Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Tools and Equipment Chapter 3.

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Tools and Equipment Chapter 3."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tools and Equipment Chapter 3

2 Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment
A thorough knowledge of equipment is essential. All kitchen personnel need to be orientated on the proper usage, cleaning, and safety of all equipment. Modern cooking and food processing equipment has an extraordinary capacity to burn, cut, smash, mangle, and amputate parts of the tender human body. Never use a piece of equipment until you are thoroughly familiar with its operation and all its features. You must learn how to know when a machine is not operating correctly. Not All Models Are Alike It is important to study the operating manual supplied with each item or to be taught by someone who already knows that item well and has operated it.

3 Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment
CLEANING Cleaning is part of the operating procedure! Thorough, regular cleaning of ALL equipment is essential. Most large equipment can be partially disassembled for cleaning. Operating manuals should describe these procedures in detail.

4 Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment
Cleaning (cont’d) Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards. Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards.

5 Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment
CONSERVE ENERGY Know the preheating time for all your cooking equipment so you don’t need to turn it on before necessary. Plan production so equipment that requires a lot of energy is not on for long periods when not in use.

6 Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment
YOUR HANDS ARE YOUR BEST TOOLS Machines are intended to be laborsaving devices. The usefulness of specialized processing equipment depends on the volume of food it handles. It takes less time for certain preparations to complete by hand, versus setting up, using, breaking down, and cleaning equipment. This is why it is important to develop good manual skills.

7 Cooking Equipment RANGETOPS
The range is still the most important piece of cooking equipment in the kitchen. Many of its functions have been taken over by other tools such as steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens.

8 Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight)
Cooking Equipment Rangetops (cont’d) Open Elements Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight) Open Elements Either electric coils or gas flames. Fastest to heat and can be turned off after short use. Cooktop space is limited to one pot per burner. Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight) Burners covered with steel plate. More cook space is available. Top supports moderately heavy weights.

9 Cooking Equipment Rangetops (cont’d) Heavy-duty Flattop
Induction Cooktop Heavy-duty Flattop Burners covered with heavy cast steel. Top supports many heavy pots. Requires longer preheating. Ring-top range is a type of flat top that has removable rings. Allows access to more intense heat from the flames below. Induction Cooktop Top of an induction unit does not become hot. Works by magnetically agitating the molecules in steel or iron cookware. Aluminum pots and pans sandwiched between layers of stainless steel will also work. Much less energy is used. No open flame; kitchen stays cooler. Only pots, pans and their contents become hot.

10 Cooking Equipment Ovens
Enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air, microwaves, or infrared radiation. Used for roasting and baking. Foods can also be simmered, stewed, braised, or poached in the oven. This helps to free up the rangetop and the chef’s attention for other tasks.

11 Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Stack Ovens Convection Ovens
Consist of individual shelves or decks arranged one above the other. Pans are placed directly on the oven deck. Temperatures are adjustable for each deck. Convection Ovens Contain fans that circulate the air and distribute the heat rapidly throughout the interior. Foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures due to the forced air. Shelves can be placed closer together than in conventional ovens without blocking the heat flow.

12 Slow-Cook-and-Hold Ovens
Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Revolving Ovens Slow-Cook-and-Hold Ovens Large chambers containing many shelves or trays on an attachment like a Ferris wheel. Also called reel ovens. More sophisticated features. Computerized electronic controls. Special probes that sense when a roast is done and tell the oven to switch from cooking temperature to holding temperature.

13 Combination Steamer Ovens Barbecue or Smoke Ovens
Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Combination Steamer Ovens Barbecue or Smoke Ovens Combination Steamer Ovens Also called a combi oven. Can be operated in three modes: as a convection oven as a convection steamer as a high-humidity oven Barbecue or Smoke Ovens Are like conventional ovens. Produces wood smoke, which surrounds the food. Adds flavor while it bakes or roasts. Special woods such as hickory, mesquite, or fruitwoods such as apple or cherry must be added.

14 Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Infrared or Reconstituting Ovens
Contain quartz tubes or plates that generate intense infrared heat. Used primarily for reconstituting frozen foods. These ovens bring large quantities of foods to serving temperature in a short time.

15 Cooking Equipment Woodburning Ovens Ovens (cont’d) Wood-burning Ovens
Microwave Ovens Woodburning Ovens Woodburning ovens have once again come into fairly wide use. Ancient ovens were made of heavy masonry, brick, or clay. Heated by building a wood fire inside them. Microwave Ovens Special tubes generate microwave radiation. Create heat inside the food.

Cooking Equipment BROILERS AND SALAMANDERS Sometimes called overhead broilers. Generate heat from above. Food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source.

17 Cooking Equipment Grills Same cooking operations as broilers.
Heat source (gas, electricity, or charcoal) is below the grid that holds the food. Charcoal taste is created by smoke from meat fats that drip into the heat source.

18 Cooking Equipment GRIDDLES
Flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Available as separate units or as part of a rangetop.

19 Cooking Equipment Rotisseries
Cooks meats and other foods by turning them slowly in front of electric or gas-powered heating elements. Especially suitable for chicken and other poultry. Can be used to cook any meat or other food. Drip pans catch juices, which can be used for basting or making gravy.

20 Cooking Equipment DEEP FRYERS Standard Deep Fryers
Powered by either gas or electricity. Thermostatic controls maintain fat at preset temperatures. Automatic Fryers Remove food from the fat automatically after a preset time. Pressure Fryers Covered fry kettles that fry foods under pressure. Foods cook faster.

21 Cooking Equipment Tilting Skillets
Also known as tilting brazier and tilting fry pan. A tilting mechanism enables liquids to be poured out of it. Can be used as: a griddle fry pan brazier stewpot stockpot steamer bain-marie or steam table

22 Steam-Jacketed Kettles
COOKING EQUIPMENT Steam-Jacketed Kettles Heated not just on the bottom but on the sides as well. Heats much more quickly. Has more uniform and controllable heat than pots on the range. Tilt or trunnion kettles can be tilted for emptying. Nontilt kettles are emptied by a spigot and drain on the bottom. Heat is controlled by regulating the steam flow or by adjusting the thermostat.

23 Pressureless Steamers or Convection Steamers
Cooking Equipment STEAM COOKERS Pressure Steamers Pressureless Steamers or Convection Steamers Ideal for cooking foods rapidly and with minimum loss of nutrients and flavor. Pressure Steamers: cooks foods under a pressure of 15 pounds per square inch (1.05 kg/cm) in high-pressure steamers 4-6 pounds per square inch ( kg/cm) in low-pressure steamers Door cannot be opened until the pressure returns to zero Pressure-less Steamers or Convection Steamers This type does not operate under pressure. Jets of steam are directed at the food. This speeds the heat transfer. Door can be opened any time during cooking.

24 Cooking Equipment MIXERS Bench Type Mixers Floor Mixers
Range in capacity from 5 to 20 quarts. Floor Mixers Available as large as 140 quarts. Adaptor rings enable several bowl sizes to be used on one machine. Most mixers have three operating speeds.

25 Cooking Equipment Mixers (cont’d) Agitator Attachments
The paddle is a flat blade used for general mixing. The wire whip is used for such tasks as beating. The dough arm is used for mixing and kneading yeast dough.

26 Processing Equipment Food Cutter
Food cutter, or rotation chopper, is also known as a buffalo chopper. Used for general food chopping. Variety of attachments makes it a versatile tool.

27 Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers
Processing Equipment Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers Food Grinder Slicer/Shredder Food Grinder Used mostly for grinding meats. Other moist foods may be ground also. Food is forced through a feed tube into a screw. This pushes the food through holes in a plate. At this point it is cut by a rotating blade. The size of the plate’s holes regulates the fineness of the grind. Slicer/Shredder Consists of a hopper and a lever that feeds the food onto a rotating disk or plate. The plate cuts or shreds the food and into a receiving container. Slicing plate may be adjusted to cut various thicknesses.

28 Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers (cont’d)
Processing Equipment Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers (cont’d) Dicer Attachment forces foods through a grid-type blade that cuts them into perfect dice. Blades of different sizes may be used.

29 Processing Equipment Slicer Blender Food Processer Slicer
Slices foods more evenly and uniformly than can be done by hand. Blades set at an angle. Slices fall away from these blades. Food Processer Used to chop or purée foods. To mix or emulsify. They can also slice, shred, and julienne foods. Blender Used to mix, purée, and emulsify liquids. Also used to prepare certain drinks.

30 SOUS VIDE EQUIPMENT Chamber Vacuum Packer Immersion Circulator
Machine pulls the air from a specially designed plastic bag containing food item and seals the bag. Immersion Circulator Has a heating element, a pump that constantly circulates the water, and a temperature control. It is used to heat the water in a hot-water bath to a steady temperature within a fraction of a degree.

31 Holding and Storage Equipment
Hot Food Holding Equipment Steam tables are designed to hold foods above 135°F (57°C) in order to prevent the growth of bacteria that can cause disease. Bain-maries and overhead infrared lamps are also used to keep food hot.

32 Holding and Storage Equipment
Cold Food Storage Equipment The refrigerator (known in the trade as the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth by keeping foods cold, usually, below 41°F (5°C). The walk-in is a room-size refrigerator with built-in shelves on the walls. The reach-in is a standard upright refrigerator that does not have freezer unit.

33 Holding and Storage Equipment
Cold Food Storage Equipment (cont’d) The freezer stores foods purchased in frozen form; used to hold foods for longer times. The walk-in is a room-size freezer with built-in shelves on the walls. The reach-in is a standard upright freezer.

34 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Metals and Conductivity A good cooking utensil distributes heat evenly, preventing scorching. Two factors affect a pan’s ability to cook evenly: Thickness of the metal Kind of metal

35 Pots, Pans, and Containers
KINDS OF METAL Aluminum Used for most cooking utensils in food-service kitchens. Good conductor and is light weight. Copper Best heat conductor. Extremely expensive. Requires a great deal of care. Stainless steel Poor heat conductor of heat. Scorch foods easily. Ideal for storage containers. Cast iron Distributes heat evenly. Maintains high temperatures for long periods. Used in griddles and heavy skillets.

36 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Kinds of Metal (cont’d) Porcelain enamel-lined pans Should not be used. Forbidden by some health departments. Scratch and chip easily. Nonstick plastic-type coatings Brand names include Teflon and Silverstone. Surface is easily scratched. Use only tools made of plastic, silicone, or wood.

37 Pots, Pans, and Containers
POTS AND PANS AND THEIR USES Stockpot Saucepot Brazier/ Rondeau Stockpot: for preparing stocks and simmering large quantities of liquids. Stockpots with spigots: allow liquid to be drained off without disturbing the solid contents or lifting the pot. Size: quarts (liters) Saucepot: similar to a stockpot but shallower; used for soups, sauces, and other liquids. Sizes: 6-60 quarts (liters) Brazier/Rondeau: a round, broad, shallow, heavy-duty pot; used for browning, braising, and stewing meats.\ Sizes: quarts (liters) Stockpots with Spigot

38 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d) Cast-iron Skillet Saucepan Straight-sided Sauté San/Sautoir Slope-sided Sauté San/Sauteuse Saucepan: may have straight or slanted sides Used for general rangetop cooking. Sizes: quarts (liters) Straight-Sided Sauté Pan/Sautoir Used for browning, sautéing, and frying; also used for cooking sauces and other liquids when rapid reduction is required. Sizes: inches ( mm) deep; 6-16 inches ( mm) in diameter Slope-Sided Sauté Pan/Sauteuse Used for general sautéing and frying; sloping sides allow the cook to flip and toss items. Sizes: 6-14 inches ( mm) top diameter Cast-iron Skillet Used for pan-frying when steady, even heat is desired.

39 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d) Double Boiler A pot with two sections. The lower section holds boiling water. The upper section holds foods that must be cooked at low temperatures and cannot be cooked over direct heat. Size of top section: 4-36 quarts (liters).

40 Pots, Pans and Containers
Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d) Sheet or Bun Pan Bake Pan Sheet or Bun Pan Used for baking cakes, rolls, and cookies. Also for baking or broiling certain meats and fish. Sizes: full pan, 18 × 26 inches (46 × 66 cm). half-pan, 18 × 13 inches (46 × 33 cm). Bake Pan Used for general baking. Available in a variety of sizes. Roasting pan Deeper and heavier than a bake pan. Used for roasting meats and poultry. Roasting Pan

41 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d) Fish Poacher Long, narrow, straight-sided pan with a removable rack insert. Used for poaching whole fish. Wok Round-bottomed steel pan with two loop handles. Used for stir-frying. Best used with special burner units that have a high heat.

42 Pots, Pans, and Containers
Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d) Hotel Pan Designed to hold foods in service counters. Also used for baking, steaming, and subsequent serving. Bain Marie Used for storage and for holding foods in a bain-marie (water bath). Sizes: 1-36 quarts (liters).

43 Measuring Devices Scales Portioning Scale
Used for measuring ingredients as well as for portioning products for service. Spring-operated and usually have a dial to indicate weight. Digital Scale More accurate. Electrically operated. Provides a digital readout.

44 Other devices include: Measuring Cups and Measuring Spoons
MEASURING DEVICES Volume Measures Liquid Volume Measure Ladles Scoops Liquid Volume Measure Have lips for easy pouring. Sizes are pints, quarts, half-gallons, and gallons. Measuring Cups Available in 1-, 1⁄2-, 1⁄3- and 1⁄4-cup sizes. Can be used for both liquid and dry measures Measuring Spoons Used for measuring very small volumes. 1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, 1⁄2 teaspoon, and 1⁄4 teaspoon Ladles Used for measuring and portioning liquids. Scoops Come in standard sizes and have a lever for mechanical release. Used for portioning soft solid foods. Scoop sizes are listed in Table 3.1. Other devices include: Measuring Cups and Measuring Spoons

45 Measuring Devices Temperature Measures Meat Thermometer
Indicates internal temperatures of meats. Inserted before cooking and left in the product during cooking. Instant-Read Thermometers Gives readings within a few seconds of being inserted in a food product. Reads from 0°F to 220°F.

Knives and Their Uses French Knife or Chef’s Knife Santoku Knife French knife or Chef’s knife Most frequently used knife. For general-purpose chopping, slicing, dicing. Santoku Knife Wide-bladed knife. Blades are usually 5 in. (13 cm) or 7 in. (18 cm) long. Utility Knife Narrow, pointed knife 6-8 in. ( mm) long. Mostly for pantry work; Also useful for carving roast chicken and duck. Paring Knife Small pointed blade 2-4 in. ( mm). Used for trimming and paring fruits and vegetables. Utility Knife Paring Knife

Knives and Their Uses (cont’d) Boning Knife Slicer Boning Knife Thin, pointed blade about 6 in. (160 mm) long. Used for boning raw meats and poultry. Slicer Long, slender, flexible blade up to 14 in. (360 mm) long. Used for carving and slicing cooked meats. Serrated Knife Used for cutting breads, cakes, and similar items. Butcher Knife Heavy, broad, slightly curved blade. Used for cutting, sectioning, and trimming raw meats. Serrated Knife Butcher Knife

Knives and Their Uses (cont’d) Oyster Knife Clam Knife Oyster Knife Short, rigid, blunt knife with a dull edge. Used for opening oysters. Clam Knife Short, rigid, broad-bladed knife with a slight edge. Used for opening clams. Vegetable peeler Short tool with a slotted, swiveling blade. Used for peeling vegetables and fruits. Sharpening Steel Used for truing and maintaining knife edges. Vegetable Peeler Sharpening Steel

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Parisienne Scoop Cook’s Fork Parisienne Scoop Blade is a small, cup-shaped half-sphere. Used for cutting fruits and vegetables into small balls. Cook’s Fork Used for lifting and turning meats and other items. Must be strong enough to hold heavy loads. Palette Knife Long, flexible blade with a rounded end. Used mostly for spreading icing on cakes and for mixing and bowl scraping. Sandwich Spreader Used for spreading fillings and spreads on sandwiches. Palette Knife Sandwich Spreader

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Offset Spatula Rubber Spatula Offset Spatula Broad blade, bent to keep the hand off hot surfaces. Used for turning and lifting eggs. Rubber Spatula Used to scrape bowls and pans. Pie Server A wedge-shaped offset spatula. Used for lifting pie wedges from pan. Bench Knife Used to cut pieces of dough and to scrape workbenches. Pie Server Bench Knife

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Spoons: Slotted, Perforated, and Solid Pastry Wheel Pastry Wheel Used for cutting rolled-out dough, pastry and baked pizza. Spoons: Slotted, Perforated, and Solid Used for stirring, mixing, and serving. Slotted and perforated spoons are used when liquid must be drained from solids. Skimmer Used for skimming froth from liquids and for removing solid pieces from soups, stocks, and other liquids. Tongs Used to pick up and handle foods. Skimmer Tongs

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Chinois Wire Mesh Strainer Chinois A china cap with very fine mesh. Used when great clarity or smoothness is required in a liquid. Wire mesh strainer Used for straining pasta, vegetables, and so forth. Tamis Used for sifting flour and other dry ingredients and for puréeing soft foods. Colander Used to drain washed or cooked vegetables, salad greens, pasta, and other foods. Tamis Colander

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Food Mill Grater Food Mill A tool with a hand-turned blade that forces foods through a perforated disk. Interchangeable disks produce varying degrees of coarseness or fineness. Used for puréeing foods. Grater A four-sided metal box with grids of varying sizes. Used for shredding and grating. Zester A small hand tool used for removing the colored part of citrus peels in thin strips. Channel Knife A small hand tool used mostly in decorative work. Zester Channel Knife

Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d) Mandoline Pastry Brush Mandoline A manual slicing implement. A traditional mandoline has a flat blade and a serrated blade fitted in a flat metal or wood framework. Additional blades can be used in combination with the flat blade to cut julienne and bâtonnet. The serrated blade is used to cut gaufrette or waffle slices. Pastry Bag Cone-shaped cloths or plastic bags with an open end that can be fitted with metal tubes or tips of various shapes and sizes. Used for shaping and decorating with items such as cake icing, whipped cream, duchesse potatoes, and soft dough. Pastry Brush Used to brush items with egg wash, glaze, etc. Can Opener Heavy-duty can openers are mounted on the edge of the workbench. They must be carefully cleaned and sanitized every day to prevent contamination of foods. Replace worn blades, which can leave metal shavings in the food. Pastry Bag Can Opener

Download ppt "Tools and Equipment Chapter 3."

Similar presentations

Ads by Google