Presentation on theme: "How do you solve a problem like Handwriting?"— Presentation transcript:
1 How do you solve a problem like Handwriting? Mani Maan (SENCO)WMS19th October 06
2 IntroductionExplore why a child may be having handwriting difficultiesOffer helpful strategiesHandwriting handouts can be used by parents, teaching staff
3 Developmental stages of handwriting skills 1-1½ years- Palmar-supinate grasp- scribbles on paper- types of scribbles: wavy, circular, vertical, horizontal or combined- Imitates scribbles2-3 years - Digital-pronate grasp- Imitates vertical, horizontal and circular strokes on paper- Imitates two or more strokes for a cross
4 Development of handwriting skills 3-4 years - Transits to static tripod posture- Copies a vertical, horizontal lines and a circle- Traces a diamond, but with corners rounded- Imitates a cross4-5 years - Static or dynamic tripod grip- Copies a cross, right oblique line and oblique cross- Copies some letters and numbers- May be able to write own name
5 Developmental stages continued 5-6 years - Stable dynamic tripod posture- copies triangles and diamond- Prints own name- Copies most lower and upper case letters- Begins to form letters with some control over size, shape and orientation of letters or lines of writing6-7 years - Produce legible upper and lower case letters in one style and uses them consistently (that is, not randomly mixed within words)- Produces letters that recognisably formed and properly orientated and that have clear ascends and descenders where necessary
6 Development stages continued 8-10 years -Begins to produce clear and legible joined up writing- Produces clear and legible writing in both printed and cursive stylesBased on: Kellogg (1969), Klein (1982), Erhardt (1982), Department of education and science (1989),Amundson and Weil (1996)
7 IMPORTANT!!!If a child is unable to copy / or \, they will be unable to progress to letter formation (e.g.: A, V, M, X, W
10 Pencil Grip Difficulties Weak grasp Tense grasp Finger position on pencil shaft (too high or too low)Activity time again
11 Pencil Grasp Strategies: Weak graspShort pencilChubby pencilsStrengthening activities e.g. clothes peg, theraputty or elastic bandsTense graspPencil gripChubby pencilsStrengthening activitiesThicker pencilPencil with leads
12 Pencil Grasp strategies: Finger positioning on the pencil shaft:- guide finger placement with a sticker/elastic band- pencil grip
13 Pencil Control Difficulties: - Position on the line - Left to right/top to bottom- Letter/word spacing- Letter reversals (after 7 years)
14 Pencil Control Strategies: Position on the lineraised line paperThree colour lines cuesRulerExercise book with coloured linesLeft to right/Top to bottom:sticker cuesThree colour line cuesWriting in boxes/grid paperSandpaper letters
15 Pencil Control- strategies Letter/Word spacing:- Index fingerLollypop stickSmall stickersLittle bit of ‘nothing’Letter reversals- After year 4 speak with Educational Psychologist
16 Hand Dominance- strategies Swapping hands:-Play tabletop games while sitting on less-dominant handStencilsUsing a rulerOpening jars/containersLeft handedness:Avoid sitting a left hander on the right side of a right handerPosition of paperUse of left handed scissors
17 Writing strategies: Practice: I – 0 + / \ X Multi-sensory approach- sand paper, sand tray, finger paintingUse different tools ie paint brush, chalk, travel scribblerDesign formation e.g.
18 More strategies (younger pupils) : Colouring within the lines:Trace around a picture with art glue and let it dry (forms a ridge)Use stencilsMake the background black
19 Scissor Skills Difficulties: - Grip Cutting on line Use of guiding hand
20 Scissor Skill Strategies Use a guiding hand:Hand over hand assistancePractice two handed skills:Tearing paper and pasting it with glueOpening jars and containersAction songs (Song practice)Ball games
21 Ruler Skills Difficulties - stabilising while drawing Strategies Ruler with handlePutting dycem on the bottom of the ruler
22 Posture!Children need to sit in their chair with their hips, knees and feet at a 90-degree angle. If the child's feet do not touch the floor try placing a box or stool under their feet to help with stability."Stack Their Blocks"
23 Acknowledgements Hackney Children’s Occupational Therapy Service Northwick Park Hospital Paediatric Occupational Therapy Service
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