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Sensors in Electric Drives Control Systems

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1 Sensors in Electric Drives Control Systems
Done By Saif Al-Nairat Abd-Alla Al-Shamali Supervised By : Prof. Mohammed Zeki

2 Introduction A Sensor (also called detector or encoder) is a device that produces a measurable response to a change in a physical condition, such as temperature, speed or position. It is a converter that measures a physical quantity and converts it into a signal which can be read by an observer or by an electronic instrument. Sensors are particularly useful for making measurements in industrial and drive process control.

3 Introduction The following figure shows the basic topology of an electric drive.

4 Introduction “Closed loop" systems - also called feedback control systems - are necessary. The purpose of the drive controller is essentially to convert the desired drive torque/speed profile into triggering pulses for the electronic power converter, taking into account various drive variables (currents, speed, temperature etc.) fed back by the sensors. The input to the power converter is controlled (manipulated) by the controller. The inputs to the controller consist of: 1. Torque, flux, speed, and/or position commands 2. Rate of variations to facilitate soft start, to preserve the integrity of the load 3. The actual values of torque, flux, speed, position for feedback control. 4. Limiting values of currents, torque, acceleration, etc. 5. Temperature feedback, instantaneous currents & voltages in the motor and/or converter.

5 Introduction

6 Introduction A sensor is used to monitor the actual operating state of the system and to feed back to the input of the controller an analogue or digital signal representing the output state. The actual and desired or reference states are continually compared and if the actual state is different from the reference state an error signal is generated Sensors can be classified as, either (Passive / Active) or (Analogue / Digital) Sensors: Active Sensors: they require an external power supply to operate - Passive Sensors: Passive sensors don’t need any additional energy source and directly generates an electric signal in response to an external stimulus.

7 Introduction - Analogue Sensors: Analogue Sensors produce a continuous output signal or voltage which is generally proportional to the quantity being measured. Physical quantities such as Temperature, Speed, Pressure, Displacement, Strain etc., are all analogue quantities as they tend to be continuous in nature as example below. Figure 1: Temperature is measured by thermo couple sensor which continuously responds to temperature changes

8 Introduction - Digital Sensors: Digital Sensors produce a discrete digital output signals or voltages that are a digital representation of the quantity being measured. Digital sensors produce a Binary output signal in the form of logic “1” or logic “0”, (“ON” or “OFF”). Figure 2: the speed of the rotating shaft is measured by using a digital LED/Opto-detector sensor.

9 Introduction Compared to analogue signals, digital signals or quantities have very high accuracies and can be both measured and “sampled” at a very high clock speed. Circuits which measure analogue signals usually have a slow response and/or low accuracy. Also analogue signals can be easily converted into digital type signals. In most cases, sensors and more specifically analogue sensors generally require an external power supply and some form of additional amplification or filtering of the signal

10 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
Drives operated with closed-loop control are equipped with a measuring system for the speed and the angular position, so-called angle sensors or encoders, in order to achieve high speed and positioning accuracy. In addition, on drives with synchronous motors they also supply the rotor position information for the current control. The speed is calculated by differentiation of the angle. This differentiation is part of the angle evaluation.

11 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
*Positional Sensors* Position Sensors detect the position of something which means that they are referenced either to or from some fixed point or position. These types of sensors provide a “positional” feedback. One method of determining a position is to use either “distance” or by “rotation” (angular movement). Inductive Position Sensors Linear Variable Differential Transformer Inductive Proximity Sensors The Potentiometer Encoders Incremental Encoders  Absolute Position Encoders.

12 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
1- The Potentiometer A potentiometer is a resistive sensor used to measure linear displacements as well as rotary motion. It has a wiper contact linked to a mechanical shaft that can be either angular (rotational) or linear (slider type) in its movement, and which causes the resistance value between the wiper/slider and the two end connections to change giving an electrical signal output that has a proportional relationship between the actual wiper position on the resistive track and its resistance value. In other words, resistance is proportional to position. A DC reference voltage is applied across the two outer fixed connections forming the resistive element. The output voltage signal is taken from the wiper terminal of the sliding contact.

13 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
This configuration produces a potential or voltage divider type circuit output which is proportional to the shaft position. The output signal (Vout) from the potentiometer is taken from the center wiper connection as it moves along the resistive track, and is proportional to the angular position of the shaft.

14 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
While resistive potentiometer position sensors have many advantages: - low cost low tech easy to use they also have many disadvantages: - wear due to moving parts low accuracy, - low repeatability limited frequency response. Typical applications for this type of high accuracy position sensor are in : computer game joysticks, steering wheels, and industrial and robot applications.

15 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
2) A- Linear Variable Differential Transformer (LDVT) is an inductive type position sensor which works on the same principle as the AC transformer that is used to measure movement. It is a very accurate device for measuring linear displacement and whose output is proportional to the position of its moveable core A small AC reference voltage called the “excitation signal” (2 – 20V rms, 2 – 20kHz) is applied to the primary winding which in turn induces an EMF signal into the two adjacent secondary windings (transformer principles).

16 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
The polarity of the output signal depends upon the direction and displacement of the moving core. The greater the movement of the soft iron core from its central null position the greater will be the resulting output signal. The result is a differential voltage output which varies linearly with the cores position. Therefore, the output signal has both amplitude that is a linear function of the cores displacement and a polarity that indicates direction of movement.

17 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
A typical application of a linear variable differential transformer (LDVT) sensor would be as a pressure transducer Advantages : linearity, which is its voltage output to displacement is excellent, very good accuracy, good resolution, high sensitivity as well as frictionless operation. They are also sealed for use in hostile environments.

18 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
2) B-Inductive Proximity Sensors Another type of inductive position sensor in common use is the Inductive Proximity Sensor also called an “Eddy current sensor”. While they do not actually measure displacement or angular rotation they are mainly used to detect the presence of an object in front of them or within a close proximity, hence their name “proximity sensor”. inductive proximity sensors operate under the electrical principle of Faraday’s Law of inductance. The “sensing” range of proximity sensors is very small, typically 0.1mm to 12mm.


20 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
An inductive proximity sensor has four main components: The oscillator which produces the electromagnetic field The coil which generates the magnetic field The detection circuit which detects any change in the field when an object enters it The output circuit which produces the output signal, either with normally closed (NC) or normally open (NO) contacts. They are also used in machine vibration monitoring to measure the variation in distance between a shaft and its support bearing. This is common in large steam turbines, compressors, and motors that use sleeve-type bearings.

21 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
Incremental Encoder Incremental Encoders, also known as quadrature encoders or relative rotary encoder, are the simplest of the two position sensors. Their output is a series of square wave pulses generated by a photocell arrangement as the coded disk, with evenly spaced transparent and dark lines called segments on its surface, moves or rotates past the light source. The encoder produces a stream of square wave pulses which, when counted, indicates the angular position of the rotating shaft. Incremental encoders have two separate outputs called “quadrature outputs”. These two outputs are displaced at 90o out of phase from each other with the direction of rotation of the shaft being determined from the output sequence.

22 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
The number of transparent and dark segments or slots on the disk determines the resolution of the device and increasing the number of lines in the pattern increases the resolution per degree of rotation. Typical encoded discs have a resolution of up to 256 pulses or 8-bits per rotation. The “Quadrature” or “Sine wave” encoder is the more common and has two output square waves commonly called channel A and channel B. This device uses two photo detectors, slightly offset from each other by 90o thereby producing two separate sine and cosine output signals.

23 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
The angle of the shaft in radians can be calculated using mathematical functions. Generally, the optical disk used in rotary position encoders is circular, then the resolution of the output will be given as: θ = 360/n, where n equals the number of segments on coded disk. Also the direction of rotation is determined by noting which channel produces an output first, either channel A or channel B giving two directions of rotation, A leads B or B leads A.

24 (Linear / Angular) Position and Speed Sensors
 Absolute Position Encoder - Absolute Position Encoders are more complex than quadrature encoders. - They provide a unique output code for every single position of rotation indicating both position and direction. Their coded disk consists of multiple concentric “tracks” of light and dark segments. Each track is independent with its own photo detector to simultaneously read a unique coded position value for each angle of movement. The number of tracks on the disk corresponds to the binary “bit”-resolution of the encoder so a 12-bit absolute encoder would have 12 tracks and the same coded value only appears once per revolution. Typical application of absolute position encoders are in computer hard drives and CD/DVD drives were the absolute position of the drives read/write heads are monitored or in printers/plotters to accurately position the printing heads over the paper.

25 Optical sensors - Optical sensors are based on the modulation of light travelling between a light source and a light detector. - The transmitted light can travel along either an air path or a fibre-optic cable. Light sources suitable for transmission across an air path include tungsten-filament lamps, laser diodes and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). -The main forms of light detector used with optical systems are photocells (cadmium sulphide or cadmium selenide). -These are all photoconductive devices, whose resistance is reduced according to the intensity of light to which they are exposed.

26 Optical sensors  Fiber-optic sensors usually incorporate either glass/plastic cables or all plastic cables and characteristically enjoy long life. Further advantages are: -their simplicity -low cost -small size -high reliability -capability of working in many kinds of hostile environment. Two major classes of fibre-optic sensor exist: - Intrinsic sensors: the fibre-optic cable itself is the sensor. - Extrinsic sensors: the fibre-optic cable is used to guide light to/from a conventional sensor. Optical sensors are commonly used to measure proximity, translation almotion, and rotational motion.

27 Optical sensors As an example, the optical sensor for the Brushless Dc Motor consists of: -A light source -Three phototransistors P1, P2 and P3 mounted on the end plate of the motor, separated by 120o from each other -A revolving shutter coupled to the shaft of the motor.

28 Optical sensors When the shutter revolves, the phototransistors get exposed to the light in the sequence of their numbers. In each revolution, the phototransistors generate the pulses PI1, PI2 and PI3 which have duration and phase displacement of 120o.

29 Optical sensors

30 Resolvers Resolvers are magnetically operated angle sensors which comprise a rotary transformer and the actual resolver part with a single-phase rotor winding and a two-phase stator winding with the number of pole pairs (p). The operating principle exploits the angle-dependent coupling between the windings in the rotor and in the stator. From the ratio of the induced voltages, the system can then calculate the angle and rotational speed. Resolvers are made of the same materials as the servo motors: copper and iron, As a result, they are significantly more robust than optical angle sensors.

31 Resolvers With the aid of the ring transformer, a carrier frequency voltage with the amplitude Ve is transmitted in the single-phase rotor. The carrier frequency voltage induces the voltages Vcos and Vsin in both phases of the stator winding. As the two phases are electricallyoffsetby90°, the amplitudes of the voltages depend cosinusoidally or sinusoidally on the angle of rotation: Here, Itr is the transmission ratio of the ring transformer and Irs the ratio between the rotor and stator windings. The angle of rotation can be calculated from the ratio of the voltages: Resolvers can with stand external temperatures and vibrations and are resistant to voltage faults. The sensitive electronics are housed in the control cabinet, where they are protected from environmental influences.

32 Temperature Sensors There are many different types of Temperature Sensor available and all have different characteristics depending upon their actual application. A Temperature Sensor consists of two basic physical types: • Contact Temperature Sensor Types • Non-contact Temperature Sensor Types Typical applications for temperature sensors include: -HVAC - room, duct, and refrigerant equipment -Motors - overload protection -Electronic circuits - semiconductor protection -Electronic assemblies - thermal management, temperature compensation -Process control - temperature regulation -Automotive - air and oil temperature -Appliances - heating and cooling temperature

33 Temperature Sensors Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTD)
The Resistance Temperature Detectors or RTD’s are precision temperature sensors made from high-purity conducting metals such as platinum, copper or nickel wound into a coil and whose electrical resistance changes as a function of temperature. However, they have very poor thermal sensitivity that is a change in temperature only produces a very small output change. A typical RTD has a base resistance of about 100Ω at 0oC, increasing to about 140Ω at 100C with an operating temperature range of between -200 to +600C. RTD’s are passive resistive devices and by passing a constant current through the temperature sensor it is possible to obtain an output voltage that increases linearly with temperature

34 Temperature Sensors The Thermocouple
The Thermocouple is by far the most commonly used type of all the temperature sensor types. Thermocouples are popular due to its simplicity, ease of use and their speed of response to changes in temperature, due mainly to their small size. Thermocouples also have the widest temperature range of all the temperature sensors from below -200C to well over 2000C. Thermocouples are thermoelectric sensors that basically consist of two junctions of dissimilar metals. When the two junctions are at different temperatures, a voltage is developed across the junction which is used to measure the temperature

35 Temperature Sensors The Thermocouple
The operating principal of a thermocouple is very simple and basic. When fused together the junction of the two dissimilar metals such as copper and constantan produces a “thermo-electric” effect which gives a constant potential difference of only a few millivolts (mV) between them. The voltage difference between the two junctions is called the “Seebeck effect” then the output voltage from a thermocouple is a function of the temperature changes.

36 Temperature Sensors The Thermostat
The Thermostat is a contact type electro-mechanical temperature sensor or switch, that basically consists of two different metals such as nickel, copper, tungsten or aluminum that are bonded together to form a Bi-metallic strip. The different linear expansion rates of the two dissimilar metals produce a mechanical bending movement when the strip is subjected to heat. The bi-metallic strip can be used itself as an electrical switch or as a mechanical way of operating an electrical switch in thermostatic controls and are used extensively to control hot water heating elements in boilers, furnaces, hot water storage tanks as well as in vehicle radiator cooling systems.

37 Temperature Sensors The Thermostat
-The thermostat consists of two thermally different metals stuck together back to back. -When it is cold the contacts are closed and current passes through the thermostat. -When it gets hot, one metal expands more than the other and the bonded bi-metallic strip bends up (or down) opening the contacts preventing the current from flowing..

38 Hall effect sensors When a current-carrying conductor is placed into a magnetic field, a voltage will be generated perpendicular to both the current and the field. This principle is known as the Hall effect. In other word it’s a magnetic field sensor.

39 Hall Effect sensor is a sensor that varies its output voltage in response to a magnetic field.
Hall Effect sensors are used for proximity switching, positioning, speed detection, voltage and current sensing applications. Hall Effect Sensors are activated by an external magnetic field the sensor detects it and generates an output voltage called the Hall Voltage, Vh.

40 Hall Effect Sensors are available with either linear or digital outputs.
The output signal for linear (analogue) sensors is taken directly from the output of the operational amplifier with the output voltage being directly proportional to the magnetic field passing through the Hall sensor. This output Hall voltage is given as: VH = RH (I * B) / t Where: VH is the Hall Voltage in volts RH is the Hall Effect co-efficient I is the current through the sensor in amps t is the thickness of the sensor in mm B is the Magnetic Flux density in Teslas

41 Most Hall Effect devices can not directly switch large electrical loads as their output drive capabilities are very small around 10 to 20 mA . Rotor position can be determined by a Hall Effect device (or devices), embedded in the stator, which provide an electrical signal representing the magnetic field strength. The amplitude of this signal changes as the magnetic rotor poles pass over the sensor. Hall Effect devices can also be used for current sensing Hall sensors are commonly used to time the speed of wheels and shafts, such as for internal combustion engine ignition timing, tachometers and anti-lock braking systems. They are used in brushless DC electric motors to detect the position of the permanent magnet. In the pictured wheel with two equally spaced magnets, the voltage from the sensor will peak twice for each revolution. This arrangement is commonly used to regulate the speed of disk drives.

42 NO magnetic field no voltage

43 When magnetic field is present voltage will be indused

44 Some hall effect sensor application in motor drives :
Brushless DC motor RPM sensors Current sensors

45 Brushless DC motor sensors

46 Hall effect sensors detect the magnetic field coming from the magnets on the rotor shaft and can know it’s position this way better control of stator field switching is achieved.

47 RPM sensors

48 The RPM sensor is one of the most common applications for a Hall sensor effect
With RPM sensors the following can be achieved : Speed control, Control of motor timing, Zero speed detection, Tape rotation, Under or overspeed detection, Disk speed detection, Automobile or tractor transmission controller, Fan movement Shaft rotation counter, Bottle counting, Radical position indication, Drilling machines, Linear or rotary positioning, Rotary position sensing, Flow-rate meter Tachometer pick-ups

49 Current sensors Linear output Hall effect sensors can be used to sense currents ranging from 250 milliamperes to thousands of amperes


51 The sensitivity of the simple current sensing system shown in the figure can be increased by adding a flux concentrator to the sensor. With the addition of a flux concentrator, these sensors can be used to check over or under speed, overload (current surges), undercurrent and phase failure for large motors or generators. This approach consists of a torroid core with a linear sensor positioned in the gap. The core encloses the sensor and acts as an additional flux concentrator

52 sensitive current sensor

53 TORQUE SENSOR The most common torque measuring principle uses bonded strain gauge technology where the strain gauges are bonded to a suitably designed shaft. 

54 Torque sensors with a circular shaft and with strain gauges applied at 45deg is a design that has been around for many years

55 Typically four strain gauges are bonded and connected into a Wheatstone bridge configuration with temperature compensation components included within the bridge circuitry.  With an excitation voltage applied to the bridge and torque induced into the shaft, an electrical output linearly proportionate to that torque will result. The completed Wheatstone Bridge requires a stable DC supply to excite the circuit.  This is usually 5Vdc or 10Vdc, but can be any value from 1Vdc up to 18Vdc

56 Static vs. Rotary Torque
Torque measurements can be either Static (also known as Reaction) or Rotary.  A static or reaction torque measurement involves little or no rotation of the item being measured, such as during torque spanner testing A rotary torque measurement would, as the name suggests, be subject to continuous rotation.  This rotation could be constant or periodical

57 Dynamic Torque A dynamic torque is one that is subject to variation or change for instance the torque on the motor drive shaft of an electric hover mower When selecting a transducer to measure dynamic torque, it is important to ensure that Is has a sufficiently wide frequency response bandwidth so that the electrical output will react fast enough to capture the changes (peaks or troughs) as they occur, rather than smoothing or filtering them out.

58 Power & Signal Transmission in Rotary Torque Sensors
Slip Ring Rotary Transformer (Inductive Loop) Wireless Radio

59 Slip Ring The conductive rings rotate with the sensor and use a series of sprung brushes to contact the rings and transmit the electrical signal At low speed the electrical connection between the rings and brushes are relatively noise free, however at higher speeds electrical noise will eventually degrade their performance.

60 Rotary Transformer For higher speed (rpm) torque measurement applications the rotary transformer system is used The rotary transformer system consists of two coils, one static coil that is attached to the transducer's housing and one rotating coil that is attached to the transducer shaft.  This offers the distinct advantage of there being no contact between rotor and stator and incorporates both transmission of power to and signal back from the rotating strain gauge bridge circuit.

61 inaccuracies of ±0.2% and are capable of speeds up to 50,000rpm.
The rotary transformer system is versatile enough for use in special torque transducers and those where space is limited.

62 Wireless Radio Telemetry
The avoidance of rotor and stator coils means that installing wireless torque sensors is a simplified process over other types as there is no cabling provision or coil alignment to the measurement signal can be transferred over considerable distances (up to 120m) easily. consider

63 The data stream provided by the wireless telemetry system is broadcasted and so can be read by multiple receiver units with different functions such as digital displays, analogue outputs and PC-based USB acquisition making multi-featured systems quick and easy to set up.

64 Torque Measurement Summary
To measure torque effectively it is important to understand the factors involved in the creation of the torque as well as those that may alter the torque measurement: nominal torque rating, speed, available space to mount the sensor, duration of measurement and the environment within which the measurement is taking place

65 When measuring dynamic torque, the location of the measurement is vital to ensure that the true torque is measured and false measurements are avoided, caused by either adjoining components in the drive train or those that dampen the torque measurement system, including the measurement system itself. The selection of the correct transducer rating, transmission system and mechanical connection will ensure the measurement solution is no more expensive than it need be and maximum long-term accuracy and reliability will be achieved

66 Summary - Sensors are “Input” devices which convert one type of energy or quantity into an electrical analogue or digital signals. - Sensors are used to monitor the actual operating state of the electric drive system and to feed back to the input of the controller an analogue or digital signal representing the output state. - The most common forms of sensors are those that detect Position, Temperature, Light, Pressure and Velocity. - Some sensors called “Self-generating” sensors generate output voltages or currents relative to the quantity being measured - Some sensors called “Modulating” sensors change their physical properties, such as inductance or resistance relative to the quantity being measured and need to be biased to provide an output voltage or current. - Sensors act as feedback as they sense position of the rotor. It converts the information of rotor position into a suitable electrical signal. This signal is used to switch ON and OFF of various semiconductor devices of electronic switching circuitry as in Brushless Dc motor.

67 Summary There are many types of (Linear / Angular) Position, Current, Temperature and Speed Sensors that are used widely in electric drives to adjust and control systems such as: -Positional sensors (Potentiometer, Inductive Position Sensors, Rotary Encoders) -Resolvers -Optical sensors -Hall Effect sensors -Thermocouples -Thermostat -Resistive Temperature Detectors (RTD)

68 Summary Factors to consider when choosing a sensor:
Accuracy: The statistical variance about the exact reading. Calibration: Required since measuring systems readings will drift over time. Cost: Economic consideration should be taken. Environmental: Sensors typically have temperature and/or humidity limits. Range: Limits of measurement or the sensor. Resolution: The smallest increment the sensor can detect. Repeatability: The variance in a sensor's reading when a single condition is repeatedly measured.

69 References 1- “Measurement and Instrumentation Principles”, Alan S Morris, Third Edition. 2- “Electric Drives and Electromechanical Systems”, Richard Crowder. 3- “Control of Electrical Drives”, Werner Leonhard, Third Edition. 4- “Electric Drives”, Ion Bolden and S.A. Nasar, 2nd edition. 5- Basic Electronics Tutorials Site by Wayne Storr., 6- Ed Ramsden (2006). Hall-effect sensors: theory and applications 7- Petruk, O.; Szewczyk, R.; Salach, J.; Nowicki, M. (2014). "Digitally Controlled Current Transformer with Hall Sensor" 8- “Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook”, John G. Webster, HalitEren, Second Edition 9- “MATLAB Library site”, /about-the-electric-drives-library.html

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