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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific defenses Do not distinguish one type of threat from another 7 types.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific defenses Do not distinguish one type of threat from another 7 types."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific defenses Do not distinguish one type of threat from another 7 types Specific defenses Protect against particular threats Depend upon the activation of lymphocytes Lymphatic system and body defenses

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 22-3 Nonspecific Defenses

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Keep hazardous organisms outside the body Includes hair, epithelia, secretions of integumentary and digestive systems Nonspecific Defenses, Physical barriers

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 1 - Physical Barriers)

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Remove cellular debris and respond to invasion by foreign pathogens Monocyte-macrophage system - Fixed and free Microphages – Neutrophils and eosinophils Move by diapedesis Exhibit chemotaxis Nonspecific Defenses, Phagocytes

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 2 - Phagocytes) Figure 22.10

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Constant monitoring of normal tissue by NK cells NK cells Recognize cell surface markers on foreign cells Destroy cells with foreign antigens Nonspecific Defenses, Immunological surveillance

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings NK cell activation Recognition of unusual surface proteins Rotation of the Golgi toward the target cell and production of perforins Release of perforins by exocytosis Interaction of perforins causing cell lysis

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 3 - Immunological Surveillance)

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure How Natural Killer Cells Kill Cellular Targets

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific Defenses, Interferons (cytokines) Small proteins released by virally infected cells Trigger the production of antiviral proteins Three major types of interferons are: Alpha– produced by leukocytes and attract/stimulate NK cells Beta– secreted by fibroblasts causing slow inflammation Gamma – secreted by T cells and NK cells stimulate macrophage activity

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 4 - Interferons) Figure 22.10

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific Defenses, Complement system Cascade of ~11 plasma complement proteins (C) Destroy target cell membranes Stimulate inflammation Attract phagocytes Enhance phagocytosis

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Complement proteins interact with on another via two pathways Classical Alternative

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 5 - Complement System)

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Complement Activation Figure 22.12

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific Defenses, Inflammation Localized tissue response to injury producing Swelling Redness Heat Pain Effects of inflammation include Temporary repair of injury Slowing the spread of pathogens Mobilization of local, regional, and systemic defenses

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 6 - Inflammatory Response) Figure 22.10

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Inflammation Figure 22.13

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nonspecific Defenses, Fever Maintenance of a body temperature above 37.2 o C (99 o F) Pyrogens reset the hypothalamic thermostat and raise body temperature Pathogens, toxins, antigen-antibody complexes can act as pyrogens

21 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Nonspecific Defenses (Part 7 - Fever)

22 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 22-4 Specific Defenses

23 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Forms of immunity Innate immunity Genetically determined Present at birth Acquired immunity Not present at birth Achieved by exposure to antigen Active immunity Passive immunity

24 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Types of Immunity Figure 22.14

25 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Properties of immunity Specificity – activated by and responds to a specific antigen Versatility – is ready to confront any antigen at any time Memory – “remembers” any antigen it has encountered Tolerance – responds to foreign substances but ignores normal tissues

26 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The immune system response Antigen triggers an immune response Activates T cells and B cells T cells are activated after phagocytes exposed to antigen T cells attack the antigen and stimulate B cells Activated B cells mature and produce antibody Antibody attacks antigen

27 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure An Overview of the Immune Response

28 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 22-5 T cells and Cell-mediated Immunity

29 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Major types of T cells Cytotoxic T cells (T C ) – attack foreign cells Helper T cells (T H ) – activate other T cells and B cells Suppressor T cells (T S ) – inhibit the activation of T and B cells

30 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Antigen presentation Antigen-glycoprotein combination appears on a cell membrane Called MHC proteins (Major Histocompatibility Complex) Coded for by genes of the MHC T-cells sensitive to the antigen are activated upon contact

31 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings MHC classes Class I – found on all nucleated cells Class II – found on antigen presenting cells and lymphocytes

32 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Lymphocytes respond to antigens bound to either class I or class II MHC proteins Antigen recognition T cell membranes contain CD markers CD3 markers present on all T cells CD8 markers on cytotoxic and suppressor T cells CD4 markers on helper T cells

33 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antigens and MHC Proteins Figure 22.16

34 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antigens and MHC Proteins Figure 22.16a

35 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antigens and MHC Proteins Figure 22.16b

36 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activation of CD8 cells Responds quickly giving rise to other T cells Cytotoxic T cells – seek out and destroy abnormal cells lymphotoxin Memory T C cells – function during a second exposure to antigen Suppressor T cells – suppress the immune response

37 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Antigen Recognition and the Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells

38 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Antigen Recognition and the Activation of Cytotoxic T Cells Animation: Cytotoxic T Cell Activation PLAY

39 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Activation of CD4 T cells by antigens presented on class II MHC proteins Produces helper T cells and memory T cells Activated helper T cells Secrete lymphokines that coordinate specific and nonspecific defenses Enhance nonspecific defenses Stimulate the activity of NK cells Promote activation of B cells

40 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure Antigen Recognition and Activation of Helper T cells Animation: Antigen Recognition and Helper T Cell Activation PLAY

41 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure A Summary of the Pathways of T Cell Activation

42 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 22, part 4 The Lymphatic System and Immunity

43 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 22-6 B Cells and Antibody-mediated Immunity

44 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings B cell sensitization of activation Sensitization – the binding of antigens to the B cell membrane antibodies Antigens then displayed on B cell Class II MHC T H cells activated by same antigen stimulate B cell Active B cell differentiates into Memory B Cell or Plasma cell Plasma cells synthesize and release antibody

45 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Sensitization and Activation of B Cells Animation: B Cells and Antibody Production PLAY

46 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Antibodies structure Antibodies are Y-shaped proteins consisting of: Two parallel polypeptide chains Heavy chains and light chains Constant region and variable region Antigen binding site

47 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antibody Structure Figure 22.21

48 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antibody Structure Figure 22.21a

49 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Antibody Structure Figure 22.21b-d

50 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Actions of antibodies include: Neutralization Agglutination and precipitation Activation of complement Attraction of phagocytes Opsinization Stimulation of inflammation Prevention of adhesion

51 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Classes of Antibodies (immunoglobins) IgG – resistance against many viruses, bacteria and bacterial toxins IgE – accelerates local inflammation IgD – found on the surface of B cells IgM – first type secreted after antigen arrives IgA – primarily found in glandular sec

52 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Primary and secondary antibody response Primary response Takes about two weeks to develop Produced by plasma cells Secondary response Rapid increase in IgG Maximum antibody titer app

53 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure The Primary and Secondary Immune Responses

54 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Figure An Integrated Summary of the Immune Response

55 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 22.25a, b Figure The Course of the Body’s Response to Bacterial Infection

56 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 22-7 Normal and Abnormal Resistance

57 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Development of the Immune Response Immunological competence The ability to demonstrate an immune response after exposure to an antigen Fetuses receive immunity from the maternal bloodstream Infants acquire immunity following exposure

58 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Immune disorders Autoimmune disorders Immune response mistakenly targets normal cells Immunodeficiency diseases Immune system does not develop properly or is blocked

59 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Allergies Inappropriate or excessive immune response to allergens Anaphylaxis Circulating allergen affects mast cells throughout body

60 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The Mechanism of Anaphylaxis Figure 22.26

61 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stress and the immune response Interleukin-1 released by active macrophages Triggers release of ACTH resulting in glucocorticoid release Moderates the immune response Lowers resistance to disease

62 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Stress can cause the following: Depression of the inflammatory response Phagocytic reduction Inhibition of interleukin secretion

63 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The structure and function of lymphatic cells, tissues and organs The body’s nonspecific defenses and the components and mechanisms of each Specific resistance, cell-mediated immunity and antibody mediated immunity The role of the T cell, B cell and antibodies in specific immunity You should now be familiar with:


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