2Growth & Development Early Childhood Pre-School age 3-5 years Lecture NO.6Early ChildhoodPre-School age3-5 years
3Growth and Development Prepared ByDr. Nahed Said El- naggerAssistant Professor of Nursing1430 – 1431 H
4Learning ObjectivesIdentify the general characteristics (biological development) of preschool.Discuss the developmental theories according to Erickson, Piaget and Freud for preschool.Mention needs of preschool child.Identify problems related to preschoolchild.Discuss the common health promotion of preschool child.
5IntroductionThe combined biological,psychosocial, cognitive, spiritual, and social achievements during the preschool period (3 -5years of age) prepare preschoolers for their most significant change in lifestyle and entrance into school.
6Biological Development The rate of physical growth slows and stabilizes during the preschool years.A healthy pre-school isslender (thin), attractive andhas good posture.
7Biological Development By the end of preschool period, the child appear to be thin and tall.Children gain muscularcoordination, which enablesthem to explore the physicalenvironment.
8The average weight gain during preschool age is 2.3kg/year. Height and WeightWeight:The average weight gain during preschool age is 2.3kg/year.Average weight at 5 years 18.7kg. or double the weight of one year of age.8
9Growth in height averages (6.25 to 7.5cm)per year. Height and WeightHeight:Growth in height averages(6.25 to 7.5cm)per year.Average height at 5 years 110cm, or double the birth length.9
10Head CircumferenceHead circumference is not routinely measured at physical assessments on children over 2 years of age.
11TeethChildren generally have all 20 of their deciduous teeth by years of age. Rarely do new teeth erupt during the preschool period.
16Motor Development of Preschool child At 3 Years:Can wash hands.Can feed himself well.Build a tower of 9-10 blocks.Can go to toilet.Begins to use a scissor.Can ride a tricycle.Go up stairs.Stand on one foot for a few seconds.
17Motor Development of Preschool child (cont.) At 4 Years:Can jump well, goes up and down stairs.Can brush his teeth, lacehis shoes.Can copy a square.
18Motor Development of Preschool child (cont.) At 5 Years:Can use scissor well.Drew a recognizable picture of a man.Can dress himself without assistance.Can wash himself without wetting his clothes.Can balance on one foot for about 8 seconds.
19Mental or cognitive Development “Piaget” Preoperational development(2-7 years).Child can use language and has a memory.Child can understand the meaning of the past, present and the future.continue
20Understand words better. At 4 Years More noisy. Less negativism.Few temper tantrums.Understand words better.At 4 YearsMore noisy.Emotionally fluctuated.Stormy age.continue
21Take more responsibility for his actions. At 5 YearsComfortable age.Take more responsibility for his actions.Still needs guidance from adults.Develop personality.
22Psychosocial Development (Freud) The phallic stage extend from 3-7 years and child’s pleasure center on the genitalia &masturbation.continue
23Psychosocial Development (Freud) During the phallic stage, the child experienced what the Freud termed “the Oedipal conflict" marked by jealousy toward the same sex parent and love the opposite sex parent and resolved in the late of preschool period with a strong identification with the same sex parent.continue
24Sexual Identify develops. Before answering a child question about sex, clarify:- What the child is really asking?- What the child already thinks about the specific subject?Answer questions about sex simply and honestly, providing only information that the child requests, additional details can come later.
25Emotional Development (Erikson) Initiative vs. guilt.The central problem of the child’s to learn about the world and other people, if he has the ability to solve this problem, he will develop a sense of initiative, if he fails to solve this problem, he will acquire a sense of guilt.
26At 3 Years Social Development The average 3 years old says 900 words. Know whether he or she is a boy or a girl.Begins to be interest in colors.Know his family names.Speaks 3-4 words sentences.continue
27The average 4 years old says 1500 words. At 4 YearsThe average 4 years old says 1500 words.Tends to be selfish and impatient and aggressive.Can name three objectives.Can repeat 4 numbers.Know how old he is.Can name one or more colors well.continue
28The average 5 years old says 2100 words. Can name 4 or more colors. At 5 YearsThe average 5 years old says 2100 words.Can name 4 or more colors.Know names of days of the week and months.Ask the meaning of words.The child needs regular interaction with age mates to help develop social skills.
29Effect of birth of a sibling Any environmental changes may have traumatic effect on the child, the birth of sibling is a change and deprives the older child of some parent’s attention.The child feels loss of affection.He feels also rejected and may become jealous.continue
30Effect of birth of a sibling He usually shows his hostility to the new baby openly and directly.He shown his hostility toward his mother in different waysThe mother should accept such temporary behavior and must discuss with him the difference between his needs and those of the infant.
31Problems of pre-school child Thumb suckingEnuresis.Encopresis.Selfishness.Bad language.Hurting others.Masturbation.Destructiveness.
32Anxiety of pre-school child The child commonly experiences more fear & anxiety during the preschool period than any other time.
33Anxiety of pre-school child Common causes of anxiety & fears may arise from the environment.Fear of dark, being left alone especially at bedtime, animals, fear of physical injury, separation from his parents, loss of one parents or both, fear of pain.
34Needs of pre-school child Love and security.Independence.Guidance.Sex information.Learning language.Religious information/education.Play (associative play).Preschool years are the play years.
35Care of pre-school child Physical care.Sleeping.Safety measures.Health supervision.Preparation for nursery school.
36Unable to play with other children. Red flags: preschoolInability to perform self-care tasks, hand washing, simple dressing, and daytime toileting.Lack of socialization.Unable to play with other children.
37Unable to follow directions during exam. Red flags: preschoolUnable to follow directions during exam.Poor performance evaluation of pre-school teacher for kindergarten readiness.