13ORM Operational Requirements / Limitations Human Factors Crew Rest / Crew Day / Work WeekR&IIP Currency (SOP)Warm Up EligibilityPrevious Flight Incomplete? Determine Graded Items.Human FactorsLife Stressors / External Factors / Personal ProblemsMedical Status (Rest / Nourishment / Hydration)Hazards and ControlsRoutineWeatherCurrent Observations and ForecastsCrosswindsFuel ConsiderationsMission Specific
14TTO Who will call a TTO? What situations will the TTO be called? SafetyConfusion / MisunderstandingIP ResponsibilitiesRecognize need for TTOExplanation / Instruction as necessaryDocumentation on ATFWhen and how will training resume?
15WARM UP CRITERIA ACM IP < 750 HOURS IN STRIKE/FIGHTER AIRCRAFT 1 FLIGHT WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 6 DAYS2 FLIGHTS WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 14 DAYS (1 FLT SHALL BE A DYNAMIC HOP)ACM IP > 750 HOURS IN STRIKE/FIGHTER AIRCRAFT1 FLIGHT WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 14 DAYS2 FLIGHTS WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 30 DAYSSNAONE WARM UP EVENT MAY BE AWARDED WHEN THERE HAS BEEN A DELAY OF 6 CALENDAR DAYS SINCE THE LAST EVENT IN A PARTICULAR STAGE.IF THE NEXT REGULARLY SCHEDULED CURRICULUM EVENT IS A DUAL FLIGHT, THEN THE EVENT IS BRIEFED AND FLOWN AS THAT FLIGHTIF THE SNA’S PROFICIANECY AFTER THE DELAY IN TRAINING IS CONSISTENT WITH HIS NORMAL PROCRESS AND WARRANTS CONTINUATION IN THE MODULE OF INSTRUCTIONS, THE FLIGHT SHALL BE CONSIDERED A WARMUP OF THE LAST FLIGHT EVENT COMPLETED.IF THE NEXT REGULARLY SCHEDULED CURRICUMUM EVENT IS SOLO, THE STUDENT SHALL BE AWARDED A WARMUP OF THE LAST COMPLETED EVENT.OPTIONAL WARM UP: 7-13 DAYS.MANDATORY WARM UP: GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 14 DAYS.
17ADMIN Launch Recovery Weather / NOTAMS / TFR / BASH Preflight / Start / Marshal / TaxiTakeoff ( 7sec or Section Go)RendezvousRecoveryFormation4 second Break, TG’s / Full StopInstrument approach situationsSection appch / Flt sep on final?RTB as singles?Divert (min fuel required?)
18Tac Admin G Warm Fence Checks G’s and Fuel checks Knock It Offs 17 unit pull to new headingReference 300 kts in climbFly to PADS for next set
19FlowSSD 4 x 4FlatsRollerLAHC (6k)BTX (9k) x 2Rejoin
20Emergencies Ground Emergencies Abort Rwy Dep / Gnd Ejection Radio/ICS failureLoss of NavaidsLost Plane / Lost SightSystem FailuresDisorientationBird strike/ MidairSAR proceduresEjection
21Training RulesADMINBRIEF DEPARTURE/SPIN, COMPRESSOR STALL PROCEDURES, AND CURRENCY – All in flight have flown: 1 in 6 and 2 in 14 (<750 hrs), or 1 in 14 and 2 in 30 (>750 hrs)FACE-TO-FACE BRIEF OF ALL MANEUVERS FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS.ACM WILL BE CONDUCTED IN AN AUTHORIZED AREA ONLY FROM 30 MIN AFTER SUNRISE TO 30 MIN PRIOR TO SUNSET.ACM WX MINS:5 miles visibility with a defined horizon.11K’ between broken/overcast layers.1 NM horizontally and 2K’ vertically from all clouds.ACM may be conducted above broken/overcast layer provided the highest layer is below 7K’ AGL for solo events and 8K’AGL for dual events. The flight lead will then establish the hard deck 5K’ above that layer and all A/C will acknowledge the new hard deck.HARD DECK SHALL BE 10,000 FT AGL MIMIMUM.SOFT SHALL BE 5,000 FT ABOVE THE HARD DECK.No sustained low speed/high AOA maneuvering (less than 120 knots AND more than 24 units) below the soft deck.ALL AIRCRAFT MUST HAVE OPERABLE UHF AND ICS (MULTI-CREW) AND MONITOR GUARD.CONFIGURATION CHANGES OTHER THAN SPEED BRAKES ARE NOT AUTHORIZED.“G” AWARENESS MANEUVER REQUIRED PRIOR TO ACM.COLLISION AVOIDANCEMAINTAIN A 500’ BUBBLE AROUND ALL AIRCRAFT.ALWAYS ASSUME THE OTHER AIRCRAFT DOES NOT SEE YOU.MAINTAIN THE ESTABLISHED TREND ON HEAD TO HEAD PASSES. WHEN NO TREND EXISTS, EACH AIRCRAFT SHALL GIVE WAY TO THE RIGHT FOR A LEFT-TO-LEFT PASS. TRANSMIT YOUR OWN INTENTIONS.LOW AIRCRAFT IN A HORIZONTAL SCISSORS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SAFE SEPARATION. NOSE HIGH GOES HIGH, NOSE LOW HAS COLLISION AVOIDANCE RESPONSIBILITY. TRANSMIT YOUR OWN INTENTIONS.COLLISION AVOIDANCE (continued)NEVER INTENTIONALLY MANEUVER TO LOSE SIGHT (NO BLIND LEAD TURNS).IF LOST SIGHT, TRANSMIT “BLIND” AND REMAIN PREDICTABLE. OTHER AIRCRAFT SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE WITH “CONTINUE” OR ‘KNOCK-IT-OFF” AS APPROPRIATE, PROVIDING DIRECTIVE COMM AS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY OF FLIGHT. ONCE SIGHT IS REGAINED, TRANSMIT “TALLY.”UP-SUN AIRCRAFT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE. IF DOWN-SUN AIRCRAFT LOSES SIGHT, BREAK OFF THE ATTACK, TURN AWAY FROM PREDICTED COLLISION BEARING AND BROADCAST “BLIND, SUN.” UP-SUN AIRCRAFT SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE WITH EITHER “CONTINUE” OR “KNOCK-IT-OFF” CALL.BREAK OFF ALL GUN ATTACKS AT 1,000’, NO FORWARD QUARTER GUN ATTACKS (45 deg of target nose). CNATRA WEAPONS ENVELOPES APPLY.TERRAIN AVOIDANCEIN A DESCENDING FIGHT, THE OFFENSIVE (HIGH) AIRCRAFT SHALL MONITOR THE DEFENSIVE (LOW) AIRCRAFT’S ALTITUDE, ATTITUDE AND AIRSPEED AND BREAK OFF THE ATTACK PRIOR TO PUSHING THE DEFENSIVE AIRCRAFT THROUGH THE HARD DECK.TERMINATIONANYONE CAN CALL A “KNOCK-IT-OFF.” EACH AIRCRAFT SHALL TERMINATE THE ENGAGEMENT, MANEUVER TO SAFETY AND ACKNOWLEDGE WITH THEIR OWN “KNOCK-IT-OFF.” WATCH OUT FOR THE MID-AIR POTENTIAL FOLLOWING A “KNOCK-IT-OFF”.KNOCK-IT-OFF FOR ANY OF THE FOLLOWING:Any training rule is violated.Interloper (unbriefed A/C) enters the engagement area.Any OCF flight situation develops.G-LOC experienced or suspected. (Aircrew shall RTB).Radio failure/loss of ICS. An aircraft rocking wings is an automatic “knock-It-off.”Bingo fuel state is reachedDangerous situation/loss of situational awareness/inadvertent IMC/possible overstress.Training objectives have been reached.Engaged aircraft crosses the border of the authorized training area.
23STANDARD DEBRIEFING FORMAT The Flight Lead or Pilot-in-Command is responsible for ensuring all flight or crewmembers are thoroughly debriefed on the conduct of the mission utilizing the “S-P-B-E-MS-LL” format outlined below. (Refer to the CTW-1/CTW-2 Expanded Debriefing Guide for specific objectives).SafetyPlanningBriefExecutionMission SuccessLessons Learned
24Concepts and Definitions T45 Turn Performance 10k / 2k fuelCorner A/S kts / 6.5G 15 deg/secRate Band kts deg/s (rate .5deg/s higher at 240kts, but you sacrifice tactical options!!)Min Radius kts ft radius(target for all altitudes)kts
25Turn Circle / BubbleUntil we enter the defender’s bubble, there is no effective BFM we can employ against the defender. Until we enter the bubble , he can continue to pull and take angles away from us.Constantly changing with airspeed and altitude. Assume a max performance turn resulting in a 3000’ radius for perch sets. Will get smaller as energy decreases.3000 ft.
27UNCLASSIFIEDPostThe center of a fighter’s turn circle. Used to define pursuit curves.UNCLASSIFIED
28Pursuit Curves Lead Pursuit (Fly in front of the post) Rapidly Decrease N-T (Range)Rapidly Increase AOT (Angles)Rapidly Increase Vc (Closure)Pure Pursuit (Fly through the post)Moderately Decrease N-TModerately Increase AOTModerately Increase VcLag Pursuit (Fly behind the post)Increase/maintain N-TDecrease/maintain AOTDecrease/maintain VcLagPureLead
29Control Zone ± 10° at 2000 ft ± 20° at 4500 ft The goal of the fighter is to arrive in the control zone with range, angles, and closure under control. From there, he can maneuver to shoot the bandit.Must have controlled entry into CZ with relative fuselage alignment. (No more than 20 degrees of misalignment in the front of the CZ and no more than 45 degrees of misalignment in the aft end)Simply flying toward or into the CZ is not enough. The offensive fighter must have a controlled entry in the CZ in order to be effective. This means we must have some sort of fuselage allignment upon entering the CZ.
30Attack WindowA position within the defender’s bubble from which an Offensive Break Turn (OBT) may be applied to arrive in the opponent’s CZ with range, angles, and closure under control.
326k Attack WindowOn the 6k set, it should only take 2-3 seconds for the fighter to reach the attack window (bandit approximately ½ way between HUD and canopy bow). The fighter knows he has reached the attack window when he sees the bandit’s aspect stop changing and Line of Sight rate take off.
33Assess Attacker’s Offensive Break Turn Early Cues:Cues- low aspect (nose on), apparent size increasing.Continue break turn until attacker overshoot’s your flight path. Reversal?Late Cues:If the attacker is wings level for more than a few secondsfollowing bubble entry, he will end up 4-6k feet away,stuck in lag. Maintain rate numbers until nose becomes afactor.On Time:Turn circles become misaligned. Maintain rate #s until nose starts to come on, then tighten andGuns D beforehe can shoot.
35CZ relation to Guns WEZNote that the CZ and the Guns Envelope do not overlap. You cannot employ the gun from the CZ!!No lead required for tracking shot, however you have a high risk of overshooting if closure is not under control.Lead required for snapshot (pipper 1-2 plane lengths in front). Allows for quick shot and a lag back to safety of the CZ to maintain offensive position.Control ZoneSnapshot EnvelopeTracking Envelope
36Solve for Plane of Motion Evaluate pipper height above horizon.Adjust angle of bank to make bandit’s height above horizon the same as the pipper. Scan back and forth and continue to refine.Like flying the ball, make the big corrections early.30013000
37Solve for Range (1-2k) If long, ease pull. Wings level required? If tight, tighten pull.Safety- call “Skip it” inside 1000 ft. Shooter goes inside and down. Defender goes outside and up.30013000
38Solve for Lead Wait for target to reach canopy bow. Simultaneously squeeze trigger and call “Trigger Down”…… as target passes through pipper, call “SNAP”Evaluate: Missed High/ Low / Looked good.30013000
392 circle Myth “All I have to do is put the pipper on the bandit, squeeze the trigger, call “pipper’s on, tracking” for a valid shot regardless of range or track crossing rate.”
40Truth: If > .5nm (3000ft), pull pure (w/ fuselages aligned within 45 deg) to decrease range to arrive inside snapshot envelope.G2.50.53001050014.06.0RTGSGUNR003501M0.7
41Solve for Plane of Motion G2.50.53001020014.06.0RTGSGUNR003501M0.4
42Squeeze Trigger With Lead Established and lag to Control Zone 2.50.53001020014.06.0RTGSGUNR003501M0.4“Trigger Down……… ““ SNAP ! ”
44BTX Comm “Hawk 1, break left, missile in the air.” “Hawk 1.” “Ease your turn, missile defeated.” “Hawk 1.”“Bandit’s coming out your right 3 high.” “Tally.”“Fox 2.”
45Position relative to Bubble / CZ Will take longer for bandit to get inside bubblethan LAHC (6k) set. You can take more anglesfrom him than 6k!!
469k Attack WindowOn the 9k set, it will take 4-5 seconds for the fighter to reach the attack window (bandit approximately ¾ of the way between HUD and canopy bow). The fighter knows he has reached the attack window when he sees the bandit’s aspect stop changing and Line of Sight rate take off.
47Misaligned Turn Circles - Expect to cross bandit’s flight path in lag. Be patient and capture rate numbers.- Prepare for a second Bubble entry. Will occur when you can pull bandit back into about 1nm range.- Lag off and wait for same cues from 6k set for second Attack Window entry.
48Lead Angle Computing (LAC) Real Time Gun Sight (RTGS) The GunsightLead Angle Computing (LAC)Used for tracking non-maneuvering targets at 1000’ range. Must keep in reticle for >1 second. We don’t use it.Real Time Gun Sight (RTGS)- Used for tracking a maneuvering target by aiming and keeping the reticle pipper ahead of the target (snapshot).- Software positioned on the point that a shell would reach in the time it takes the shell to travel 1000ft. If range > 1000’, you must shoot with enough lead for bullets to travel required distance.1000ft (using 31’ wingspan)
49Estimating Range 1000 ft 1500 ft 2000 ft Closest shot range (Training Rules).If wings overlap reticle, you’re too close!1500 ftHeart of Gun Envelope¾ of reticle2000 ft½ of reticle
50When to reverse? 3 criteria Bandit inside front end of control zone (closer than 2000’…remember the snapshot drill sight picture?) with 60 deg target aspect.Attacker must pass extended 6 o’clock.Must be able to visualize reversing inside opponent’s turn circle.
51Bad ReversalsBandit crosses extended 6, but outside front end of control zone (too far away).Bandit inside front end of control zone, but doesn’t cross flight path (extended 6).
52Good ReversalSet the LV on the attacker and begin a max performance pullOnce 3/9 line passage has occurred and neutral, transitionto scissors maneuvering. If you were really fast, think ROLLER.
53Guns Defense As bandit’s nose begins to approach: - Roll to put wingtip on and execute a liftLimit pull 90deg out of the attacker’sPlane Of Motion (POM). Get SKINNY!!3 OPTIONS- Near wingtip on and Pull Up. Got the speed/no altitude to go down. (On the deck)- Near wingtip on and unloaded bunt. Deceptive.- Opposite wingtip on and Max Performance Pull Down. Use God’s ‘G’ to help move the jet. Good if slow and you have the altitude.