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Age of Reforms Chapter 9 Section 4.

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1 Age of Reforms Chapter 9 Section 4

2 Laissez Faire the idea that government should stay out of business; government should pass no laws regulating business European governments/America used this policy during the 1700’s-1800’s

3 Laissez Faire Philosophers
Laissez Faire: “Let it be” in French from 18th century Enlightenment philosophers they argued that government regulations only get in the way a nation getting wealthy ● they argued that if government stayed out of business the economy would prosper

4 Adam Smith

5 Adam Smith 18th century British philosopher
wrote The Wealth of Nations 1776 book argues government should not interfere in business

6 Capitalism

7 Capitalism the economic system where money is invested in businesses with the goal of making a profit the economic system where individual citizens can invest in and own businesses this system is used in America

8 Thomas Malthus

9 The Malthusian Scissor

10 The Malthusian Scissor
1798 Malthus argued that populations increased faster than the food supply because of this most people were destined to be poor and miserable

11 The Malthusian Scissor
as a result populations would naturally even themselves out through starvation, unemployment, and desperation (The Malthusian Scissor)

12 The Malthusian Scissor
Malthus argued this would upset the natural order of business (these problems should sort themselves out) Malthus opposed government intervention in Business (minimum wage laws, better working conditions) Most European leaders believed in The Malthusian Scissor: this belief caused them to do nothing to solve social problems

13 Rise of Socialism in contrast to Laissez-Faire philosophers, some theorists argued that government should intervene and help the lower classes!


15 Utilitarianism introduced by English philosopher Jeremy Bentham late 1700s

16 Utilitarianism he argued people should judge governments on their utility, or usefulness government should try to promote the greatest good for the greatest number of people

17 Utilitarianism John Stuart Mill

18 John Stuart Mill led the Utilitarianism movement in the 1800s
believed it was wrong that workers suffered starvation and dangerous conditions he favored women’s rights women’s suffrage Pushed for reforms in the prison and education systems

19 Utopianism

20 Utopianism Robert Owen British factory owner
improved factory conditions for his employees Near his cotton mill in Scotland he built houses that he rented to his employees at low rates prohibited children under 10 from working in his mills and provided free schools

21 New Harmony, Indiana

22 New Harmony, Indiana 1824 Robert Owen founded a community New
he intended it to be a utopia (perfect living place for all his employees); New Harmony only lasted 3 years but it inspired the founding of other utopian communities later

23 Socialism founded by French reformer Charles Fourier

24 Socialism in socialism the factors of production
(land, wealth, labor) are owned by the public for the welfare of all grew out of belief in human good, progress, and social justice People own the factors of production, the government runs the economy to ensure no abuses government should promote equality of all and public ownership of business: help workers who were at mercy of greedy owners

25 Good Morning/Afternoon
Warm-up Describe each of these ism’s in your own words (One sentence). Utilitarianism, Utopianism, Socialism,

26 Marxism (Communism)

27 Karl Marx German journalist
He and friend Friedrich Engels wrote The Communist Manifesto 1848: 23 page pamphlet that argued human societies have always been divided into warring classes (haves vs. have-nots)

28 Friedrich Engels The Communist Manifesto

29 The Communist Manifesto
Bourgeoisie owners vs. Proletariat workers wealthy controlled money and production while poor performed hard labor under horrible conditions this situation had to result in conflict

30 Future According to Marx
Industrial Revolution would eventually destroy itself : The large Proletariat (working class) would revolt, seize factories, and produce what society needed Revolt would be Global: all workers unite in all countries workers would share in the profits Governments would and there would be equality for all disappear: there would be no need for them

31 Pure Communism final phase of the revolution: private property would cease to exist all land, mines, factories, railroads, businesses would be owned by the people all goods and services would be shared equally social classes would cease to exist

32 Results of Marxism revolts shook Europe 1848-1849
1900’s Communist revolutions took place in Russia, China, Vietnam, Cuba, Korea and other nations in Eastern Europe leaders of these new communist nations adapted Marx’ beliefs to fit their own ideals and needs

33 Good Morning/Afternoon
Warm-up Compare and contrast the video clip. One paragraph minimum.

34 Results of Marxism Marx believed economic forces alone
dominated society He ignored the power of religion, nationalism, ethnic loyalty, and desire for democracy: He also ignored capitalism’s ability to adapt and change These are why worldwide Communism did not happen Today: China, Cuba, North Vietnam, North Korea only Communist nations left

35 The Union Movement

36 The Union Movement mid-late 1800s labor unions emerged to
protect workers’ rights a union spoke for all workers in a particular Industry British Government banned unions in 1800 desperate workers joined anyway British government unhappily allowed unions in 1825

37 The Union Movement Collective Bargaining: large scale negotiations between workers and their employers with union representing the workers (bargaining for better pay and better conditions) Strike: if factory owners did not meet union’s demands they went on strike, or refused to work

38 American Federation of Labor
1886 most powerful early American Union Founded by Samuel Gompers In America unions emerged in early 1800s


40 Factory Act 1833 Factory Act 1833 : made it illegal to hire children under 9 in Great Britain; kids 9-12 could not work more than 8 hrs./day; kids could not work more than 12 hrs./day

41 Mines Act 1842 Mines Act 1842: prevented women and children from working in underground mines in Great Britain

42 Ten Hours Act 1847 Ten Hours Act 1847: limited work day to 10 hrs. for women and children in factories Labor reforms were slower to hit America: not until 1920s-1930s did new laws take place in America to protect workers

43 Women

44 Reforms Spread to Other Areas of Life
prison reform and education reform 1850s most American states set up free public education systems Western Europe free public education came in late 1800s

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