3Urochordate larva free swimming with a notochord, but as an adult it morphs into a sessile sponge like form.
4Cephalochordate Amphioxus has a notochord with V-shaped body muscles, a primitive brain at the anterior end and is free swimming
5Jawless fish (agnathids) develop from the Ordovician through the Devonian in three groups: Heterostracans-headshields with eyes on sides Osteostracans-headshields with eyes atop and lateral fins Furcacaudiformes-(forktails) GOKWTA
6The Ostracoderm Astrapis from the Ordovician of Colorado The Ostracoderm Astrapis from the Ordovician of Colorado. Jawless, lacked an internal bony skeleton and sported bony armor and a heavy headshield, eyes on side.
8The jawless Heterostracan Anglaspis heavily armored, lacked jaws with a crude ventral mouth, eyes on side of skull Silurian and Devonian
9The Devonian Heterostracan Pteraspis with typical heavily plated headshield but flexible trunk and tail, lateral eyes.
10The configuration of gills in early jawless fish was simplicity itself with water taken in at the mouth and passing out through several gill slits shown in black. Between each gill slit was a thin strip of bone, the gill arch (in white) that supported the gill. …….To adapt a simple jaw required only the development of a crude hinge on the first gill arch.
11Reconstruction of the gill structure of the Heterostracan Amphiaspid closely resembles an automobile manifold structure
12Gill structure and function on most living fish are remarkably similar regardless of the taxonomy with plates mounted on a rigid axis and two pumps; one for blood and one for water (In a similar fashion a water cooled engine requires a water pump and a fan)
13The Osteostracan cephalaspid Hemicyclaspis had the typical armored headshield of a jawless fish but featured paired fins, a flexible tail for propulsion and eyes atop skull (Late Silurian to Devonian)
14Unlike the Heterostracans the Osteostracans as Hemicyclaspis shown here had small eyes set very close together atop their heads.
15Only discovered in 1998 the early Devonian Furcacudiformes or “forktails” don’t conform to the other jawless fish (heterostracans & osteostracans) and seem to be an entriely new group of agnathids
17DEVONIAN FISH Fish first appear in the Ordovician period but the number and variety of fish explodes in the Devonian so the name “age of fish” is highly apropos for this period
18The Upper Devonian primitive gnathostome placoderm arthrodire Dunkleosteus featured a massive 6 foot long headshield with scissor-like jaws mounted on a 20 foot long body
19The second group of placoderms, the Antiarchs are characterized by the genus Pterichthys shown here with a well armored body and small mouth sited below the eyes. Restricted to the Devonian period they were probably sediment feeders like an earthworm or snails.
20The anterior-ventral pectoral appendages of the antiarch Pterichthys tell us they groveled about the bottom only rarely rising off the sediment water interface
21Sharks (Chondrichthyes) Legendary resistance of phosphate parts to dissolutionCaPO4 Apatite compositionTooth classification (natural)Denticle classification (classically artificial)Mainly used in marine geology for deposits well below CCDSharks remarkable for slow evolution and subsequent looooong stratigraphic ranges
35The Actinopterygiians or ray-finned bony fish (Osteichthyes) include the zillions of species of extant bony fish the Teleosts that underwent a phenomenal evolutionary explosion beginning in the Jurassic
36The Devonian lungfish Dipterus is remarkably similar to modern coelacanths found in very deep water off South Africa and Indonesia today.
37A living fossil! The coelacanth Latameria is a lobe finned fish with close relatives dating back to the Devonian period over 400 million years ago
38As soon as the first specimen of the coelacanth Latimeria was brought to the surface the demand from museums and ichthyologists world wide quickly threatened their dwindling stocks. The animal was very nearly studied to death!
40Anterior ventral, posterior ventral and posterior ventral fins lobe fins of the extant Sarcopterygian coelacanth Latimeria all display a well developed (robust) internal bony skeleton in stark contrast to the ray finned fish (Actinoperygians)
41Bony Fish (Teleostei)Extremely “successful” group, regardless if you measure success by diversity, biomass or adaptive radiationBone, otoliths, scales, teethBone of little use unless skeleton is articulatedOtoliths – used to assess age of populations by annular growth ringsScales – extremely useful in subdividing deeper portions of Los Angeles Basin (Lore Rose David)
70Thermal Maturation - Conodonts (also utilized with palynomorphs)Pigment change due to enclosed organicsExperimental work by Harris et. al.Munsell soil color chart-Pale yellow 50 ° - 80° CVery pale brown 50 ° - 90 ° CBrown to dark brown 60 ° ° CVery dark greyish brown-dark reddish brown-black 110 ° °CBlack 190 ° ° CBlack +300 ° CClear to crystal clear >300 ° C