Presentation on theme: "Endocrine System Overview Defined: Body system that controls growth, development, environmental responses –Physically disconnected Glands: Major organs."— Presentation transcript:
Endocrine System Overview Defined: Body system that controls growth, development, environmental responses –Physically disconnected Glands: Major organs of the endocrine system –Make hormones –Hormones: chemical signals that move through blood stream Hormones attach to cell receptor –Cause target cells produce proteins
Steroid & Non-Steroid Hormones Naturally produced by the body Travel through blood Attach to receptor of target cells Target cell creates proteins
Differences Between Steroid & Nonsteroid Hormones The hormone and receptor enter the nucleus and bind to DNA Steroid hormone receptor nucleus DNA proteins Non-steroid hormone receptor second messenger Chemical reactions activated enzymes Steroid hormones enter into the cell. Steroid hormone diffuses through the cell membrane Steroid hormone binds to a receptor within the cell. Steroid hormone causes DNA to make proteins. Nonsteroid hormone binds to receptor on the cell membrane. Receptor stimulates a 2 nd messenger with in the cell. 2 nd messenger starts a series of chemical reactions in cytoplasm. 2 nd messenger reactions activate enzymes. Non-steroid hormones do not enter the cell.
1988 Summer Olympics: Ben Johnson (Canada) vs. Carl Lewis (USA) The Race that Shocked the World
YouTube clip: Endocrine system
Major Glands Glands create hormones (C) Hypothalamus –S–Stimulates the pituitary gland to release hormones –H–Helps controls growth, reproduction, body temp (B) Pituitary gland –C–Controls cell growth –S–Stimulates other glands (A) Thyroid gland –R–Regulates metabolism, growth, development (D) Thymus –A–Allows WBCs to mature to fight infection
(E) Adrenal Glands –Controls “fight or flight” response –Increases breathing, alertness, blood pressure (F) Pancreas –Controls glucose level in blood Gonads: influence sexual development (H) Testes (XY): produces testosterone (G) Ovaries (XX): produces estrogen, progesterone
Effects of testosterone
Communication Between Nervous System & Endocrine System Connected by the hypothalamus in the brain –Receives signals from sensors –Produces releasing hormones that stimulate other glands to produce hormones. –Ex: Used in thermoregulation to maintain homeostasis
Review 1)What are glands and what do they release? 2)What do hormones direct cells to create? 3)How do hormones travel through the body? 4)What gland connects the endocrine and nervous systems? 5)What are the differences between steroid and nonsteroid hormones? 6)Examine the diagram of the endocrine system on slide #12. Practice labeling the 8 different glands. 7)Which gland…. a)releases insulin to lower blood sugar levels? b)increases your alertness and blood pressure? c)helps your white blood cells mature? d)is located atop your kidneys? e)are found in your brain (two answers)? f)is considered your body’s thermostat?