rate drops from 10 to 5 L/s- person and relative prevalence decreases approximately 29% (15% to 42%) as ventilation rate increases from 10 to 25 L/s-person.

118 . CONTROL OF TEMPERATURE FOR HEALTH AND PRODUCTIVITY IN OFFICES Seppänen, O.Seppänen, O.; Fisk, W.J. ASHRAE Transactions, Volume 111, Number 2, p (2005) Diunduh dari: productivity-offices.. Indoor temperature is one of the fundamental characteristics of the indoor environment. It can be controlled with different accuracy depending on the building and its HVAC system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential benefits of improved temperature control, and apply the information for a cost-benefit analyses. The indoor temperature affects several human responses, including thermal comfort, perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance in work. In this study we focused on the effects of temperature on performance in work. We collected and analyzed the literature relating the performance in work and temperature. The results of multiple studies are relatively consistent and show an average relationship of 2% decrement in work performance per degree oC when the temperature is above 25oC. Less data were available on the performance in low temperatures. However, studies show a strong effect on manual tasks with temperatures below thermal neutrality as soon as the temperature of hands decreased due to control of blood flow. When the estimated productivity decrement from elevated temperetures was applied to data from a study of night-time ventilative cooling, the estimated value of productivty improvements were 32 to 120 times greater than the cost of energy to run fans during the night.

119 . AIR POLLUTION CONTROL AND DECREASING NEW PARTICLE FORMATION LEAD TO STRONG CLIMATE WARMING R. Makkonen 1, A. Asmi 1, V.-M. Kerminen 1,2, M. Boy 1, A. Arneth 3,4, P. Hari 5, and M. Kulmala Atmos. Chem. Phys., 12, , 2012 Diunduh dari: html. The number concentration of cloud droplets determines several climatically relevant cloud properties. A major cause for the high uncertainty in the indirect aerosol forcing is the availability of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), which in turn is highly sensitive to atmospheric new particle formation. Here we present the effect of new particle formation on anthropogenic aerosol forcing in present-day (year 2000) and future (year 2100) conditions. The present-day total aerosol forcing is increased from −1.0 W m −2 to −1.6 W m −2 when nucleation is introduced into the model. Nucleation doubles the change in aerosol forcing between years 2000 and 2100, from +0.6 W m −2 to +1.4 W m −2. Two climate feedbacks are studied, resulting in additional negative forcings of −0.1 W m −2 (+10% DMS emissions in year 2100) and −0.5 W m −2 (+50% BVOC emissions in year 2100). With the total aerosol forcing diminishing in response to air pollution control measures taking effect, warming from increased greenhouse gas concentrations can potentially increase at a very rapid rate.

120 . AIR POLLUTION CONTROL METHODS C. David Cooper Published Online: 5 JAN Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology Diunduh dari: abstract.. Air pollution is defined as the presence in the outdoor atmosphere (ambient air) of one or more contaminants in such quantities and for such duration as to be harmful or injurious to human health or welfare, animal or plant life, or property, or may unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or property. It is useful to study the causes and sources of the various air pollutants, as well as their physical and chemical characteristics and these are discussed. There are many different air pollutants, all with differing physical and chemical characteristics, as well as a vast number and variety of air pollution sources. Therefore, a good understanding of the pollutants and their sources is necessary before a particular control technology can be selected for best application to any particular situation. Some of the most common pollutants have been well known for decades, and continue to be emitted at rates exceeding millions of tons per year (in the United States alone). These “traditional” air pollutants include particulate matter (PM), sulfur oxides (SO x ), nitrogen oxides (NO x ), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and carbon monoxide (CO). Another major pollutant is ground-level ozone (O 3 ). Ozone is not emitted directly; rather it is formed by photochemical reactions in the atmosphere between NO x and VOCs. Other important pollutants include lead (as leaded gasoline was phased out in the 1980s, the U.S. emissions of lead into the atmosphere dropped by 95% or more), hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), including lead, mercury, formaldehyde, benzene, and many others, several ozone-depleting compounds (such as chlorofluorocarbons), and greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and methane (CH 4 ). A brief review of the pollutants is presented here. Air pollution regulations are discussed. Sampling and control of air pollution is detailed. This includes information on the control of gaseous emissions, particulate matter emissions and mobile source emissions. Methods and sampling for control of odors is included.

121 . Estimation of monetary value for vegetation's air purification services supported by GIS - A case study in Xi'an, China Ma XinhuiMa Xinhui, Wu Bingfang ; Huang HuipingWu Bingfang Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS '04. Proceedings IEEE InternationalGeoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, IGARSS '04. Proceedings IEEE International. Volume: 7. Page(s): vol.7 Diunduh dari: %2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D In the present study an attempt has been made to evaluate the value of vegetations' air purification supported by Geographic Information System. Based on the theory and model about valuation of vegetations' air purification services, the material quantities and value of vegetations' air purification in Xi'an city were achieved. The results showed as the follows. Vegetations' air purification services included CO 2 fixation, O 2 release, pollutants absorption (SO 2, HF, NO X ), dust retention, and sterilization. The total value of vegetations' air purification was million Yuan per year, which was six percent of Xian's GDP in Its value of CO 2 fixation and O 2 release was million Yuan per year, and that of absorbing the three pollutants, SO 2, HF, NO X, was million Yuan. Their dust retention and sterilization value were and million Yuan respectively. Using GIS's capabilities for inputting, storage, mapping, analysis and display of spatial data, we obtained spatial map of vegetations' air purification value in Xi'an and discussed the discrepancies of different vegetation types' air purification services.

122 . Environ Health Perspect December; 27: 139–147. Plants as bioassay systems for monitoring atmospheric pollutants William A. Feder Diunduh dari: Plant species act as natural bioindicators of atmospheric pollutants. Plants can be used as bioassay systems for monitoring atmospheric pollutants. Plant injury symptoms, altered growth and reproductive pattern, changes in yield and/or productivity, and changes in species distribution can be used singly or in combination as monitoring devices. The results must be accepted as semiquantitative, but within that constraint, air quality can be sufficiently well defined to enable the setting of air quality standards. Genetic variability of higher plant species has yielded cultivars which display a range of tolerance to gaseous and particulate atmospheric pollutants. Asexual propagation of these cultivars provides pollutant-sensitive and pollutant-tolerant plant material which can be grown on selected sites for observation. Gymnosperm and Angiosperm species as well as species of lichens and mosses have been used to establish field monitoring networks in Europe, Canada, and the United States. White pine, shade tobacco, mosses, and lichens have proven particularly useful as bioassay tools. Pollen from pollutant-sensitive and pollutant-tolerant plant cultivars has also been used as a sensitive laboratory bioassay tool for studying air quality. Epiphytic mosses are particularly efficient as monitors of particulate pollutants, especially heavy metals, some of which may act as chemical mutagens. The cost, complexity, and lack of reliability of instrumented systems for air quality monitoring make imperative the need to develop successful plant bioassay systems for monitoring air quality.

123 . Tuesday, 24 January 2012: 8:30 AM STREET CANYON VEGETATION VERY EFFECTIVELY IMPROVES URBAN AIR QUALITY ROOM 339 (NEW ORLEANS CONVENTION CENTER ) Thomas A.M. Pugh, Lancaster Univ., Lancaster, Lancashire, United Kingdom; and A. R. MacKenzie, J. D. Whyatt, and C. N. Hewitt Diunduh dari: https://ams.confex.com/ams/92Annual/webprogram/Paper html. Street-level concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ) and particulate matter less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 10 ), exceed public health standards in many cities, causing increased mortality and morbidity. Concentrations can be reduced by controlling emissions, increasing dispersion, or increasing deposition rates, but relatively little attention has been paid to the latter as a pollution control method. Both NO 2 and PM 10 are dry deposited onto surfaces at rates that vary according to the nature of the surface; typically low for urban surfaces such as brick, but much higher for vegetated surfaces. Previously, city-scale studies have suggested that deposition to urban vegetation makes very modest improvements to urban air quality; less than 5% even when the surface is fully covered by trees. However, these studies do not take account of the interplay between urban form and vegetation. Street canyons limit mixing between street-level air and the overlying urban boundary layer (UBL), effectively trapping air within them, an effect which increases as the aspect (height/width) ratio increases. As a result, increasing deposition within street canyons is far more effective at reducing pollutant concentrations than increasing deposition directly from the UBL. By developing and applying a new model of deposition, mixing and chemistry within street canyons, we show that increasing deposition by the planting of vegetation in street canyons, particularly green walls, can reduce street-level concentrations by as much as 40% for NO 2 and 60% for PM 10. Our results suggest that the further limitations in mixing provided by street trees (or increases in canyon aspect ratio) in many cases increase the deposition efficiency sufficiently that they yield an improvement in in-canyon air quality, counter to the results of mixing-only studies. Hence, we believe the benefits of vegetation for air quality have been substantially undervalued. Importantly, whereas previous studies have relied on large-scale urban greening to achieve a significant air quality improvement, we show that these substantial local improvements can be gained through action at the scale of a single street canyon alone. Our results show that judicious use of vegetation promises to create an efficient urban pollutant filter, yielding rapid and sustained improvements in urban air quality, and highlight the importance of further research into the interactions of vegetation with the urban atmosphere. lity, and highlight the importance of further research into the interactions of vegetation with the urban atmosphere.

124 Evaluating the Fate of Metals in Air Pollution Control Residues from Coal-Fired Power Plants Susan A. ThorneloeSusan A. Thorneloe * †, David S. Kosson ‡, Florence Sanchez ‡, Andrew C. Garrabrants ‡, and Gregory Helms* †David S. Kosson ‡Florence Sanchez ‡Andrew C. Garrabrants ‡ Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010, 44 (19), pp 7351–7356 Diunduh dari: Changes in emissions control at U.S. coal-fired power plants will shift metals content from the flue gas to the air pollution control (APC) residues. To determine the potential fate of metals that are captured through use of enhanced APC practices, the leaching behavior of 73 APC residues was characterized following the approach of the Leaching Environmental Assessment Framework. Materials were tested over pH conditions and liquid−solid ratios expected during management via land disposal or beneficial use. Leachate concentrations for most metals were highly variable over a range of coal rank, facility configurations, and APC residue types. Liquid−solid partitioning (equilibrium) as a function of pH showed significantly different leaching behavior for similar residue types and facility configurations. Within a facility, the leaching behavior of blended residues was shown to follow one of four characteristic patterns. Variability in metals leaching was greater than the variability in totals concentrations by several orders of magnitude, inferring that total content is not predictive of leaching behavior. The complex leaching behavior and lack of correlation to total contents indicates that release evaluation under likely field conditions is a better descriptor of environmental performance than totals content or linear partitioning approaches.

125 DIMINISHING THE ROLE OF SULFUR OXIDES IN AIR POLLUTION Abelson, P.H. Journal Name: Science (Washington, D.C.); (United States); Journal Volume: 157:3794 Diunduh dari: Each year, in the US, more than 20 million tons of sulfur are discharged into the atmosphere, most of it in the form of SO2. This gas is slowly converted into sulfuric acid, which is corrosive to many materials, including metals, building stones, and clothing. The toxicity of SO2 and H2SO4 to plants and animals is controversial, as is the effect of these compounds when they are inhaled along with other components of smog. Principal targets for such restrictions are electric power generating plants. These are a major source of air pollutants when they use coal or residual oil as fuel. Five means of meeting the sulfur pollution problem seem feasible. One is to use fuel containing only small amounts of sulfur. A second is to discharge the fumes from tall smokestacks (more than 200 meters high). A third method is to add a material such as powdered limestone to the flue-gas stream, following combustion, to convert the gaseous sulfur oxides into a solid form. A fourth is to convert the coal to gas and to remove the sulfur from the gas prior to combustion. A fifth method is to pass the flue gases through a chemical processing plant, the sulfur being recovered in elemental form or as H2SO4. Both the sulfur and the H2SO4 are consumed on a large scale. The price of sulfur has advanced sharply during the last year and is currently quoted at close to $50 a ton. With present technology the value of the sulfur recovered from coal-fired power plants would about offset the cost of investment and operation of the processing plants. A combination of better technology with a higher price for sulfur may eventually convert a nuisance into a valued asset.

126 THE RESEARCH OF CARBON ABSORBING ABILITY OF ROAD GREENING PLANTS IN NORTH CHINA Shuangjian JiaoShuangjian Jiao; Chengcheng Hou ; Qunle Du ; Yanwei Li Electrical and Control Engineering (ICECE), 2011 International Conference on Sept Page(s): Chengcheng Hou Qunle Du Yanwei Li Diunduh dari: %2Fieeexplore.ieee.org%2Fxpls%2Fabs_all.jsp%3Farnumber%3D The CO 2 emission of transportation is continuously increasing these years. Authorized data proves that in 2007, the CO 2 emission of China transportation industry accounts for about 70% of the total amount. Widely planting high carbon sink plants within the scope of roads land is an important part of low carbon roads. Considering the daily carbon absorbing ability of one unit greenbelt area together with the viability of greening plants, the carbon absorbing ability of 33 kinds widely cultivated greening plants in north china were studied and 17 of them were selected as the ideal ones to be grown within the low-carbon road scope. Furthermore, a road carbon absorption evaluation model was established by setting the biomass, seasons ect. as the basic factors. At the last, a greening design example for low carbon roads was given. The achievement of the paper has build foundation for low carbon roads.

127 S.M. Seyyednjad, K. Majdian, H. Koochak and M. Niknejad, AIR POLLUTION TOLERANCE INDICES OF SOME PLANTS AROUND INDUSTRIAL ZONE IN SOUTH OF IRAN. Asian Journal of Biological Sciences, 4: Diunduh dari: The study examined Air Pollution Tolerance Indices (APTI) of four plant species around petrochemical station in south west of Iran and compared with unpolluted area. Four physiological and biochemical parameters; ascorbic acid content (AA), leaf Relative Water Content (RWC), leaf extract pH and total leaf chlorophyll (TCh) were used to compute the APTI values.biochemical parametersascorbic acid The result showed that combining variety of these parameters gave a more reliable result than those of individual parameter. The result showed order of tolerance in polluted area as E. camaldulensis (8/5)> A. lebbeck (8/1)> C. salignus (7/9)> P. juliflora (5/8) and in unpolluted area as E. camaldulensis (8/4)> A. lebbeck (6/7)> C. salignus (6/2)> P. juliflora (6/6). These results show that in cases that APTI increase from control site to polluted site improve the species tolerance to pollution stress.

128 . Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of some tree species growing near rail roads of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). Thambavani DSThambavani DS, Kamala CKamala C Department of Chemistry, Sri Meenakshi Government College for Women (A), Madurai , Tamil Nadu, India. Journal of Environmental Science & EngineeringJournal of Environmental Science & Engineering [2010, 52(4): ] Diunduh dari: Biological monitoring and assessment studies due to urban-- rail road pollutants were carried out using Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) of plants. Four plant (leaf) parameters- -namely ascorbic acid, total chlorophyll, relative water content and leaf extract pH were combined together in a formulation signifying the APTI of plants. APTI was calculated for five different species such as Azadirachta indica, Delonix regia, Ficus religiosa, Pongamia pinnata and Polyalthia longifolia growing in two different areas, i.e. control area and along the railway track of Madurai, Tamil Nadu (India). The control site was selected in the college campus. None of the four plant parameters indicated a consistent response to pollutants. In the present study, Delonix regia and Pongamia pinnata lost the tolerance towards air pollutants and became more sensitive, but Azadirachta indica, Ficus religiosa, and Polyalthia longifolia indicated high APTI values over control area and hence considered as tolerant species. The APTI of plants showed a marked gradation as the pollutant load decreased from rail road to control area. The APTI can be used as a good indicator of impact of the air pollution on plants.

129 . Characteristics of Air Exclusion Systems vs. Chambers for Field Air Pollution Studies David M. Olszyk, Gerrit Kats, Philip J. Dawson, Andrzej Bytnerowicz, Joanne Wolf and C. Ray Thompson JEQ Vol. 15 No. 4, p Diunduh dari: https://www.crops.org/publications/jeq/abstracts/15/4/JEQ An air exclusion system was designed, constructed, and tested to determine its effectiveness in studies of air pollutant effects on vegetation. The air exclusion system was shown to be an effective alternative to open-top field chambers for controlled exposures of air pollutants to low growing plants. The system design included particulate and activated charcoal filters, pressure-type blowers, a mixing manifold, and perforated inflatable ducts that were positioned between rows of plants. Tests with CO as a tracer gas indicated optimal system parameters for air exclusion including: air flow of at least m 3 s −1 within the ducts, three or four rows of holes on the side of each duct pointing 45° upward, 90° to the side, and 45° downward from the center of the duct, four ducts per system, and a hole size that provided an air velocity of 0.5 to 1.8 m s −1 over the plant canopy. Reductions of > 70% in ambient O 3 concentrations could be achieved over the plant canopy at 0.25 m above the ground with the air exclusion system under optimum conditions (low ambient wind speed and high ambient ozone concentrations). This was comparable to the reductions achieved with either open-top or closed-top chambers. A gradient in ozone concentrations was obtained within a single system by delineating the ducts into three sections with different sized holes. Sulfur dioxide was added to a modified system to provide a gradient of 0, 0.03, 0.07, and 0.15 µL SO 2 L −1 over a winter growing season. No large environmental differences were found between air exclusion systems and open-top chambers vs. outside plots in the summer. In the fall and winter, open-top chambers had higher air, leaf, and soil temperatures than air exclusion sytems or outside plots. Air speed over the plant canopy was higher with the air exclusion system than in open-top chambers or outside plots.


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