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A Context Analysis Method for Embedded Systems --- Exploring a Requirement Boundary between a System and Its Context Naoyasu Ubayashi(Kyushu University,

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Presentation on theme: "A Context Analysis Method for Embedded Systems --- Exploring a Requirement Boundary between a System and Its Context Naoyasu Ubayashi(Kyushu University,"— Presentation transcript:

1 A Context Analysis Method for Embedded Systems --- Exploring a Requirement Boundary between a System and Its Context Naoyasu Ubayashi(Kyushu University, Japan) Yasutaka Kamei(Kyushu University, Japan) Masayuki Hirayama(Nihon University, Japan) Tetsuo Tamai(University of Tokyo, Japan) September 1, 2011

2 Overview -- Motivation  Many embedded systems not only affect their context through actuators but also are affected by their context through sensors.  It is important to provide a context analysis method for constructing reliable embedded systems. Context Boundary ? Embedded System Actuator Sensor Frame Problem !  However, it is difficult to decide the boundary of the context that should be taken into account: which context element should be included as the targets of requirements analysis. 2

3 Our approach  CAMEmb (Context Analysis Method for Embedded systems)  Only the value-context elements are extracted as the associated context elements.  We can explore only a sequence of context elements affecting the data value observed or controlled by sensors/actuators.  Other context elements not affecting the system observation and control are not taken into account because these context elements do not affect the system behavior. 3

4 Contribution 1: CAMEmb Guide Words for Context Analysis 4

5 Contribution 2: Model transformation 5 Context Analysis Model System Analysis Model Java Requirements Analysis Model Design ModelCode Model-Driven Requirements Engineering

6 Outline  Motivation  CAMEmb  CAMEmb-based MDD  Discussion  Conclusions 6

7 Motivation 7

8 Example: an electric pot 8 water level sensor heater thermostat liquid context system pot The pot controls the water temperature by turning on or off the heater. The pot changes its mode to the heat-retaining mode when the temperature becomes 100 Celsius. The pot observes the volume from the water level. Boil: () ==> () Boil() == while thermostat.GetTemperature() < 100 do heater.On(); However, faults may occur because the expected context is not clear. ---for example, the circumstance of the low air pressure. * Boiling point is below 100 Celsius. * Water evaporates and finally its volume will be empty. * There may be climbers who use a pot up on high mountains where the air pressure is low. Requirements Should air pressure be taken into account ? Context Boundary Air Pressure InsideOutside ?

9 Problems to be tackled  The boundary of the context should be determined from stakeholders’ requirements.  If we consider climbers as customers of the pot, we have to admit that we failed in eliciting requirements.  It is not easy to define the context boundary even if the target users of the system are determined.  A developer will be faced with the frame problem because there are unlimited context elements in the real world. 9 McCarthy, J. and Hayes, P. J.: Some Philosophical Problems from the Standpoint of Artificial Intelligence, Machine Intelligence, 4, pp , 1969.

10 Our approach  We provide a systematic way to relax the frame problem by providing the followings.  CAMEmb  procedure for exploring the context boundary.  validation method for detecting the conflicts between system and its context.  CAMEmb-based MDD (Model-Driven Development)  tool support for transforming system and context models into the design model that takes into account the influence of the context within the explored boundary. 10

11 CAMEmb Context Analysis Method for Embedded systems 11

12 CAMEmb Overview 12 CAMEmb is applied after system requirements analysis

13 Context analysis using guide words Guide Words for Context Analysis Leveson, N. G.: Safeware: System Safety and Computers, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company,

14 Step 1: Extract directly observed or controlled context elements 14 Class > System Analysis Model Context Analysis Value-context element (value object) UML Profile for Context Analysis Association >

15 Step 2 [Initial boundary]: Extract indirectly observed or controlled context elements 15 Guide word The initial context boundary is an ideal boundary in which system's observing and controlling are not affected by other factors. Association >

16 Step 3 [intermediate boundary]: Extract impact factors using guide words 16 Guide word Association > Context elements that do not change the values are ignored ! The frame problem can be avoided !

17 Step 4 [Final boundary]: Determine the context boundary 17 Guide word Association > Focus on value-context elements

18 CAMEmb-based MDD Model-Driven Requirements Engineering for Context Analysis 18

19 CAMEmbModeler 19 Context model of a line trace car Model Editor Model Compiler Code Generator DSL for Context Analysis Ubayashi, N., Otsubo, G., Noda, K., and Yoshida, J.: An Extensible Aspect-oriented Modeling Environment, CAiSE 2009, pp.17-31, 2009.

20 Model Compiler + Code Generator 20 Context Analysis Model System Analysis Model Java Requirements Analysis Model Design ModelCode Model-Driven Requirements Engineering

21 Mapping between context model and design model 21 Context Analysis Model Design Model (Module structure) Recognition Goal (logical) Initial context boundary Sensed Data (physical) logical physical Recognition Path Sensor The context elements in a context model show the process of context recognition. Line-position recognition path: Light Sensor -> Reflected Light (light volume) -> Ground Color (black or white) -> On or outside a line We can obtain a design structure by reversing the recognition path. The top module of the design hierarchy corresponds to a context element existing within the initial context boundary. The context boundary determines the design structure.

22 Discussion 22

23 Problem frames  A context diagram in the problem frames approach describes problem domains, a machine, and connections among them.  The notion of context in CAMEmb corresponds to the real world in the problem frame. 23 Jackson, M: Problem Frame: Analyzing and Structuring Software Development Problems, Addison-Wesley, 2001.

24 Context analysis with problem frames 24 Trace Controller ( TC ) AA Body ( BD ) Line Trace C a: TC! { Right, Left} BD! { Line detected, Linemissed} b: LP! { On, Off} c: LC! { Ground Color} d: LS! { Reflected Light} r: BD! { Run, Return to Course} r b Control Machine Controlled Domain Required Behavior AA Light Sensor ( LS ) X Line recognition Controller (LC) AA Line Position ( LP ) X Transformation Machine Output Input Required Behavior Frame Transformation Frame c a d On if ground color is black

25 CAMEmb vs. Problem frames  We consider that it is effective to apply CAMEmb after problem analysis is done.  The problem frames approach is strong in analysing problems in the real world.  CAMEmb provides a systematic way for determining the context boundary and refining the real world model cut off by the boundary into a design model. 25

26 Conclusions 26

27 Conclusions  We proposed CAMEmb, a context-dependent requirements analysis method.  The idea of value-context elements and guide words plays an important role.  We believe that the essential idea of CAMEmb can be applied to other kinds of context such as security.  As the next step, we plan to apply CAMEmb to such an application domain. 27

28 28 Thank you for your attention.


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