ORM Operational Requirements / Limitations –Crew Rest / Crew Day / Work Week –R&I –IP Currency (SOP) –Warm Up Eligibility –Previous Flight Incomplete? Determine Graded Items. Human Factors –Life Stressors / External Factors / Personal Problems –Medical Status (Rest / Nourishment / Hydration) Hazards and Controls –Routine –Weather Current Observations and Forecasts Crosswinds Fuel Considerations –Mission Specific
TTO Who will call a TTO? What situations will the TTO be called? –Safety –Confusion / Misunderstanding IP Responsibilities –Recognize need for TTO –Explanation / Instruction as necessary –Documentation on ATF When and how will training resume?
WARM UP CRITERIA –ACM IP < 750 HOURS IN STRIKE/FIGHTER AIRCRAFT 1 FLIGHT WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 6 DAYS 2 FLIGHTS WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 14 DAYS (1 FLT SHALL BE A DYNAMIC HOP) –ACM IP > 750 HOURS IN STRIKE/FIGHTER AIRCRAFT 1 FLIGHT WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 14 DAYS 2 FLIGHTS WITHIN THE PREVIOUS 30 DAYS –SNA ONE WARM UP EVENT MAY BE AWARDED WHEN THERE HAS BEEN A DELAY OF 6 CALENDAR DAYS SINCE THE LAST EVENT IN A PARTICULAR STAGE. IF THE NEXT REGULARLY SCHEDULED CURRICULUM EVENT IS A DUAL FLIGHT, THEN THE EVENT IS BRIEFED AND FLOWN AS THAT FLIGHT IF THE SNA’S PROFICIANECY AFTER THE DELAY IN TRAINING IS CONSISTENT WITH HIS NORMAL PROCRESS AND WARRANTS CONTINUATION IN THE MODULE OF INSTRUCTIONS, THE FLIGHT SHALL BE CONSIDERED A WARMUP OF THE LAST FLIGHT EVENT COMPLETED. IF THE NEXT REGULARLY SCHEDULED CURRICUMUM EVENT IS SOLO, THE STUDENT SHALL BE AWARDED A WARMUP OF THE LAST COMPLETED EVENT. OPTIONAL WARM UP: 7-13 DAYS. MANDATORY WARM UP: GREATER THAN OR EQUAL TO 14 DAYS.
ADMIN Launch Weather / NOTAMS / TFR / BASH Preflight / Start / Marshal / Taxi Takeoff ( 7sec or Section Go) Rendezvous Recovery Formation 4 second Break, TG’s / Full Stop Instrument approach situations –Section appch / Flt sep on final? –RTB as singles? –Divert (min fuel required?)
Tac Admin G Warm Fence Checks G’s and Fuel checks Knock It Offs –17 unit pull to new heading –Reference 300 kts in climb –Fly to PADS for next set
Flow SSD 4 x 4 Flats Roller LAHC (6k) BTX (9k) x 2 Rejoin
Emergencies Ground Emergencies Abort Rwy Dep / Gnd Ejection Radio/ICS failure Loss of Navaids Lost Plane / Lost Sight System Failures Disorientation Bird strike/ Midair SAR procedures Ejection
ADMIN 1.BRIEF DEPARTURE/SPIN, COMPRESSOR STALL PROCEDURES, AND CURRENCY – All in flight have flown: 1 in 6 and 2 in 14 ( 750 hrs) 2.FACE-TO-FACE BRIEF OF ALL MANEUVERS FOR ALL PARTICIPANTS. 3.ACM WILL BE CONDUCTED IN AN AUTHORIZED AREA ONLY FROM 30 MIN AFTER SUNRISE TO 30 MIN PRIOR TO SUNSET. 4.ACM WX MINS: a.5 miles visibility with a defined horizon. b.11K’ between broken/overcast layers. c.1 NM horizontally and 2K’ vertically from all clouds. d.ACM may be conducted above broken/overcast layer provided the highest layer is below 7K’ AGL for solo events and 8K’AGL for dual events. The flight lead will then establish the hard deck 5K’ above that layer and all A/C will acknowledge the new hard deck. 5.HARD DECK SHALL BE 10,000 FT AGL MIMIMUM. 6.SOFT SHALL BE 5,000 FT ABOVE THE HARD DECK. a.No sustained low speed/high AOA maneuvering (less than 120 knots AND more than 24 units) below the soft deck. 7.ALL AIRCRAFT MUST HAVE OPERABLE UHF AND ICS (MULTI-CREW) AND MONITOR GUARD. 8.CONFIGURATION CHANGES OTHER THAN SPEED BRAKES ARE NOT AUTHORIZED. 9.“G” AWARENESS MANEUVER REQUIRED PRIOR TO ACM. COLLISION AVOIDANCE 10.MAINTAIN A 500’ BUBBLE AROUND ALL AIRCRAFT. 11.ALWAYS ASSUME THE OTHER AIRCRAFT DOES NOT SEE YOU. 12.MAINTAIN THE ESTABLISHED TREND ON HEAD TO HEAD PASSES. WHEN NO TREND EXISTS, EACH AIRCRAFT SHALL GIVE WAY TO THE RIGHT FOR A LEFT-TO-LEFT PASS. TRANSMIT YOUR OWN INTENTIONS. 13.LOW AIRCRAFT IN A HORIZONTAL SCISSORS IS RESPONSIBLE FOR SAFE SEPARATION. NOSE HIGH GOES HIGH, NOSE LOW HAS COLLISION AVOIDANCE RESPONSIBILITY. TRANSMIT YOUR OWN INTENTIONS. COLLISION AVOIDANCE (continued) 14.NEVER INTENTIONALLY MANEUVER TO LOSE SIGHT (NO BLIND LEAD TURNS). 15.IF LOST SIGHT, TRANSMIT “BLIND” AND REMAIN PREDICTABLE. OTHER AIRCRAFT SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE WITH “CONTINUE” OR ‘KNOCK-IT-OFF” AS APPROPRIATE, PROVIDING DIRECTIVE COMM AS NECESSARY FOR SAFETY OF FLIGHT. ONCE SIGHT IS REGAINED, TRANSMIT “TALLY.” 16.UP-SUN AIRCRAFT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR COLLISION AVOIDANCE. IF DOWN- SUN AIRCRAFT LOSES SIGHT, BREAK OFF THE ATTACK, TURN AWAY FROM PREDICTED COLLISION BEARING AND BROADCAST “BLIND, SUN.” UP-SUN AIRCRAFT SHALL ACKNOWLEDGE WITH EITHER “CONTINUE” OR “KNOCK-IT- OFF” CALL. 17.BREAK OFF ALL GUN ATTACKS AT 1,000’, NO FORWARD QUARTER GUN ATTACKS (45 deg of target nose). CNATRA WEAPONS ENVELOPES APPLY. TERRAIN AVOIDANCE 18.IN A DESCENDING FIGHT, THE OFFENSIVE (HIGH) AIRCRAFT SHALL MONITOR THE DEFENSIVE (LOW) AIRCRAFT’S ALTITUDE, ATTITUDE AND AIRSPEED AND BREAK OFF THE ATTACK PRIOR TO PUSHING THE DEFENSIVE AIRCRAFT THROUGH THE HARD DECK. TERMINATION 19.ANYONE CAN CALL A “KNOCK-IT-OFF.” EACH AIRCRAFT SHALL TERMINATE THE ENGAGEMENT, MANEUVER TO SAFETY AND ACKNOWLEDGE WITH THEIR OWN “KNOCK-IT-OFF.” WATCH OUT FOR THE MID-AIR POTENTIAL FOLLOWING A “KNOCK-IT-OFF”. 20.KNOCK-IT-OFF FOR ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: a.Any training rule is violated. b.Interloper (unbriefed A/C) enters the engagement area. c.Any OCF flight situation develops. d.G-LOC experienced or suspected. (Aircrew shall RTB). e.Radio failure/loss of ICS. An aircraft rocking wings is an automatic “knock- It-off.” f.Bingo fuel state is reached g.Dangerous situation/loss of situational awareness/inadvertent IMC/possible overstress. h.Training objectives have been reached. i.Engaged aircraft crosses the border of the authorized training area. Training Rules
STANDARD DEBRIEFING FORMAT The Flight Lead or Pilot-in-Command is responsible for ensuring all flight or crewmembers are thoroughly debriefed on the conduct of the mission utilizing the “S-P-B-E-MS-LL” format outlined below. (Refer to the CTW-1/CTW-2 Expanded Debriefing Guide for specific objectives). I.Safety II.Planning III.Brief IV.Execution V.Mission Success VI.Lessons Learned
kts T45 Turn Performance 10k / 2k fuel Corner A/S 410kts / 6.5G 15 deg/sec Rate Band kts 10.5 deg/s (rate.5deg/s higher at 240kts, but you sacrifice tactical options!!) Min Radius 150kts 2000ft radius (target for all altitudes) Concepts and Definitions
Turn Circle / Bubble Constantly changing with airspeed and altitude. Assume a max performance turn resulting in a 3000’ radius for perch sets. Will get smaller as energy decreases ft. Until we enter the defender’s bubble, there is no effective BFM we can employ against the defender. Until we enter the bubble, he can continue to pull and take angles away from us.
Effect of Gravity on Bubble
UNCLASSIFIED Post The center of a fighter’s turn circle. Used to define pursuit curves.
Pursuit Curves Lead Pursuit (Fly in front of the post) Rapidly Decrease N-T (Range) Rapidly Increase AOT (Angles) Rapidly Increase Vc (Closure) Pure Pursuit (Fly through the post) Moderately Decrease N-T Moderately Increase AOT Moderately Increase Vc Lag Pursuit (Fly behind the post) Increase/maintain N-T Decrease/maintain AOT Decrease/maintain Vc Lead Pure Lag
± 10° at 2000 ft ± 20° at 4500 ft Control Zone The goal of the fighter is to arrive in the control zone with range, angles, and closure under control. From there, he can maneuver to shoot the bandit. Must have controlled entry into CZ with relative fuselage alignment. (No more than 20 degrees of misalignment in the front of the CZ and no more than 45 degrees of misalignment in the aft end)
Attack Window A position within the defender’s bubble from which an Offensive Break Turn (OBT) may be applied to arrive in the opponent’s CZ with range, angles, and closure under control.
Position relative to Bubble / CZ
6k Attack Window On the 6k set, it should only take 2-3 seconds for the fighter to reach the attack window (bandit approximately ½ way between HUD and canopy bow). The fighter knows he has reached the attack window when he sees the bandit’s aspect stop changing and Line of Sight rate take off.
Assess Attacker’s Offensive Break Turn Early Cues: Cues- low aspect (nose on), apparent size increasing. Continue break turn until attacker overshoot’s your flight path. Reversal? Reversal? Late Cues: If the attacker is wings level for more than a few seconds following bubble entry, he will end up 4-6k feet away, stuck in lag. Maintain rate numbers until nose becomes a factor. -On Time: Turn circles become misaligned. Maintain rate #s until nose starts to come on, then tighten and Guns D Guns D before he can shoot.
CZ relation to Guns WEZ Note that the CZ and the Guns Envelope do not overlap. You cannot employ the gun from the CZ!! Control ZoneSnapshot EnvelopeTracking Envelope No lead required for tracking shot, however you have a high risk of overshooting if closure is not under control. Lead required for snapshot (pipper 1- 2 plane lengths in front). Allows for quick shot and a lag back to safety of the CZ to maintain offensive position.
Evaluate pipper height above horizon. Adjust angle of bank to make bandit’s height above horizon the same as the pipper. Scan back and forth and continue to refine. Like flying the ball, make the big corrections early. Solve for Plane of Motion
If long, ease pull. Wings level required? If tight, tighten pull. Safety- call “Skip it” inside 1000 ft. Shooter goes inside and down. Defender goes outside and up. Solve for Range (1-2k)
Wait for target to reach canopy bow. Simultaneously squeeze trigger and call “Trigger Down”…… as target passes through pipper, call “SNAP” Evaluate: Missed High/ Low / Looked good. Solve for Lead
2 circle Myth “All I have to do is put the pipper on the bandit, squeeze the trigger, call “pipper’s on, tracking” for a valid shot regardless of range or track crossing rate.”
M G RTGS GUN R Truth: If >.5nm (3000ft), pull pure (w/ fuselages aligned within 45 deg) to decrease range to arrive inside snapshot envelope. 0.7
M G RTGS GUN R Solve for Plane of Motion 0.4
M G RTGS GUN R Squeeze Trigger With Lead Established and lag to Control Zone “Trigger Down……… “ “ SNAP ! ” 0.4
Rolling Scissor Positions
BTX Comm 1.“Hawk 1, break left, missile in the air.” “Hawk 1.” 2.“Ease your turn, missile defeated.” “Hawk 1.” 3.“Bandit’s coming out your right 3 high.” “Tally.” 4.“Fox 2.”
Position relative to Bubble / CZ Will take longer for bandit to get inside bubble than LAHC (6k) set. You can take more angles from him than 6k!!
9k Attack Window On the 9k set, it will take 4-5 seconds for the fighter to reach the attack window (bandit approximately ¾ of the way between HUD and canopy bow). The fighter knows he has reached the attack window when he sees the bandit’s aspect stop changing and Line of Sight rate take off.
Misaligned Turn Circles - Expect to cross bandit’s flight path in lag. Be patient and capture rate numbers. - Prepare for a second Bubble entry. Will occur when you can pull bandit back into about 1nm range. - Lag off and wait for same cues from 6k set for second Attack Window entry.
The Gunsight 1000ft (using 31’ wingspan) Lead Angle Computing (LAC) - Used for tracking non- maneuvering targets at 1000’ range. Must keep in reticle for >1 second. We don’t use it. Real Time Gun Sight (RTGS) - Used for tracking a maneuvering target by aiming and keeping the reticle pipper ahead of the target (snapshot). - Software positioned on the point that a shell would reach in the time it takes the shell to travel 1000ft. If range > 1000’, you must shoot with enough lead for bullets to travel required distance.
Estimating Range 1000 ft Closest shot range (Training Rules). If wings overlap reticle, you’re too close! 1500 ft Heart of Gun Envelope ¾ of reticle 2000 ft ½ of reticle
When to reverse? 3 criteria 1)Bandit inside front end of control zone (closer than 2000’…remember the snapshot drill sight picture?) with 60 deg target aspect. 2)Attacker must pass extended 6 o’clock. 3)Must be able to visualize reversing inside opponent’s turn circle.
Bad Reversals Bandit crosses extended 6, but outside front end of control zone (too far away). Bandit inside front end of control zone, but doesn’t cross flight path (extended 6).
Good Reversal Set the LV on the attacker and begin a max performance pull Once 3/9 line passage has occurred and neutral, transition to scissors maneuvering. If you were really fast, think ROLLER.
Guns Defense As bandit’s nose begins to approach: - Roll to put wingtip on and execute a lift Limit pull 90deg out of the attacker’s Plane Of Motion (POM). Get SKINNY!! 3 OPTIONS - Near wingtip on and Pull Up. Got the speed/no altitude to go down. (On the deck) - Near wingtip on and unloaded bunt. Deceptive. - Opposite wingtip on and Max Performance Pull Down. Use God’s ‘G’ to help move the jet. Good if slow and you have the altitude.