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Pradeep K. Srivastava Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India Website:

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Presentation on theme: "Pradeep K. Srivastava Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India Website:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Pradeep K. Srivastava Medicinal & Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India E-mail: Website: Combatting Climate Change and Energy Crisis

2 SCIENTOON Professor Frank Fenner Emeritus professor of microbiology at the Australian National University, Australia has predicted that the human race will be extinct within the next 100 years. He has claimed that the human race will be unable to survive a population explosion and 'unbridled consumption.’ Fenner (scientist who helped eradicate smallpox) further said that 'A lot of other animals will too become extinct.' 'It's an irreversible situation. I think it's too late. I try not to express that because people are trying to do something, but they keep putting it off.’ extinct-100-years-population-explosion.html Cartoon idea: Courtesy: Prof. G.S. Randhawa, IIT, Roorkee, India “I thank you all for participating in the funeral journey. It is our sacred duty to carry the dead body of the last human being to the graveyard. Friends, now we all have to take care of the planet earth.”



5 ORIGIN OF SCIENTOONS On 26th May 1988 while delivering a lecture entitled "Development of Drugs and Pharmaceutical Industry In Developing Countries“ in a conference held at National University of Singapore, Singapore, few science cartoons were used in order to make the lecture more informative, interesting and impactful. SCIENTOONS, a new name was coined and announced for such novel science cartoons.

6 SCIENTOONICS is a new branch of science that deals with effective science communication, using a novel class of science cartoons called scientoons. - Pradeep K. Srivastava African Science Communication Conference (ASCC) Dr. Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Port Elizabeth, South Africa December 5, 2006


8 Biodiversity Nearly two-thirds of the 110 species of harlequin frogs in Central and South America have disappeared since 1980. The fact that adult frogs have been dying in large numbers suggests that disease may be to blame. Now, Pounds and colleagues have shown that a fungus that lives on frog skin together with changes in local weather conditions linked to global climate change are behind the extinctions. Reference: Nature 439, 16 January (2006) “I can understand your worry my son! But our shastras have always said that “Aaya hai so jayega………”

9 SCIENTOON “I don’t understand that how this GREEN HOUSE EFFECT is going to cause Global Warming? Look! I have painted my entire house in green but I don’t find it warm at all.” The term GREEN HOUSE EFFECT was given by a Swedish scientist Swante Arrhenius in the year 1896. The name has come from the Glass House inside which plants are grown in controlled conditions and the gases absorb the heat of the Sun making inside warm.


11 SCIENTOON Do you know that a tree with a life span of 50 years gives us? 1.Oxygen equivalent to Rs. 5.5 lacs. 2.Pollution control contribution: Rs. 10.5 lacs. 3.Soil erosion check and soil fertility Rs. 6.5 lacs. 4.Shelter for birds, animals etc. Rs. 5.3 lacs. 5.Fruits, flowers, wood, seeds, paper etc. Rs. 4.2 lacs. Total contribution Rs. 32 Lakhs Courtesy: Regional Science City, Lucknow “Vrichha Devta! You are really great!”

12 SCIENTOON PANCHVATI A group of five shady trees is called Panchavati. Skand Puran: Five trees are Peepal (east), Aonla (South), Bargad (West), Ashok (South East) and Bel (North). Distance among these trees should be minimum 10 meters. “Its very urgent! You immediately send a camera team. I got as person who has seen a real PEEPAL TREE.”

13 Nearly 60 per cent of the world’s remaining reefs are at significant risk of being lost in the next three decades. The major causes of coral reef decline are coastal development, sedimentation, destructive fishing practices, pollution, tourism and global warming. Climate change threatens to destroy the majority of the world’s coral reefs, as well as wreak havoc on the fragile economies of Small Island Developing States. “You all scientists have no brains. Look! It is clear now that these green house effect is responsible for causing global warming. OK. Demolish all the houses which are green in colour at once” CLIMATE CHANGE

14 SCIENTOON More than 1000,000,000 (I billion) trees are cut every year in the world for making Disposable diapers. Diapers are health hazards as they don’t degrade for years. “He looks like the first environmentally conscious baby in the word. Look! He started crying the moment he saw a diaper.”

15 GREEN AREAS in urban settlements serve many other purposes. URBAN FORESTS produce oxygen and absorb carbon dioxide, thus enhancing air quality. They provide storm water control and provide a home for urban wildlife. “No, No! Sir Never!. Reject it right now. Look this green ridge means forest, then animals, then tigers, so poaching and killing of tigers. What you will answer when census of tiger will say NO TIGER LEFT.”

16 PRADEEP K. SRIVASTAVA Medicinal& Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India E-mail: MEDICINAL PLANTS AND RICH BIODIVERSITY OF ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: WORST VICTIM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION Vultures are scavenging birds, feeding mostly on the carcasses of dead animals. Vultures are found on every continent except Antarctica and Oceania. Bombay Natural History Society has said. According to the BNHS, 99 per cent population of the bird has declined at the rate of around 50 per cent every year. "At present there are only 11,000 vultures remaining in India. If it continues to decline at this rate, then only around 6,000 vultures will be left and finally they may become extinct," Dr. Arshad Rehmani, director of BNHS, said. (2008) EXTINCTION OF SPECIES “No! No. As a Mayor of the city We are and will ever grateful to you for your services to us through out your life, but since you were not in the regular job of Nagar Nigam, hence we can not give you pensionery benefits.”

17 MEDICINAL PLANTS AND RICH BIODIVERSITY OF ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: WORST VICTIM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION EXTINCTION OF SPECIES One tagged vulture has been tracked nearly 5,000 kilometers away in Mongolia. Ailing and dead vultures have also been found in neighboring Nepal and Pakistan, and there is concern that the avian disease could spread to other continents where these scavenging birds play a major role in the ecological system. In African countries, for instance, communities depend on vultures to dispose of animal carcasses, as no carrion removal system exists. “Oh yes. I travel now a days by flight only. Actually at old age you can not take risk of flying alone for such a long distance that too no one is there of your own, to help you.”

18 LaCONES, Hyderabad

19 Biodiversity By the year 2050, 60,000 species of plants will have become extinct According to Beachy, (1992) 40% of the rainforests had been destroyed between 1940 and 1980 with an extinction rate of about 50 species per given day. “You are mistaken Sir. Our Ministry does not deal with foreign visits and passports related matters.”

20 40% of the world’s population lives within 60 kilometres of a coast. Three- quarter of the world’s megacities are by the sea. By 2010, 80 % of people will live within 100 kilometres of the coast. CLIMATE CHANGE “What? you are fed up with water and noise pollution? This is nothing my son. Think of 2010 when the same will be just doubled.”

21 CLIMATE CHANGE The 11,000 Tuvaluans live on nine coral atolls totaling 10 square miles scattered over 500,000 square miles of ocean south of the equator and west of the International Dateline. Tuvalu is the smallest, except for the Vatican. Tuvalu has no industry, burns little petroleum, and creates less carbon pollution than a small town in America. This tiny place nevertheless is on the front line of climate change. The increasing intensity of tropical weather, the increase in ocean temperatures, and rising sea level -- all documented results of a warming atmosphere.

22 CLIMATE CHANGE Tuvaluans face the possibility of being among the first climate refugees, although they never use that term. Former assistant Environmental minister and now assistant secretary for Foreign Affairs Paani Laupepa said he felt threatened. "Our whole culture will have to be transplanted."

23 CLIMATE CHANGE Sea level rise is the greatest problem. Tuvalu's highest elevation is 4.6 meters -- 15 feet -- but most of it is no more than a meter above the sea. Several times each year the regular lunar cycle of tides, riding on the ever higher mean sea level, brings the Pacific sloshing over onto roads and into neighborhoods. In the center of the larger islands the sea floods out of old barrow pits and even squirts up out of the coral bedrock. Puddles bubble up that eventually cover part of the airport on the main island of Funafuti and inundate homes that are not along the ocean.

24 The answer is yes: LEARN FROM OUR HERITAGE. Energy Conservation: Light

25 Hong Kong, International Airport Energy Conservation: Light

26 Can we the people of Lucknow and Uttar Pradesh make a change? The answer is Eco friendly transport systems like Metro rail, Mono rail etc.

27 Can we the people of Lucknow and Uttar Pradesh make a change? The answer is SOLAR POWER THERMAL PLANTS.

28 Can we the people of Lucknow and Uttar Pradesh make a change? Think of Designing SOLAR POWERED OFFICES and HOUSES.

29 Can we the people of Lucknow and Uttar Pradesh make a change? Use WIND ENERGY.

30 SCIENTOON Sir! Don’t give me even 25 paise but but I am telling you for your benefit. Put correct air in your tires. Keeping right air in the tyres, saves a lot of money and reduces pollution. If all the cars in America keep right air in their tyres then 1 Crore barrels of oil can be saved every year.

31 “For the last three generations, our family was very scientific in managing the water problem but what can I do when there is no water left?” 2 Billion people belonging to 60 countries of the world are dying for water. By the year 2050 the figure may go up to 7 billion.

32 “Hey Lord Shiva! Can’t you recognize me? I am your Ganga! This pollution is totally unbearable now. Kindly call me back to Swarg or give me some space in your hairs.”

33 “No way! I will never enter in this highly polluted dirty and filthy Yamuna to kill Kalia and get the ball. Friends! If you want the ball, take Rs. 25 from me and buy a new one from the market.”








41 Our old tradition of using earthen pots like Ghada, Surahai is vanishing fast. Can’t we think of these ecofriendly, green and clean concepts once again? The water kept in them is naturally cold and is never harmful for you, contrast to refrigerator water. This will also provide jobs to many people who make these items. “I liked the water, it was very sweet, cold and tasty. But how do you cool it. Where did you install compressor, thermostat and regulator in this. Can you show me please.”

42 Mazar of famous saint Saleemuddin Chishti in Fateh Pur Sikri (Agra) has got a unique rain water conservation system. The rain water on top of the mazar which is made up of white marble, was collected through hollow pillars and then stored in a covered water tank 80X80X80 feet. This water was used for drinking purpose in the fort. This is an ideal example of Roof Top Rain Water harvesting system in our country. Huzoor Akbar khud tashrif layen hai. Vo appka shukriya ada kar rahen ki aapne unhe ek beta Saleem diya. Par age aapse gujarish kar rahen hai ki pani bhi den taki sab jinda rah saken.”

43 NANOSCIENTOONS NANO CLOTHES The technology is fairly straightforward for textile mills to adopt. The chemical formulation changes the fabric on a molecular level with nano-enhanced fibers. These "nano hairs" prevent stains in your clothing by not allowing grape juice or mud or French fry grease to soak into the fabric. Nano-Tex reports growing sales and looks forward to further enhancements that will make its technologies more coveted by clothiers. Unfortunately, because it's a private company, we don't have any SEC reports to verify sales claims. But Nano-Tex is looking to create greater mindshare -- to get people thinking about these nano-hairs -- by introducing a new hangtag to increase brand recognition. Think of it as the "Intel Inside" of the garment industry. Additionally, agreements with mills in the United States, Europe, and Asia indicate a robust marketing and licensing effort. “You are traveling in these SAME clothes for the last six months. Oh no, my God! Darling I am extremely sorry. I forgot to tell you that these are not nano clothes but ordinary one.”

44 NANOSCIENTOONS NANOLUX - MORE LIGHT WITH LESS ENERGY Lighting alone accounts for about 8% of total energy consumption in Germany. The development of energy-saving lighting is therefore particularly important. Traditional light bulbs have an efficiency of only 5%. However, their light is similar to the light of the sun, which we perceive as pleasant. Modern low-energy bulbs have good efficiency, but at the same time their light is unpleasant for human eyes and they have a large-volume form. The light yield of semiconductors can now be increased drastically by using nanotechnology. Light is to be produced efficiently and in a pleasant colour from semiconductor material - similar to computer chips. “What is new in this? I remember I used to take bath with Lux even when I was a kid”.

45 NANOSCIENTOONS NANOBATTERIES OF THE FUTURE Researchers have trapped metallic lithium inside carbonaceous nanostructures 1. Such trapped lithium in carbon nanostructures could help make rechargeable nanobattery for next generation communication and remote sensing devices. 1 In search of a better rechargeable battery, the researchers first produced a lithium precursor complex with dark violet colour slowly giving rise to gel-like mass. In the presence of dichloromethane, the gel-like mass decomposed to bimetallic complex containing both lithium and cobalt. Then using this bimetallic complex, they grew thin films in the absence of any reactive gas. “What my wife is calling and angry that I am not responding? Tell her that I am using the mobile battery for driving the car.”

46 NANOSCIENTOONS AIR TRAVEL Consider, for example, the difference between a bird and an airplane. Both fly. Yet the image of a 747 going feral, swooping out of the sky to clutch an unsuspecting horse in its landing gear, seems incongruous. Machines lack the wonderful adaptability of living systems. A 747 requires Jet A fuel, a refined source of energy that is delivered to it by an elaborate system that includes oil fields, pumps, tankers, refineries, fuel lines, and trucks. It can convert this artificially refined fuel into energy using engines that can run on little else. Cut off from refined fuel, airstrips, maintenance crews, spare parts, navigational systems and all the other paraphernalia that keeps it flying and a 747 is just a large piece of scrap metal. A bird, in contrast, can live on berries, seeds, worms, insects, small rodents, fish and bits of bread tossed to it by amused tourists. “Earlier I was supplying these items to zoo for the animals, now I get more profit, because this is for the latest Boeing 747 aircraft.

47 “Arre nahin! nahin! Yeh paise rakho yar! Hum to tumhare Paryavaran Prem par fida ho gaye.” “Aakhir Kisi ne to ki hamari kadar!”

48 Solar Powered Fridge Miss Emily Cummins (21) UK

49 PRADEEP K. SRIVASTAVA Medicinal& Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India E-mail: MEDICINAL PLANTS AND RICH BIODIVERSITY OF ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION: WORST VICTIM OF ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION The huge and increasing population is putting enormous pressure on the unique natural resources of the region. Forests are being cut down for timber, plantations, agriculture, roads and urban development; its fresh water and seas are being polluted and over fished - in the sea destructive methods such as cyanide fishing and explosives are being used to catch fish. ASIA AND PACIFIC REGION “Come on darling! Don’t waste time. It has nothing to do with us.”

50 SCIENTOON “Come on ! Don’t’ worry! Look! When living people of this country could not do any harm to us, what these dead will do?.” BHOPAL GAS TRAGEDY is the biggest industrial disaster in the world. It killed 4000 people, paralyzed 30,000 people and affected 40,000 more. The accident was caused by the leakage of MIC gas in the Insecticide producing factory run by Union Carbide of India Ltd. in Bhopal. Unfortunately not even a single person was convicted in this case.

51 CLIMATE CHANGE The only hope left for us is the most wonderful, unique and nature’s best machine called TREE. Plant as many trees as you can which will make this planet a cooler and a place worth living.


53 PRADEEP K. SRIVASTAVA Medicinal& Process Chemistry Division CENTRAL DRUG RESEARCH INSTITUTE Lucknow-226001, India E-mail: Worlds Greenest and Happiest country: Costa Rica

54 Thank you So much !

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