Presentation on theme: "Early Childhood Pre-School age 3-5 years Growth and Development Prepared By Dr. Nahed Said El- nagger Assistant Professor of Nursing 1430 – 1431 H."— Presentation transcript:
Early Childhood Pre-School age 3-5 years
Growth and Development Prepared By Dr. Nahed Said El- nagger Assistant Professor of Nursing 1430 – 1431 H
Learning Objectives Identify the general characteristics (biological development) of preschool. Discuss the developmental theories according to Erickson, Piaget and Freud for preschool. Mention needs of preschool child. Identify problems related to preschoolchild. Discuss the common health promotion of preschool child.
Introduction The combined biological, psychosocial, cognitive, spiritual, and social achievements during the preschool period (3 -5years of age) prepare preschoolers for their most significant change in lifestyle and entrance into school.
Biological Development The rate of physical growth slows and stabilizes during the preschool years. A healthy pre-school is slender (thin), attractive and has good posture.
Biological Development By the end of preschool period, the child appear to be thin and tall. Children gain muscular coordination, which enables them to explore the physical environment.
Height and Weight Weight: The average weight gain during preschool age is 2.3kg/year. Average weight at 5 years 18.7kg. or double the weight of one year of age.
Height and Weight Height: Growth in height averages (6.25 to 7.5cm)per year. Average height at 5 years 110cm, or double the birth length.
Head Circumference Head circumference is not routinely measured at physical assessments on children over 2 years of age.
Teeth Children generally have all 20 of their deciduous teeth by years of age. Rarely do new teeth erupt during the preschool period.
Pediatric Fundamentals - Growth and Development
Motor Development of Preschool child At 3 Years: Can wash hands. Can feed himself well. Build a tower of 9-10 blocks. Can go to toilet. Begins to use a scissor. Can ride a tricycle. Go up stairs. Stand on one foot for a few seconds.
Motor Development of Preschool child (cont.) At 4 Years: Can jump well, goes up and down stairs. Can brush his teeth, lace his shoes. Can copy a square.
Motor Development of Preschool child (cont.) At 5 Years: Can use scissor well. Drew a recognizable picture of a man. Can dress himself without assistance. Can wash himself without wetting his clothes. Can balance on one foot for about 8 seconds.
Mental or cognitive Development “Piaget” Preoperational development(2-7 years). Child can use language and has a memory. Child can understand the meaning of the past, present and the future. continue
At 3 Years Less negativism. Few temper tantrums. Understand words better. At 4 Years More noisy. Emotionally fluctuated. Stormy age. continue
At 5 Years Comfortable age. Take more responsibility for his actions. Still needs guidance from adults. Develop personality.
Psychosocial Development (Freud) The phallic stage extend from 3-7 years and child’s pleasure center on the genitalia &masturbation. continue
Psychosocial Development (Freud) During the phallic stage, the child experienced what the Freud termed “the Oedipal conflict" marked by jealousy toward the same sex parent and love the opposite sex parent and resolved in the late of preschool period with a strong identification with the same sex parent. continue
Sexual Identify develops. Before answering a child question about sex, clarify: - What the child is really asking? - What the child already thinks about the specific subject? Answer questions about sex simply and honestly, providing only information that the child requests, additional details can come later.
Emotional Development (Erikson) Initiative vs. guilt. The central problem of the child’s to learn about the world and other people, if he has the ability to solve this problem, he will develop a sense of initiative, if he fails to solve this problem, he will acquire a sense of guilt.
Social Development At 3 Years The average 3 years old says 900 words. Know whether he or she is a boy or a girl. Begins to be interest in colors. Know his family names. Speaks 3-4 words sentences. continue
At 4 Years The average 4 years old says 1500 words. Tends to be selfish and impatient and aggressive. Can name three objectives. Can repeat 4 numbers. Know how old he is. Can name one or more colors well. continue
At 5 Years The average 5 years old says 2100 words. Can name 4 or more colors. Know names of days of the week and months. Ask the meaning of words. The child needs regular interaction with age mates to help develop social skills.
Effect of birth of a sibling Any environmental changes may have traumatic effect on the child, the birth of sibling is a change and deprives the older child of some parent’s attention. The child feels loss of affection. He feels also rejected and may become jealous. continue
He usually shows his hostility to the new baby openly and directly. He shown his hostility toward his mother in different ways The mother should accept such temporary behavior and must discuss with him the difference between his needs and those of the infant. Effect of birth of a sibling
Problems of pre-school child Thumb sucking Enuresis. Encopresis. Selfishness. Bad language. Hurting others. Masturbation. Destructiveness.
Anxiety of pre-school child The child commonly experiences more fear & anxiety during the preschool period than any other time.
Anxiety of pre-school child Common causes of anxiety & fears may arise from the environment. Fear of dark, being left alone especially at bedtime, animals, fear of physical injury, separation from his parents, loss of one parents or both, fear of pain.
Needs of pre-school child Love and security. Independence. Guidance. Sex information. Learning language. Religious information/education. Play (associative play). Preschool years are the play years.
Care of pre-school child Physical care. Sleeping. Safety measures. Health supervision. Preparation for nursery school.
Red flags: preschool Inability to perform self-care tasks, hand washing, simple dressing, and daytime toileting. Lack of socialization. Unable to play with other children.
Red flags: preschool Unable to follow directions during exam. Poor performance evaluation of pre- school teacher for kindergarten readiness.