2Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment A thorough knowledge of equipment is essential.All kitchen personnel need to be orientated on the proper usage, cleaning, and safety of all equipment.Modern cooking and food processing equipment has an extraordinary capacity to burn, cut, smash, mangle, and amputate parts of the tender human body.Never use a piece of equipment until you are thoroughly familiar with its operation and all its features.You must learn how to know when a machine is not operating correctly.Not All Models Are AlikeIt is important to study the operating manual supplied with each item or to be taught by someone who already knows that item well and has operated it.
3Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment CLEANINGCleaning is part of the operating procedure!Thorough, regular cleaning of ALL equipment is essential.Most large equipment can be partially disassembled for cleaning.Operating manuals should describe these procedures in detail.
4Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment Cleaning (cont’d)Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards.Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards.
5Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment CONSERVE ENERGYKnow the preheating time for all your cooking equipment so you don’t need to turn it on before necessary.Plan production so equipment that requires a lot of energy is not on for long periods when not in use.
6Introduction to Quantity Food Equipment YOUR HANDS ARE YOUR BEST TOOLSMachines are intended to be laborsaving devices.The usefulness of specialized processing equipment depends on the volume of food it handles.It takes less time for certain preparations to complete by hand, versus setting up, using, breaking down, and cleaning equipment.This is why it is important to develop good manual skills.
7Cooking Equipment RANGETOPS The range is still the most important piece of cooking equipment in the kitchen.Many of its functions have been taken over by other tools such as steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens.
8Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight) Cooking EquipmentRangetops (cont’d)Open ElementsFlattop or Hot Top (lightweight)Open ElementsEither electric coils or gas flames.Fastest to heat and can be turned off after short use.Cooktop space is limited to one pot per burner.Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight)Burners covered with steel plate.More cook space is available.Top supports moderately heavy weights.
9Cooking Equipment Rangetops (cont’d) Heavy-duty Flattop Induction CooktopHeavy-duty FlattopBurners covered with heavy cast steel.Top supports many heavy pots.Requires longer preheating.Ring-top range is a type of flat top that has removable rings.Allows access to more intense heat from the flames below.Induction CooktopTop of an induction unit does not become hot.Works by magnetically agitating the molecules in steel or iron cookware.Aluminum pots and pans sandwiched between layers of stainless steel will also work.Much less energy is used.No open flame; kitchen stays cooler.Only pots, pans and their contents become hot.
10Cooking Equipment Ovens Enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air, microwaves, or infrared radiation.Used for roasting and baking.Foods can also be simmered, stewed, braised, or poached in the oven.This helps to free up the rangetop and the chef’s attention for other tasks.
11Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Stack Ovens Convection Ovens Consist of individual shelves or decks arranged one above the other.Pans are placed directly on the oven deck.Temperatures are adjustable for each deck.Convection OvensContain fans that circulate the air and distribute the heat rapidly throughout the interior.Foods cook more quickly at lower temperatures due to the forced air.Shelves can be placed closer together than in conventional ovens without blocking the heat flow.
12Slow-Cook-and-Hold Ovens Cooking EquipmentOvens (cont’d)Revolving OvensSlow-Cook-and-Hold OvensLarge chambers containing many shelves or trays on an attachment like a Ferris wheel.Also called reel ovens.More sophisticated features.Computerized electronic controls.Special probes that sense when a roast is done and tell the oven to switch from cooking temperature to holding temperature.
13Combination Steamer Ovens Barbecue or Smoke Ovens Cooking EquipmentOvens (cont’d)Combination Steamer OvensBarbecue or Smoke OvensCombination Steamer OvensAlso called a combi oven.Can be operated in three modes:as a convection ovenas a convection steameras a high-humidity ovenBarbecue or Smoke OvensAre like conventional ovens.Produces wood smoke, which surrounds the food.Adds flavor while it bakes or roasts.Special woods such as hickory, mesquite, or fruitwoods such as apple or cherry must be added.
14Cooking Equipment Ovens (cont’d) Infrared or Reconstituting Ovens Contain quartz tubes or plates that generate intense infrared heat.Used primarily for reconstituting frozen foods.These ovens bring large quantities of foods to serving temperature in a short time.
15Cooking Equipment Woodburning Ovens Ovens (cont’d) Wood-burning Ovens Microwave OvensWoodburning OvensWoodburning ovens have once again come into fairly wide use.Ancient ovens were made of heavy masonry, brick, or clay.Heated by building a wood fire inside them.Microwave OvensSpecial tubes generate microwave radiation.Create heat inside the food.
16BROILERS AND SALAMANDERS Cooking EquipmentBROILERS AND SALAMANDERSSometimes called overhead broilers.Generate heat from above.Food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source.
17Cooking Equipment Grills Same cooking operations as broilers. Heat source (gas, electricity, or charcoal) is below the grid that holds the food.Charcoal taste is created by smoke from meat fats that drip into the heat source.
18Cooking Equipment GRIDDLES Flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly.Available as separate units or as part of a rangetop.
19Cooking Equipment Rotisseries Cooks meats and other foods by turning them slowly in front of electric or gas-powered heating elements.Especially suitable for chicken and other poultry.Can be used to cook any meat or other food.Drip pans catch juices, which can be used for basting or making gravy.
20Cooking Equipment DEEP FRYERS Standard Deep Fryers Powered by either gas or electricity.Thermostatic controls maintain fat at preset temperatures.Automatic FryersRemove food from the fat automatically after a preset time.Pressure FryersCovered fry kettles that fry foods under pressure.Foods cook faster.
21Cooking Equipment Tilting Skillets Also known as tilting brazier and tilting fry pan.A tilting mechanism enables liquids to be poured out of it.Can be used as:a griddlefry panbrazierstewpotstockpotsteamerbain-marie or steam table
22Steam-Jacketed Kettles COOKING EQUIPMENTSteam-Jacketed KettlesHeated not just on the bottom but on the sides as well.Heats much more quickly.Has more uniform and controllable heat than pots on the range.Tilt or trunnion kettles can be tilted for emptying.Nontilt kettles are emptied by a spigot and drain on the bottom.Heat is controlled by regulating the steam flow or by adjusting the thermostat.
23Pressureless Steamers or Convection Steamers Cooking EquipmentSTEAM COOKERSPressure SteamersPressureless Steamers or Convection SteamersIdeal for cooking foods rapidly and with minimum loss of nutrients and flavor.Pressure Steamers: cooks foods under a pressure of15 pounds per square inch (1.05 kg/cm) in high-pressure steamers4-6 pounds per square inch ( kg/cm) in low-pressure steamersDoor cannot be opened until the pressure returns to zeroPressure-less Steamers or Convection SteamersThis type does not operate under pressure.Jets of steam are directed at the food.This speeds the heat transfer.Door can be opened any time during cooking.
24Cooking Equipment MIXERS Bench Type Mixers Floor Mixers Range in capacity from 5 to 20 quarts.Floor MixersAvailable as large as 140 quarts.Adaptor rings enable several bowl sizes to be used on one machine.Most mixers have three operating speeds.
25Cooking Equipment Mixers (cont’d) Agitator Attachments The paddle is a flat blade used for general mixing.The wire whip is used for such tasks as beating.The dough arm is used for mixing and kneading yeast dough.
26Processing Equipment Food Cutter Food cutter, or rotation chopper, is also known as a buffalo chopper.Used for general food chopping.Variety of attachments makes it a versatile tool.
27Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers Processing EquipmentAttachments for Mixers and Food ChoppersFood GrinderSlicer/ShredderFood GrinderUsed mostly for grinding meats.Other moist foods may be ground also.Food is forced through a feed tube into a screw.This pushes the food through holes in a plate.At this point it is cut by a rotating blade.The size of the plate’s holes regulates the fineness of the grind.Slicer/ShredderConsists of a hopper and a lever that feeds the food onto a rotating disk or plate.The plate cuts or shreds the food and into a receiving container.Slicing plate may be adjusted to cut various thicknesses.
28Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers (cont’d) Processing EquipmentAttachments for Mixers and Food Choppers (cont’d)DicerAttachment forces foods through a grid-type blade that cuts them into perfect dice.Blades of different sizes may be used.
29Processing Equipment Slicer Blender Food Processer Slicer Slices foods more evenly and uniformly than can be done by hand.Blades set at an angle.Slices fall away from these blades.Food ProcesserUsed to chop or purée foods.To mix or emulsify.They can also slice, shred, and julienne foods.BlenderUsed to mix, purée, and emulsify liquids.Also used to prepare certain drinks.
30SOUS VIDE EQUIPMENT Chamber Vacuum Packer Immersion Circulator Machine pulls the air from a specially designed plastic bag containing food item and seals the bag.Immersion CirculatorHas a heating element, a pump that constantly circulates the water, and a temperature control.It is used to heat the water in a hot-water bath to a steady temperature within a fraction of a degree.
31Holding and Storage Equipment Hot Food Holding EquipmentSteam tables are designed to hold foods above 135°F (57°C) in order to prevent the growth of bacteria that can cause disease.Bain-maries and overhead infrared lamps are also used to keep food hot.
32Holding and Storage Equipment Cold Food Storage EquipmentThe refrigerator (known in the trade as the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth by keeping foods cold, usually, below 41°F (5°C).The walk-in is a room-size refrigerator with built-in shelves on the walls.The reach-in is a standard upright refrigerator that does not have freezer unit.
33Holding and Storage Equipment Cold Food Storage Equipment (cont’d)The freezer stores foods purchased in frozen form; used to hold foods for longer times.The walk-in is a room-size freezer with built-in shelves on the walls.The reach-in is a standard upright freezer.
34Pots, Pans, and Containers Metals and ConductivityA good cooking utensil distributes heat evenly, preventing scorching.Two factors affect a pan’s ability to cook evenly:Thickness of the metalKind of metal
35Pots, Pans, and Containers KINDS OF METALAluminumUsed for most cooking utensils in food-service kitchens.Good conductor and is light weight.CopperBest heat conductor.Extremely expensive.Requires a great deal of care.Stainless steelPoor heat conductor of heat.Scorch foods easily.Ideal for storage containers.Cast ironDistributes heat evenly.Maintains high temperatures for long periods.Used in griddles and heavy skillets.
36Pots, Pans, and Containers Kinds of Metal (cont’d)Porcelain enamel-lined pansShould not be used.Forbidden by some health departments.Scratch and chip easily.Nonstick plastic-type coatingsBrand names include Teflon and Silverstone.Surface is easily scratched.Use only tools made of plastic, silicone, or wood.
37Pots, Pans, and Containers POTS AND PANS AND THEIR USESStockpotSaucepotBrazier/RondeauStockpot: for preparing stocks and simmering large quantities of liquids.Stockpots with spigots: allow liquid to be drained off without disturbing the solid contents or lifting the pot.Size: quarts (liters)Saucepot: similar to a stockpot but shallower; used for soups, sauces, and other liquids.Sizes: 6-60 quarts (liters)Brazier/Rondeau: a round, broad, shallow, heavy-duty pot; used for browning, braising, and stewing meats.\Sizes: quarts (liters)Stockpots with Spigot
38Pots, Pans, and Containers Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d)Cast-iron SkilletSaucepanStraight-sided Sauté San/SautoirSlope-sided Sauté San/SauteuseSaucepan: may have straight or slanted sidesUsed for general rangetop cooking.Sizes: quarts (liters)Straight-Sided Sauté Pan/SautoirUsed for browning, sautéing, and frying; also used for cooking sauces and other liquids when rapid reduction is required.Sizes: inches ( mm) deep; 6-16 inches ( mm) in diameterSlope-Sided Sauté Pan/SauteuseUsed for general sautéing and frying; sloping sides allow the cook to flip and toss items.Sizes: 6-14 inches ( mm) top diameterCast-iron SkilletUsed for pan-frying when steady, even heat is desired.
39Pots, Pans, and Containers Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d)Double BoilerA pot with two sections.The lower section holds boiling water.The upper section holds foods that must be cooked at low temperatures and cannot be cooked over direct heat.Size of top section: 4-36 quarts (liters).
40Pots, Pans and Containers Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)Sheet or Bun PanBake PanSheet or Bun PanUsed for baking cakes, rolls, and cookies.Also for baking or broiling certain meats and fish.Sizes:full pan, 18 × 26 inches (46 × 66 cm).half-pan, 18 × 13 inches (46 × 33 cm).Bake PanUsed for general baking.Available in a variety of sizes.Roasting panDeeper and heavier than a bake pan.Used for roasting meats and poultry.Roasting Pan
41Pots, Pans, and Containers Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)Fish PoacherLong, narrow, straight-sided pan with a removable rack insert.Used for poaching whole fish.WokRound-bottomed steel pan with two loop handles.Used for stir-frying.Best used with special burner units that have a high heat.
42Pots, Pans, and Containers Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)Hotel PanDesigned to hold foods in service counters.Also used for baking, steaming, and subsequent serving.Bain MarieUsed for storage and for holding foods in a bain-marie (water bath).Sizes: 1-36 quarts (liters).
43Measuring Devices Scales Portioning Scale Used for measuring ingredients as well as for portioning products for service.Spring-operated and usually have a dial to indicate weight.Digital ScaleMore accurate.Electrically operated.Provides a digital readout.
44Other devices include: Measuring Cups and Measuring Spoons MEASURING DEVICESVolume MeasuresLiquid Volume MeasureLadlesScoopsLiquid Volume MeasureHave lips for easy pouring.Sizes are pints, quarts, half-gallons, and gallons.Measuring CupsAvailable in 1-, 1⁄2-, 1⁄3- and 1⁄4-cup sizes.Can be used for both liquid and dry measuresMeasuring SpoonsUsed for measuring very small volumes.1 tablespoon, 1 teaspoon, 1⁄2 teaspoon, and 1⁄4 teaspoonLadlesUsed for measuring and portioning liquids.ScoopsCome in standard sizes and have a lever for mechanical release.Used for portioning soft solid foods.Scoop sizes are listed in Table 3.1.Other devices include:Measuring Cups and Measuring Spoons
45Measuring Devices Temperature Measures Meat Thermometer Indicates internal temperatures of meats.Inserted before cooking and left in the product during cooking.Instant-Read ThermometersGives readings within a few seconds of being inserted in a food product.Reads from 0°F to 220°F.
46KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Knives and Their UsesFrench Knife or Chef’s KnifeSantoku KnifeFrench knife or Chef’s knifeMost frequently used knife.For general-purpose chopping, slicing, dicing.Santoku KnifeWide-bladed knife.Blades are usually 5 in. (13 cm) or 7 in. (18 cm) long.Utility KnifeNarrow, pointed knife 6-8 in. ( mm) long.Mostly for pantry work; Also useful for carving roast chicken and duck.Paring KnifeSmall pointed blade 2-4 in. ( mm).Used for trimming and paring fruits and vegetables.Utility KnifeParing Knife
47KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Knives and Their Uses (cont’d)Boning KnifeSlicerBoning KnifeThin, pointed blade about 6 in. (160 mm) long.Used for boning raw meats and poultry.SlicerLong, slender, flexible blade up to 14 in. (360 mm) long.Used for carving and slicing cooked meats.Serrated KnifeUsed for cutting breads, cakes, and similar items.Butcher KnifeHeavy, broad, slightly curved blade.Used for cutting, sectioning, and trimming raw meats.Serrated KnifeButcher Knife
48KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Knives and Their Uses (cont’d)Oyster KnifeClam KnifeOyster KnifeShort, rigid, blunt knife with a dull edge.Used for opening oysters.Clam KnifeShort, rigid, broad-bladed knife with a slight edge.Used for opening clams.Vegetable peelerShort tool with a slotted, swiveling blade.Used for peeling vegetables and fruits.Sharpening SteelUsed for truing and maintaining knife edges.Vegetable PeelerSharpening Steel
49KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)Parisienne ScoopCook’s ForkParisienne ScoopBlade is a small, cup-shaped half-sphere.Used for cutting fruits and vegetables into small balls.Cook’s ForkUsed for lifting and turning meats and other items.Must be strong enough to hold heavy loads.Palette KnifeLong, flexible blade with a rounded end.Used mostly for spreading icing on cakes and for mixing and bowl scraping.Sandwich SpreaderUsed for spreading fillings and spreads on sandwiches.Palette KnifeSandwich Spreader
50KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)Offset SpatulaRubber SpatulaOffset SpatulaBroad blade, bent to keep the hand off hot surfaces.Used for turning and lifting eggs.Rubber SpatulaUsed to scrape bowls and pans.Pie ServerA wedge-shaped offset spatula.Used for lifting pie wedges from pan.Bench KnifeUsed to cut pieces of dough and to scrape workbenches.Pie ServerBench Knife
51KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)Spoons: Slotted, Perforated, and SolidPastry WheelPastry WheelUsed for cutting rolled-out dough, pastry and baked pizza.Spoons: Slotted, Perforated, and SolidUsed for stirring, mixing, and serving.Slotted and perforated spoons are used when liquid must be drained from solids.SkimmerUsed for skimming froth from liquids and for removing solid pieces from soups, stocks, and other liquids.TongsUsed to pick up and handle foods.SkimmerTongs
52KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)ChinoisWire Mesh StrainerChinoisA china cap with very fine mesh.Used when great clarity or smoothness is required in a liquid.Wire mesh strainerUsed for straining pasta, vegetables, and so forth.TamisUsed for sifting flour and other dry ingredients and for puréeing soft foods.ColanderUsed to drain washed or cooked vegetables, salad greens, pasta, and other foods.TamisColander
53KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)Food MillGraterFood MillA tool with a hand-turned blade that forces foods through a perforated disk.Interchangeable disks produce varying degrees of coarseness or fineness.Used for puréeing foods.GraterA four-sided metal box with grids of varying sizes.Used for shredding and grating.ZesterA small hand tool used for removing the colored part of citrus peels in thin strips.Channel KnifeA small hand tool used mostly in decorative work.ZesterChannel Knife
54KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)MandolinePastry BrushMandolineA manual slicing implement.A traditional mandoline has a flat blade and a serrated blade fitted in a flat metal or wood framework.Additional blades can be used in combination with the flat blade to cut julienne and bâtonnet.The serrated blade is used to cut gaufrette or waffle slices.Pastry BagCone-shaped cloths or plastic bags with an open end that can be fitted with metal tubes or tips of various shapes and sizes.Used for shaping and decorating with items such as cake icing, whipped cream, duchesse potatoes, and soft dough.Pastry BrushUsed to brush items with egg wash, glaze, etc.Can OpenerHeavy-duty can openers are mounted on the edge of the workbench.They must be carefully cleaned and sanitized every day to prevent contamination of foods.Replace worn blades, which can leave metal shavings in the food.Pastry BagCan Opener