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Age of Reforms  Chapter 9 Section 4. Laissez Faire  the idea that government should stay out of business; government should pass no laws regulating.

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Presentation on theme: "Age of Reforms  Chapter 9 Section 4. Laissez Faire  the idea that government should stay out of business; government should pass no laws regulating."— Presentation transcript:

1 Age of Reforms  Chapter 9 Section 4

2 Laissez Faire  the idea that government should stay out of business; government should pass no laws regulating business  European governments/America used this policy during the 1700’s-1800’s

3 Laissez Faire Philosophers  Laissez Faire: “Let it be” in French  from 18th century Enlightenment philosophers  they argued that government regulations only get in the way a nation getting wealthy ● they argued that if government stayed out of business the economy would prosper

4 Adam Smith

5  18th century British philosopher  wrote The Wealth of Nations 1776  book argues government should not interfere in business

6 Capitalism

7  the economic system where money is invested in businesses with the goal of making a profit  the economic system where individual citizens can invest in and own businesses this system is used in America

8 Thomas Malthus

9 The Malthusian Scissor

10  1798 Malthus argued that populations increased faster than the food supply  because of this most people were destined to be poor and miserable

11 The Malthusian Scissor  as a result populations would naturally even themselves out through starvation, unemployment, and desperation (The Malthusian Scissor)

12 The Malthusian Scissor  Malthus argued this would upset the natural order of business (these problems should sort themselves out)  Most European leaders believed in The Malthusian Scissor: this belief caused them to do nothing to solve social problems Malthus opposed government intervention in Business (minimum wage laws, better working conditions)

13 Rise of Socialism  in contrast to Laissez-Faire philosophers, some theorists argued that government should intervene and help the lower classes!

14 Socialist Reforms UtilitarianismUtopianismSocialismMarxism

15 Utilitarianism  introduced by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham late 1700s

16 Utilitarianism  he argued people should judge governments on their utility, or usefulness  government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people

17 Utilitarianism  John Stuart Mill

18 John Stuart Mill  led the Utilitarianism movement in the 1800s  believed it was wrong that workers suffered starvation and dangerous conditions  he favored women’s rights women’s suffrage Pushed for reforms in the prison and education systems

19 Utopianism

20 Robert Owen British factory owner improved factory conditions for his employees Near his cotton mill in Scotland he built houses that he rented to his employees at low rates prohibited children under 10 from working in his mills and provided free schools Utopianism

21 New Harmony, Indiana

22  1824 Robert Owen founded a community New Harmony, Indiana he intended it to be a utopia (perfect living place for all his employees); New Harmony only lasted 3 years but it inspired the founding of other utopian communities later

23 Socialism  founded by French reformer Charles Fourier

24 Socialism  in socialism the factors of production (land, wealth, labor) are owned by the public for the welfare of all grew out of belief in human good, progress, and social justice People own the factors of production, the government runs the economy to ensure no abuses government should promote equality of all and public ownership of business: help workers who were at mercy of greedy owners

25 Good Morning/Afternoon  12-16-09  Warm-up  Describe each of these ism’s in your own words (One sentence).  Utilitarianism, Utopianism, Socialism,

26 Marxism (Communism)

27 Karl Marx  German journalist  He and friend Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto 1848: 23 page pamphlet that argued human societies have always been divided into warring classes (haves vs. have- nots)

28  Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto

29 The Communist Manifesto  Bourgeoisie owners vs. Proletariat workers  wealthy controlled money and production while poor performed hard labor under horrible conditions this situation had to result in conflict

30 Future According to Marx  Industrial Revolution would eventually destroy itself :  The large Proletariat (working class) would revolt, seize factories, and produce what society needed  Revolt would be Global: all workers unite in all countries  workers would share in the profitsGovernments would and there would be equality for alldisappear: there would be no need for them

31 Pure Communism  final phase of the revolution: private property would cease to exist  all land, mines, factories, railroads, businesses would be owned by the people all goods and services would be shared equally social classes would cease to exist

32 Results of Marxism  revolts shook Europe 1848-1849  1900’s Communist revolutions took place in Russia, China, Vietnam, Cuba, Korea and other nations in Eastern Europe leaders of these new communist nations adapted Marx’ beliefs to fit their own ideals and needs

33 Good Morning/Afternoon  12-16-09  Warm-up  Compare and contrast the video clip. One paragraph minimum.

34 Results of Marxism  Marx believed economic forces alone dominated society  He ignored the power of religion, nationalism, ethnic loyalty, and desire for democracy: He also ignored capitalism’s ability to adapt and change  These are why worldwide Communism did not happen Today: China, Cuba, North Vietnam, North Korea only Communist nations left

35 The Union Movement

36  mid-late 1800s labor unions emerged to protect workers’ rights  a union spoke for all workers in a particular Industry  British Government banned unions in 1800  desperate workers joined anyway  British government unhappily allowed unions in 1825

37 The Union Movement  Collective Bargaining: large scale negotiations between workers and their employers with union representing the workers (bargaining for better pay and better conditions)  Strike: if factory owners did not meet union’s demands they went on strike, or refused to work

38 American Federation of Labor  1886 most powerful early American Union  Founded by Samuel Gompers  In America unions emerged in early 1800s

39 Reform Laws Factory Act 1833 Mines Act 1842 Ten Hours Act 1847

40 Factory Act 1833  Factory Act 1833 : made it illegal to hire children under 9 in Great Britain; kids 9-12 could not work more than 8 hrs./day; kids 13-17 could not work more than 12 hrs./day

41 Mines Act 1842  Mines Act 1842: prevented women and children from working in underground mines in Great Britain

42 Ten Hours Act 1847  Ten Hours Act 1847: limited work day to 10 hrs. for women and children in factories Labor reforms were slower to hit America: not until 1920s- 1930s did new laws take place in America to protect workers

43 earned 1/3 as much as men formed unions in trades American women started settlement houses to assist poor immigrants fought to end slavery in America and Britain led reform movements Women

44 Reforms Spread to Other Areas of Life  prison reform and education reform  1850s most American states set up free public education systems  Western Europe free public education came in late 1800s

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