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Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 3 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 3 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C HAPTER 3 TOOLS AND EQUIPMENT

3 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. I NTRODUCTION TO Q UANTITY F OOD E QUIPMENT A thorough knowledge of equipment is essential. All kitchen personnel need to be orientated on the proper usage, cleaning, and safety of all equipment. –Modern cooking and food processing equipment has an extraordinary capacity to burn, cut, smash, mangle, and amputate parts of the tender human body. Never use a piece of equipment until you are thoroughly familiar with its operation and all its features. You must learn how to know when a machine is not operating correctly.

4 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. I NTRODUCTION TO Q UANTITY F OOD E QUIPMENT Cleaning is part of the operating procedure! Thorough, regular cleaning of ALL equipment is essential. –Most large equipment can be partially disassembled for cleaning. –Operating manuals should describe these procedures in detail. CLEANING

5 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Look for equipment models that have been tested and certified by recognized agencies that certify products and write standards. I NTRODUCTION TO Q UANTITY F OOD E QUIPMENT Cleaning (cont’d)

6 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Know the preheating time for all your cooking equipment so you don’t need to turn it on before necessary. Plan production so equipment that requires a lot of energy is not on for long periods when not in use. I NTRODUCTION TO Q UANTITY F OOD E QUIPMENT CONSERVE ENERGY

7 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Machines are intended to be laborsaving devices. The usefulness of specialized processing equipment depends on the volume of food it handles. It takes less time for certain preparations to complete by hand, versus setting up, using, breaking down, and cleaning equipment. This is why it is important to develop good manual skills. I NTRODUCTION TO Q UANTITY F OOD E QUIPMENT YOUR HANDS ARE YOUR BEST TOOLS

8 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT The range is still the most important piece of cooking equipment in the kitchen. Many of its functions have been taken over by other tools such as steamers, steam kettles, tilting skillets, and ovens. RANGETOPS

9 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Rangetops (cont’d) Open Elements Flattop or Hot Top (lightweight)

10 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Heavy-duty Flattop Induction Cooktop Rangetops (cont’d)

11 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Enclosed spaces in which food is heated, usually by hot air, microwaves, or infrared radiation. Used for roasting and baking. Foods can also be simmered, stewed, braised, or poached in the oven. This helps to free up the rangetop and the chef’s attention for other tasks. O VENS

12 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Stack OvensConvection Ovens Ovens (cont’d)

13 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Revolving Ovens Large chambers containing many shelves or trays on an attachment like a Ferris wheel. Also called reel ovens. Slow-Cook-and-Hold Ovens More sophisticated features. Computerized electronic controls. Special probes that sense when a roast is done and tell the oven to switch from cooking temperature to holding temperature. Ovens (cont’d)

14 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Combination Steamer Ovens Barbecue or Smoke Ovens Ovens (cont’d)

15 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Infrared or Reconstituting Ovens Contain quartz tubes or plates that generate intense infrared heat. Used primarily for reconstituting frozen foods. These ovens bring large quantities of foods to serving temperature in a short time. Ovens (cont’d)

16 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Wood-burning OvensMicrowave Ovens Ovens (cont’d)

17 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Sometimes called overhead broilers. Generate heat from above. Food items are placed on a grate beneath the heat source. BROILERS AND SALAMANDERS

18 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Same cooking operations as broilers. Heat source (gas, electricity, or charcoal) is below the grid that holds the food. Charcoal taste is created by smoke from meat fats that drip into the heat source. G RILLS

19 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Flat, smooth, heated surfaces on which food is cooked directly. Available as separate units or as part of a rangetop. GRIDDLES

20 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Cooks meats and other foods by turning them slowly in front of electric or gas-powered heating elements. Especially suitable for chicken and other poultry. Can be used to cook any meat or other food. Drip pans catch juices, which can be used for basting or making gravy. R OTISSERIES

21 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Standard Deep Fryers Powered by either gas or electricity. Thermostatic controls maintain fat at preset temperatures. Automatic Fryers Remove food from the fat automatically after a preset time. Pressure FryersCovered fry kettles that fry foods under pressure. Foods cook faster. DEEP FRYERS

22 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Also known as tilting brazier and tilting fry pan. A tilting mechanism enables liquids to be poured out of it. Can be used as: –a griddle –fry pan –brazier –stewpot –stockpot –steamer –bain-marie or steam table T ILTING S KILLETS

23 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. COOKING EQUIPMENT Heated not just on the bottom but on the sides as well. Heats much more quickly. Has more uniform and controllable heat than pots on the range. Tilt or trunnion kettles can be tilted for emptying. Nontilt kettles are emptied by a spigot and drain on the bottom. Heat is controlled by regulating the steam flow or by adjusting the thermostat. S TEAM -J ACKETED K ETTLES

24 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT STEAM COOKERS Pressure Steamers Pressureless Steamers or Convection Steamers

25 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT MIXERS Bench Type MixersFloor Mixers

26 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. C OOKING E QUIPMENT Agitator Attachments The paddle is a flat blade used for general mixing. The wire whip is used for such tasks as beating. The dough arm is used for mixing and kneading yeast dough. Mixers (cont’d)

27 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P ROCESSING E QUIPMENT Food cutter, or rotation chopper, is also known as a buffalo chopper. Used for general food chopping. Variety of attachments makes it a versatile tool. F OOD C UTTER

28 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P ROCESSING E QUIPMENT A TTACHMENTS FOR M IXERS AND F OOD C HOPPERS Food GrinderSlicer/Shredder

29 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P ROCESSING E QUIPMENT Dicer Attachment forces foods through a grid-type blade that cuts them into perfect dice. Blades of different sizes may be used. Attachments for Mixers and Food Choppers (cont’d)

30 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P ROCESSING E QUIPMENT Slicer Food Processer Blender

31 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. SOUS VIDE EQUIPMENT Chamber Vacuum PackerImmersion Circulator

32 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. H OLDING AND S TORAGE E QUIPMENT Steam tables are designed to hold foods above 135°F (57°C) in order to prevent the growth of bacteria that can cause disease. Bain-maries and overhead infrared lamps are also used to keep food hot. H OT F OOD H OLDING E QUIPMENT

33 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The refrigerator (known in the trade as the cooler or the box) guards against spoilage and bacterial growth by keeping foods cold, usually, below 41°F (5°C). –The walk-in is a room-size refrigerator with built-in shelves on the walls. –The reach-in is a standard upright refrigerator that does not have freezer unit. C OLD F OOD S TORAGE E QUIPMENT H OLDING AND S TORAGE E QUIPMENT

34 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. The freezer stores foods purchased in frozen form; used to hold foods for longer times. –The walk-in is a room-size freezer with built-in shelves on the walls. –The reach-in is a standard upright freezer. Cold Food Storage Equipment (cont’d) H OLDING AND S TORAGE E QUIPMENT

35 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS A good cooking utensil distributes heat evenly, preventing scorching. Two factors affect a pan’s ability to cook evenly: –Thickness of the metal –Kind of metal M ETALS AND C ONDUCTIVITY

36 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS KINDS OF METAL AluminumUsed for most cooking utensils in food-service kitchens. Good conductor and is light weight. CopperBest heat conductor. Extremely expensive. Requires a great deal of care. Stainless steel Poor heat conductor of heat. Scorch foods easily. Ideal for storage containers. Cast ironDistributes heat evenly. Maintains high temperatures for long periods. Used in griddles and heavy skillets.

37 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS Kinds of Metal (cont’d) Porcelain enamel- lined pans Should not be used. Forbidden by some health departments. Scratch and chip easily. Nonstick plastic-type coatings Brand names include Teflon and Silverstone. Surface is easily scratched. Use only tools made of plastic, silicone, or wood.

38 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS POTS AND PANS AND THEIR USES Stockpot Stockpots with Spigot Saucepot Brazier/ Rondeau

39 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d) Saucepan Straight-sided Sauté San/Sautoir Slope-sided Sauté San/Sauteuse Cast-iron Skillet

40 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS Double Boiler A pot with two sections. The lower section holds boiling water. The upper section holds foods that must be cooked at low temperatures and cannot be cooked over direct heat. Size of top section: 4-36 quarts (liters). Pots and Pans and Their Uses (cont’d)

41 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS AND C ONTAINERS Sheet or Bun Pan Bake Pan Roasting Pan Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)

42 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS Fish Poacher –Long, narrow, straight-sided pan with a removable rack insert. –Used for poaching whole fish. Wok –Round-bottomed steel pan with two loop handles. –Used for stir-frying. –Best used with special burner units that have a high heat. Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)

43 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. P OTS, P ANS, AND C ONTAINERS Hotel Pan –Designed to hold foods in service counters. –Also used for baking, steaming, and subsequent serving. Bain Marie –Used for storage and for holding foods in a bain- marie (water bath). –Sizes: 1-36 quarts (liters). Uses of Pots and Pans (cont’d)

44 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. M EASURING D EVICES Portioning Scale –Used for measuring ingredients as well as for portioning products for service. –Spring-operated and usually have a dial to indicate weight. Digital Scale –More accurate. –Electrically operated. –Provides a digital readout. S CALES

45 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. MEASURING DEVICES V OLUME M EASURES Liquid Volume Measure LadlesScoops Other devices include: Measuring Cups and Measuring Spoons

46 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. M EASURING D EVICES Meat Thermometer –Indicates internal temperatures of meats. –Inserted before cooking and left in the product during cooking. Instant-Read Thermometers –Gives readings within a few seconds of being inserted in a food product. –Reads from 0°F to 220°F. T EMPERATURE M EASURES

47 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Santoku Knife KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT K NIVES AND T HEIR U SES French Knife or Chef’s Knife Utility Knife Paring Knife

48 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Slicer Boning Knife Serrated Knife Butcher Knife KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Knives and Their Uses (cont’d)

49 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Clam Knife Oyster Knife Vegetable Peeler Sharpening Steel KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Knives and Their Uses (cont’d)

50 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Cook’s Fork Parisienne Scoop Palette Knife Sandwich Spreader KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)

51 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Rubber Spatula Offset Spatula Pie Server Bench Knife KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)

52 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Spoons: Slotted, Perforated, and Solid Pastry Wheel Skimmer Tongs KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)

53 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Wire Mesh StrainerChinois Tamis Colander KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)

54 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. GraterFood Mill Zester Channel Knife KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)

55 Copyright © 2014 John Wiley and Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. Pastry Brush Mandoline Pastry BagCan Opener KNIVES, HAND TOOLS, AND SMALL EQUIPMENT Hand Tools and Small Equipment (cont’d)


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