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Geology Rock, Rock On Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific classification Part 2 Plate tectonics 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Geology Rock, Rock On Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific classification Part 2 Plate tectonics 1."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Geology Rock, Rock On Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific classification Part 2 Plate tectonics 1

3 How old is the Earth? The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old. Suppose that you decided to count to 4.6 billion and that you counted 1 number every second. How long would it take you to count the following numbers of years? 5,500 years (since construction of the pyramids at Giza)_____________ 700,000 years (since the earliest appearance of archaic Homo sapiens) _____________ 66,000,000 years (since the extinction of the dinosaurs) _____________ 545,000,000 years (since the first abundant evidence of animals with hard parts) _____________ 4,600,000,000 years (since the birth of the Earth) _____________ hours 8 days 2 years 17 years 146 years!!!!

4 How old is human history? Which of the following best represents the fraction of Earth history that is represented by the presence of modern humans (about 10,000 years)? two-thirds (0.667) of Earth history two-hundredths (0.02) of Earth history two-thousandths (0.002) of Earth history two millionths ( ) of Earth history 3

5 How the Earth was formed The earth is composed of matter leftover from _______________. Our planet was very hot when first formed and has since cooled down. formed.html formed.html 4 supernovae

6 How scientists measure the age of the Earth Scientists use a variety of ways to measure the age of the earth. Radiometric dating, principle of superposition, and the fossil record all are used to estimate the age of the earth. Aspects from _______________________________________ are all used in these methods. 5 Chemistry, Biology, Physics, and Geology

7 Radiometric Dating Scientists measure the amount of certain _____________that exist in a sample to estimate the age of the sample. ________________is a method of looking at how much carbon-14 is in a sample. Many radiometric dating methods exist, including potassium-argon dating and uranium-lead dating. 6 isotopes Carbon Dating

8 Isotopes Same number of __________, different numbers of ___________. 7 protons neutrons

9 Carbon Dating Using this chart, how old would you expect a clay pot to be that contains 25% C-14 that was originally in the sample? 8

10 Unit 1-Spheres of the Earth Questions: How does human history compare to the length of Earth’s history. What is an isotope? How does radiometric dating work?

11 Principle of Superposition The principle of superposition states “a series of stratified sedimentary rocks the lowest stratum is the ___________” (Webster) Scientists can estimate the age of rocks by looking at the rocks above and below. 10 oldest

12 Principle of Superposition 11

13 The Fossil Record Use of fossils allows us to say that two bits of rock are the same age, or which one is older, but fossils can't tell us ___________________ a rock is. Fossils used in this method need to be abundant and located only in a narrow time period. 12 how many years old

14 The Fossil Record 13

15 Unit 1-Spheres of the Earth Questions: How can the law of superposition help tell the age of rocks? How can fossils help us tell the age of rocks?

16 Dinosaurs What is wrong with this picture? 15

17 Dinosaurs Dinosaur in Latin means “___________” Dinosaurs lived from the Triassic period 230 million years ago until the Cretaceous period 66 million years ago. A large ________________________led to the end of the dinosaurs. Most theories believe either the dinosaurs went extinct or evolved into birds or other descendants. 16 Tyrant lizard global extinction event

18 Dinosaurs with Feathers? Jurassic Park the movie may be entertaining but science has progressed since that movie. Velociraptors are not as tall as in the movie (but Utahraptors are) Velociraptors were found to have “quill knobs” on their bones leading scientists to believe they had feathers. 17

19 Top Ten Dinosaurs From greatest-dinosaurs-all-time.htm 10) Parasaurolophus A plant-eating member of the hadrosaur family, also known as the duck-billed dinosaurs, Parasaurolophus' main feature was its curved head crest. Parasaurolophus wasn't especially big, not necessarily a speed demon and lacked anything in the sharp teeth, long claws, and spiky tail departments. But when you have an auditory cortex capable of picking up on advancing predators from miles away and communicating the impending danger to the rest of your herd, none of those things really matter. 18

20 Top Ten Dinosaurs 19

21 Top Ten Dinosaurs 9) Sinornithosaurus Sinornithosaurus, whose name means "Chinese bird lizard," was a small, turkey-sized member of the raptor family. This dinosaur's claim to fame came in late 2009 when researchers discovered the feathered carnivore may have been venomous. Similar to other venomous animals like snakes, Sinornithosaurus appears to have had long fang-like teeth with a thin groove running from the root to the tip, indicating a venom pathway. The researchers also found what looks like a groove extending along the animal's jaw to a small hollow chamber that could have housed the venom gland, as well as small pits at the tops of the teeth for delivering the venom. The back teeth of Sinornithosaurus were shorter and broader for chewing. 20

22 Top Ten Dinosaurs 21

23 Top Ten Dinosaurs 8) Ankylosaurus Stretching 35 feet long (10.7 meters) and weighing between three and four tons, Ankylosaurus met few rivals when it roamed the Earth during the Late Cretaceous period [source: Wilson]. With a back and sides covered with steel-like plates, horns behind its eyes, eyelids made of bone and bone plates attached to the outside of its skull and jaws, this plant-eating dinosaur was almost entirely covered in armor. As if the seemingly impenetrable shield weren't enough, Ankylosaurus was also equipped with a massive tail capable of delivering blows with 43,000 pounds of force 22

24 Top Ten Dinosaurs 23

25 Top Ten Dinosaurs 7) Oryctodromeus Cubicularis How does a dinosaur weighing barely 70 pounds (32 kilograms) survive in a landscape dominated by towering beasts 10 times its size? In the case of Oryctodromeus cubicularis, a small plant-eating dinosaur that lived during the early Cretaceous period, it disappears. By digging small burrows and hiding out underground, this dinosaur managed not only to escape predators, but probably harsh weather as well. Based on remains found in both Australia and Montana, Oryctodromeus, whose name means "digging runner of the lair," was a well-designed digging machine. The dinosaur had a snout that could have been used as a shovel, strong shoulder muscles and sturdy hip bones for bracing against the ground. If all else failed, Oryctodromeus also had long hind legs for running [source: Boswell].Boswell 24

26 Top Ten Dinosaurs 25

27 Top Ten Dinosaurs 6) Spinosaurus Tyrannosaurus Rex often steals the show as the most fearsome predator in dinosaur movies, but it's the Spinosaurus that holds the record as the world's largest carnivorous beast. Weighing in at a full 9.9 tons, Spinosaurus, which means "spine lizard" in Greek, got its name from the distinctive sail on its back composed of long spines covered in skin. This imposing sail, which may have served as a built in thermostat, mate magnet or simply for intimidation, rose a full 6 feet (2 meters) tall when Spinosaurus arched its back [source: Viegas].Viegas Another distinctive characteristic of this dominant Cretaceous Period predator was its 6 foot (2 meter) long head -- the longest of the meat eaters -- and narrow snout full of knife-like teeth. While most other carnivorous dinosaurs possessed curved teeth, the teeth of Spinosaurus were straight, probably to spear slippery prey like fish [source: Viegas]. Based on similarities between this prehistoric dinosaur and today's crocodiles, scientists also think Spinosaurus likely grabbed its prey and proceeded to thrash its head back and forth to kill it [source: Discovery Channel.]Viegas 26

28 Top Ten Dinosaurs 27

29 Top Ten Dinosaurs 5. Sauroposeidon While predators such as Spinosaurus are often viewed as having the toughest job, finding, eating and digesting enough plant matter to fuel a 60-ton body is no simple task. At 60 feet (18 meters) tall and 100 feet (30 meters) long, Sauroposeidon, a member of the plant- eating sauropod family, was the tallest land animal to ever exist [source: Discovery Channel]. Its neck alone was 35 feet (11 m) long, with neck bones the size of fourth graders [source: BBC].BBC Sauroposeidon's hefty girth meant it had to consume up to a ton of vegetable matter daily, practically a never-ending job. To accomplish this feat, the dinosaur bore 52 chisel-like teeth that it used to strip plants of their leaves, in one fell swoop. It didn't even bother with chewing; it gulped the tasty vegetation straight down to a 1-ton stomach the size of a swimming pool. Then it let its super- strength stomach acid -- capable of dissolving iron -- do all the work [source: Discovery Channel]. 28

30 Top Ten Dinosaurs 29

31 Top Ten Dinosaurs 4) Deinonychus A bird-like dinosaur measuring approximately 5 feet tall (1.5 meters), 10 feet long (3 meters) and 200 pounds (91 kilograms), Deinonychus more than made up for its small size with its speed, intelligence and an impressive arsenal of weaponry [source: Discovery Channel].Discovery Channel Both its hands and feet were equipped with razor sharp claws, including a long curved claw 5 inches (13 centimeters) long on the second toe of each hind foot [source: Col]. This claw, which Deinonychus held erect while walking, was likely used to grasp onto prey with a death grip while it proceeded to use its 60-plus serrated teeth to tear the unfortunate victim to shreds [source:NewScientist]. Deinonychus may also have used its strong tail to balance on one foot while it kicked out at foes karate style with its killer claw.ColNewScientist 30

32 Top Ten Dinosaurs 31

33 Top Ten Dinosaurs 3) Triceratops If any dinosaur could stand up to the wrath of dinosaurs like Deinonychus, it was this guy. The largest and heaviest of the horned dinosaurs, Triceratops was one of the most dangerous animals to have evolved on land [source: Discovery Channel]. This is one dinosaur that played both offense and defense equally well. Characterized by a short nose horn and two longer horns up to 3 feet (1 meter) long over the eyes, Triceratops's offensive weapons were made of keratin, an antler-like material that could have easily gored even the most formidable foes. On the defensive end, Triceratops wore a 6.5 foot (2 meter) wide neck frill that was six times thicker than a human skull [source: Discovery Channel]. Besides being a nearly impenetrable form of protection, this several-layers-thick shield may also have been used to regulate body temperature or attract mates. 32

34 Top Ten Dinosaurs 33

35 Top Ten Dinosaurs 2. Tyrannosaurus Rex Easily the world's most famous dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus Rex was the dominant predator for 25 million years. With finely tuned senses, a bite force 16 times as strong as an alligator's and seven tons of pure muscle, this is one dinosaur that definitely lives up to its name, which translates as "tyrant lizard king." [source: Discovery Channel]. Discovery Channel One of Tyrannosaurus's most imposing features was its head. The size of a grown man, its head was 2/3 muscle and along with its neck, weighed a full 1,000 pounds (454 kilograms) [source: Discovery Channel]. This bone cruncher's jaws, stocked with more than 50 teeth up to a foot long, were strong enough to crush a car [source: BBC]Discovery ChannelBBC 34

36 Top Ten Dinosaurs 35

37 Top Ten Dinosaurs 1) Archaeopteryx It's a bird! It's a dinosaur! It's... Archaeopteryx! A transitional link between birds and reptiles, this particular animal has perhaps stirred up more controversy than any other. So much so, in fact, that there's no real consensus on how to categorize it. Although its remains, first discovered in 1861, had feathers similar to those of modern birds, they also bore a striking resemblance to those of small meat-eating dinosaurs. As a result, Archaeopteryx has been placed in a sort of categorical no-man's land: It's both primitive bird and feathered dinosaur. On the bird side, the crow-sized Archaeopteryx with a 2-foot (.6-meter) wingspan had feathers, wings, a furcula (or wishbone) and smaller fingers. On the dinosaur side, it had teeth, a flat breastbone, a bony tail and claws. It's uncertain whether this curious creature used its feathers for flight, temperature regulation or a little bit of both, but if they did fly, the flat breastbone indicates they probably didn't do it for long periods [source: Natural History, UCMP].Natural HistoryUCMP 36

38 Top Ten Dinosaurs 37

39 How do scientists study dinosaurs? Scientists compare fossils to _____________ animal species. Scientists look to see what is fossilized close to the dinosaurs. Fossilized footprints can give clues to how fast dinosaurs were. 38 currently alive

40 Unit 1-Spheres of the Earth Questions: How do scientists know about dinosaurs? What is one way dinosaurs are adapted to live in their environment?

41 How do scientists study rocks? Mineralogists study minerals. Petrologists study rocks. Structural geologists study how plate tectonics moves and squishes rocks. Paleontologists study Earth history and fossils. Stratigraphers study how layers of sedimentary rock form though geologic time. Geomorphologists study how the land surface is shaped by water. 40

42 Scientific Classification Minerals are substances made up of one ionic compound with unique properties Rocks are substances composed of two or more minerals. Scientists identify rocks and minerals based on __________________. Properties include: Color, Hardness, Cleavage or Fracture, Crystalline Structure, Magnetism, Luster, and Density 41 physical properties

43 Atomic Theory All minerals (and all matter really) is made up of ________. Atoms are made of ___________________________________. 42 atoms protons, neutrons, and electrons

44 Atomic Theory Atoms form bonds to become more stable. Covalent bonds occur when atoms share electrons Ionic bonds occur when atoms transfer electrons 43

45 Atomic Theory Compounds form crystals depending on how the atoms stack on top of each other. The physical properties that we see in minerals are related to the atomic composition. 44

46 Minerals Naturally occurring, inorganic solid w/an orderly crystalline structure & a definite chemical composition Must contain following characteristics 1. Naturally occurring 2. Solid substance 3. Orderly crystalline structure 4. Definite chemical composition 5. Generally inorganic (except: calcite) 45

47 Silicates 46 – Most silicates also contain 1 or more elements other than Si & O – EX: quartz, olivine, augite, mica, feldspar, clay minerals

48 Carbonates – Contain C, O & one or more elements, mainly metals – EX: calcite (most common) & dolomite 47

49 Oxides – Contain O & 1 or more other elements, mainly metals – EX: rutile, corundum, hematite 48

50 Rock Classification The three classification of rocks are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic. When rocks come out of a volcano they are classified as igneous. As rocks are weathered and broken down into tiny pieces (called sediment), those pieces pressed together make sedimentary rocks. Rocks under heat and time become metamorphic rocks. 49

51 Rock Classification 50

52 Igneous Rocks What are They? Fire Rocks Formed underground by trapped, cooled magma Formed above ground when volcanoes erupt and magma cools

53 Types of Igneous Rocks Granite Scoria Pumice Obsidian

54 Sedimentary Rocks How They are Made Wind and water break down the earth Bits of earth settle in lakes and rivers Layers are formed and build up Pressure and time turn the layers to rock

55 Types of Sedimentary Rocks Gypsum Sandstone Shale Limestone Conglomerate

56 Metamorphic Rocks What are They? Rocks that have changed They were once igneous or sedimentary Pressure and heat changed the rocks

57 Types of Metamorphic Rocks SchistGneiss

58 Unit 1-Spheres of the Earth Questions: What is the difference between rocks and minerals? What are the three classifications of rocks and how are they formed?

59 Composition of the Earth Most of the Earth is composed of liquid magma and an _________core. The outer layer, the crust, is the solid part of the earth. 58 iron

60 Composition of the Earth’s Crust 59

61 How water moves in the water cycle Precipitation that reaches Earth’s surface often flows over the land. This water, called ____________________, eventually reaches lakes, rivers, and oceans. Surface runoff dissolves and collects minerals and nutrient-rich soil as it flows. surface runoff

62 How water moves in the water cycle Groundwater can be an collected in underground areas of sediment and rocks called an _______________. When groundwater is removed from an aquifer for human consumption, it can take 300 to 1,000 years or more to replenish the supply. aquifer

63 How water moves in the water cycle ________________is the process of liquid moving through a substance that has many tiny holes or “pores”. Groundwater can move through soil because the soil is porous. Percolation

64 How water moves in the water cycle Groundwater that is not pumped from an aquifer flows to oceans. Aquifers are important water sources. Aquifers are in danger of becoming depleted because the water is being used faster than it can be ___________. replenished

65 Unit 1-Spheres of the Earth Questions: Is the Earth solid all the way through? What are the parts of the Earth? How does water move through the earth?


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