2Tissues Figure 32.2 4 major types: Epithelial – found on outside of the body and lining organs and cavities.Muscle – 3 typesCardiac – heart tissue, involuntarySmooth – involuntary actions in body, organs, blood vesselsSkeletal – muscle that moves, attaches to bone, voluntary
3Nervous tissue – the neuron, sends impulses, communication Glia cells are nerve helping cells to the neuronsConnective tissue – diverse group of tissues scattered throughout body and extracellular matrixBone – calcified hard matrixBlood – liquid matrixCartilage – ear, nose, gel like matrixDense fibrous – tendons and ligamentsAdipose - fatAreolar – loose fibrous connecting tissue
4Regulator or Conformer? Animals that are regulators uses internal mechanisms to control internal change – endothermic, homeothermic, warm bloodedAnimals that are conformers – internal condition changes in accordance with external changes, ectothermic, cold bloodedHomeostasis – maintenance of a constant internal balanceexamples,- body temp, blood glucose levels…Negative feedback – when body is out of homeostasis and it is brought back.Positive feedback – when body is brought out of homeostasis purposely for a short period of time, childbirth and oxytocin
6Sensor/ control center: Thermostat turns heater off. Response: Figure 32.4Sensor/control center:Thermostatturns heater off.Response:Heating stops.Roomtemperaturedecreases.Stimulus:Roomtemperatureincreases.Set point:Room temperatureat 20CFigure 32.4 A nonliving example of temperature regulation: control of room temperatureStimulus:Roomtemperaturedecreases.Roomtemperatureincreases.Response:Heating starts.Sensor/control center:Thermostatturns heater on.6
7Endocrine systemEndocrine system – communication via hormones that are released by endocrine glands into the blood stream.Hormones – chemical messengersExocrine glands – figure 32.11Exocrine glands – integumentary system, release product to cavity or outside the body, sweat.Nervous system – rapid communication using neurons and nerve impulsesAll run by Stimulus/Response mechanism
8Major Endocrine Glands and Their Hormones Hypothalamus Figure 32.11aMajor Endocrine Glandsand Their HormonesHypothalamusPituitary glandAnterior pituitaryPineal glandMelatoninPosterior pituitaryOxytocinVasopressin(antidiuretichormone, ADH)Thyroid glandThyroid hormone(T3 and T4)CalcitoninAdrenal glands(atop kidneys)Parathyroid glandsParathyroid hormone (PTH)Adrenal medullaEpinephrine andnorepinephrineOvaries (in females)EstrogensProgestinsFigure 32.11a Exploring the human endocrine system (part 1: glands and hormones)Adrenal cortexGlucocorticoidsMineralocorticoidsTestes(in males)AndrogensPancreasInsulinGlucagon8
9Sensor/control center: Thermostat in hypothalamus Response: Sweat Figure 32.8Sensor/control center: Thermostatin hypothalamusResponse: SweatResponse:Blood vesselsin skin dilate.Stimulus:Increased bodytemperatureBodytemperaturedecreases.Homeostasis:Internal bodytemperature ofapproximately36–38CBodytemperatureincreases.Stimulus:Decreased bodytemperatureFigure 32.8 The thermostatic function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulationResponse:Blood vesselsin skin constrict.Sensor/control center: Thermostatin hypothalamusResponse: Shivering9
10Endocrine cell Cell body of neuron Figure 32.9(a) Signaling by hormones(b) Signaling by neuronsStimulusStimulusEndocrinecellCellbody ofneuronNerveimpulseAxonHormoneSignaltravelseverywhere.Signaltravels toa specificlocation.BloodvesselNerveimpulseFigure 32.9 Signaling in the endocrine and nervous systemsAxonsResponseResponse10
11Osmoregulation (fluids) How animals control solute concentrations in the interstitial fluid and balance water gain and lossExcretory system – releasing of nitrogenous and metabolic waste products (kidney)Osmoconformer – being isoosmotic with its surroundings, marine animalsOsmoregulator – to control internal osmolarity independent of the environment. Allows animals to live in freshwater/terrestrial habitats.
13Proteins Nucleic acids Amino acids Nitrogenous bases Amino groups Figure 32.16ProteinsNucleic acidsAminoacidsNitrogenousbasesAmino groupsMost aquaticanimals, includingmost bony fishesMammals, mostamphibians, sharks,some bony fishesMany reptiles(including birds),insects, land snailsFigure Forms of nitrogenous wasteAmmoniaUreaUric acid13
14Most aquatic animals, including most bony fishes Mammals, most Figure 32.16aMost aquaticanimals, includingmost bony fishesMammals, mostamphibians, sharks,some bony fishesMany reptiles(including birds),insects, land snailsFigure 32.16a Forms of nitrogenous waste (detail)AmmoniaUreaUric acid14
19Nephron Organization Afferent arteriole from renal artery Glomerulus Figure 32.19bcNephron OrganizationAfferent arteriolefrom renal arteryGlomerulusBowman’scapsuleProximaltubulePeritubularcapillariesDistaltubuleEfferentarteriolefromglomerulusBranch ofrenal veinFigure 32.19bc Exploring the mammalian excretory system (part 2c: nephron organization)DescendinglimbLoopofHenleVasarectaCollectingductAscendinglimb19
20Salts (NaCI and others) HCO3− OUTER MEDULLA H Urea Thin segment Figure 32.201Proximal tubule4Distal tubuleNaCINutrientsH2OHCO3−H2OKNaCIHCO3−HNH3KHInterstitialfluidCORTEX3Thick segmentof ascendinglimb2Descending limbof loop ofHenleFiltrateH2OSalts (NaCI and others)NaCIH2OHCO3−OUTERMEDULLANaCIHUreaFigure The nephron and collecting duct: regional functions of the transport epithelium3Thin segmentof ascendinglimb5CollectingductGlucose, amino acidsSome drugsUreaNaCIH2OKeyActive transportINNERMEDULLAPassive transport20
21AdaptationsBased on where you live, there are adaptations to the kidneyHyperosmotic urine (dessert animals) – long loops of Henle that extend deep into the medullaBirds – shorter loop of Henle, les concentrated urine compared to mammals – uric acid is product to help conserve water.
22Homeostatic regulation of kidney 32.23 antidiruretic hormone
23Osmoreceptors trigger release of ADH. Thirst Drinking ADH of fluids FigureOsmoreceptorstrigger releaseof ADH.ThirstDrinkingof fluidsADHIncreasedpermeabilityDistaltubuleSTIMULUS:Increasein bloodosmolarityFigure Regulation of fluid retention in the kidney by antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (step 3)H2OreabsorptionCollecting ductHomeostasis23