Presentation on theme: "Welcome to AP Biology Agenda: 8/26/13 Registration"— Presentation transcript:
1Welcome to AP Biology Agenda: 8/26/13 Registration Course ExpectationsStudent Info Sheets / Safety ContractsAP Bio infoHW – Student Survey
2AP BiologyClass Expectations found on Durango WebsiteCourse Information, supplemental materials, AP test info go toOnline Textbook/Notes go to
3Course Expectations Signature Page & Safety Contracts due WEDNESDAY!!! 1st AP lab is Thurs & Fri
4Course Break Down (Learning Objectives) Big Idea 1: Evolution The process of evolution drives the diversity and unity of life.Big Idea 2: Cellular Processes: Energy and Communication Biological systems utilize free energy and molecular building blocks to grow, to reproduce, and to maintain dynamic homeostasis.Big Idea 3: Genetics and Information Transfer Living systems store, retrieve, transmit, and respond to information essential to life processes.Big Idea 4: Interactions Biological systems interact, and these systems and their interactions possess complex properties.
5AP Biology Test Monday, May 12 Multiple Choice (63 questions) & Grid-In (6 questions, math)90 minutes50%Free Response (2 Long-FR, 6 Short-FR)80 minutes + 10 minute reading period
6AP Bio Binder a must-have! 3-ring binder (2-inch or two smaller ones)Experimental DesignCarbon/BiomoleculesEnergy/EnzymesLoose-leaf paperCellsCell Transport16 tabs=AP Biology UnitsCell SignalingCellular RespirationPhotosynthesisCell CycleGeneticsDNAProtein SynthesisGene RegulationEvolutionAnimal Form & FunctionEcology
7Homework – Student Survey On a separate sheet of paper please tell me about yourself in 1 page. Must include the following:Interests/hobbies/familyPast Science coursesHow you learn best / learning styleGoals for AP BiologyGoals for your futureDue Tomorrow!
8Welcome to AP Biology ~ Day 2 Agenda: 8/27/13Collect Student Info Sheets/Safety ContractsReview Safety/Sci MethodDesigning a Controlled ExperimentHW –Study of Life Review PowerPointQuiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental Design
11What is Inquiry?Begins with observations you make about the natural world, followed by a question.What is causing that?Use a variety of methods to answer the questions you raiseLab & field investigations, models, simulations, data setsScientific method of investigation is cyclic, not linear…why?
12The Scientific Method: Make ObservationStatement of problem, ask a questionHypothesis: propose a tentative answerDesign & conduct an experiment(Use quantifiable data math is extremely important)Use statistical tests to evaluate the significance of your results(Χ2 test, null hypothesis)Acceptance or rejection of hypothesis.
14Data Are recorded observations Can be quantitative or qualitative Figure 1.24
15The Role of Hypotheses in Inquiry In science, a hypothesisIs a tentative answer to a well-framed question, an explanation on trialMakes predictions that can be tested
16We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems ObservationsQuestionsHypothesis # 1: Dead batteriesHypothesis # 2: Burnt-out bulbPrediction:Replacing batterieswill fix problemReplacing bulbTest predictionTest does not falsify hypothesisTest falsifies hypothesisFigure 1.25We all use hypotheses in solving everyday problems
17A Closer Look at Hypotheses in Scientific Inquiry A scientific hypothesis must have two important qualitiesIt must be testableIt must have the potential of being rejected"No amount of experimentation can ever prove me right, one single experiment can prove me wrong."--- Albert Einstein.
18Designing Controlled Experiments In controlled experiments we start with two (or more) groups that are as similar as possible and we devise a method to manipulate only ONE variable.Independent Variable =the variable that is manipulatedDependent Variable = the response that is measured
19Null HypothesisThe premise that any observed differences are simply the result of random differencesWhen quantified observations, or data, are collected, statistical methods are used to calculate the likelihood that the null hypothesis is correct.
20Designing a Controlled Experiment Labs, Inquiry, and Lab Reports are a HUGE part of AP BiologyYou may work with ONE partner in this activity to review the components of a controlled activity. Each student must complete their own booklet.At the end, you will practice designing your own controlled experiment.You will have some class time today and tomorrow, Due Thursday!
218/27/13 HOMEWORK Read through the following Biology Review PowerPoint. Make sure that you remember/understand EVERYTHINGIf not, be prepared to ask questions tomorrow!This material will be covered on your first quiz!
23Themes Science as a process of inquiry Evolution Energy transfer AP BiologyThemesScience as a process of inquiryquestioning & investigationEvolutionEnergy transferContinuity & ChangeRelationship of structure to functionRegulationInterdependence in natureScience, technology & society
24Science as a process of inquiry AP BiologyScience as a process of inquiry
25Science as a process of inquiry AP BiologyScience as a process of inquiryBuilt on repeatable observations & testable, falsifiable hypotheses
26AP BiologyFalsifiableA hypothesis is falsifiable if you can design and perform and experiment to show you that it is wrong, if it is wrong (meaning, it can be tested).EXAMPLES:Falsifiable – Increasing the amount of water given to a plant will increase its growthNOT Falsifiable –Giving a plant more water will make it happier.Inherently disprovable
27AP BiologyEvolutionCore theme of biologyCharles Darwin
28Organisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations. AP BiologyNatural selectionEvolutionary change is a product of the process of natural selectionOrganisms don’t adapt; Organisms have adaptations.
29"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution." AP Biology"Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution."Theodosius Dobzhansky: Integrating Genetics and EvolutionTheodosius Dobzhansky, a Russian geneticist who moved to the United States, provided laboratory evidence for natural selection and variation where previously there had been only field observation. Dobzhansky's work with Drosophila, or fruit flies, provided new evidence that supported Darwin's theory that natural selection, acting on genetic variation in populations, is a driving force in evolution.-- Theodosius Dobzhansky March 1973Geneticist, Columbia University( )
30Evolution explains unity & diversity AP BiologyEvolution explains unity & diversityUnitywhat do organisms have in common & why do similarities exist?common biochemistry & physiologyevolutionary relationshipsconnected through common ancestorDiversitybut why are there differences?natural selectionadaptations allow different individuals to survive in different environments
32Organizing systems Making sense out of the diversity AP BiologyOrganizing systemsMaking sense out of the diversityHierarchical schemeEastern gray squirrelSciurus carolinensis
333 Domains of Life Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Eukarya AP Biology3 Domains of LifeBacteria, Archaea, EukaryaBacteriaArchaeaEukarya
34Energy transfer Life is an open system need input of energy AP BiologyEnergy transferLife is an open systemneed input of energyenergy flows throughenergy comes in, energy goes outneed a constant inputneed input of materialsnutrients are recycled around & aroundnutrientsENTROPY RULES!DECOMPOSERS RULE, too!
36You can make more, a lot like you! AP BiologyContinuity & changeContinuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNADNA – the genetic material – carries biological information from one generation to the nextTRAIYou can make more, a lot like you!
37Structure and function AP BiologyStructure and functionThe alignment of structure & function is seen at all levels of biologyorganorganismcellorganelle
38AP BiologyRegulationOrganisms need to maintain a “steady state” in the face of changing conditionsHomeostasisachieve this through feedbackmonitor the body like a thermostatturn on when it’s needed, off when its not
39Interdependence in Nature AP BiologyInterdependence in NatureNo organism is an island standing alonecommunities, ecosystems
40Science, technology & society AP BiologyScience, technology & societyScience & technology must function within the rules of societyethics
41Themes Science as a process of inquiry Evolution Energy transfer AP BiologyThemesScience as a process of inquiryquestioning & investigationEvolutionEnergy transferContinuity & ChangeRelationship of structure to functionRegulationInterdependence in natureScience, technology & society
42Why study themes of Biology? AP BiologyWhy study themes of Biology?Biology is an ever expanding body of knowledgetoo much to memorize it allneed to generalizecreate a framework upon which to organize new knowledgethemes are the key to understanding the nature of living organisms
43HomeworkBe sure to write down any questions you may have and bring to class tomorrow!
44Agenda: Wed 8/28/13 Collect any signature pages Review Data collection & GraphingHomework – Finish Designing a Controlled ExperimentDUE TOMORROW!***Quiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental Design
46Working with DATAWhen you work with data during an experiment, you need to:Make accurate and precise measurements.Account for error in measured valuesDevelop techniques and consistency for collecting dataUnderstand the units and properties of the data.Make observations of trends and patterns in the data.Produce visual representation of data, GRAPHS and CHARTS.
47Working with Data Continued When you work with data during an experiment, you need to:Use mathematical equations to model data.Use mathematical models to make predictions of trends.Test the fitness of models using statistical tests.
48What type of graph is best/most commonly used in scientific research? LINE GRAPH!!!!
50Introduction to Graphing Techniques Identify the independent and dependent variable.The independent variable is carefully controlled and varied by a specific amount during an experiment. It is plotted on the x-axis.The dependent variable must be measured every time the independent variable is changed during the experiment. It is plotted on the y-axis.Choose your scale carefully (must be consistent intervals). Make your graph as large as possible by spreading out the data on each axis. Let each square grid on your axis represent a convenient interval. Do not number every grid on your axis.Plot each point as a dark dot
51Intro to Graphing Techniques cont. Label each axis with the name of the variable and the units of measure. Using a ruler, darken the lines representing the axis.Use a pencil and a ruler when drawing the axis for your graph.Title your graph. The title should be short and clearly state the purpose of the graph. The title could include the independent and dependent variables. General the titles are written as the y variable vs. the x variable.Use a single sheet of graph paper for each graph. Do not use the back of a sheet graph paper.If you have more than one graph, number each graph in the upper right-hand corner.
53Introduction to Graphing Techniques Examine the position of your data points. Observe the pattern the data forms on the graph.From the pattern the data makes on the graph, determine the type of relationship between the x and y variables.Most times it will be best to use a smooth continuous line called a “best fit” line.
54Drawing a “best fit” line. Your line should go through as many of the data points as possible. Use a ruler (if the line appears straight) and a sharp pencil to draw a best fit line.When you draw your “best fit” line and the data points do not all fit on the line, draw the line so that there are equal numbers of data points above and below the line you draw. Try to draw the line so that it comes as close to all data points as possible.This may result in a line that curves!If it is logical for the data to go through the origin, take your best fit line all the way to the origin.Draw your best fit line so that it goes a little past your last data point.
59Homework Homework – Finish Designing a Controlled Experiment DUE TOMORROW!***Quiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental Design
60Agenda: Thur 8/29/13Collect any signature pages & Homework: Finish Designing a Controlled ExperimentMini-PostersSet Up AP Lab 12: Fruit Fly Behavior***Quiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental Design
61AP Lab Investigation 12: Fruit Fly Behavior Fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are commonly used for scientific research, most famously in the genetic studies of Thomas Hunt Morgan in 1907.Lives throughout the world, feeds on fruit and fungi growing on rotting fruit.Describe where and when you have seen fruit flies?What environmental factors trigger a fruit fly response?
62Animals move in response to many different stimuli: Chemotaxis = movement in response to the presence of a chemical stimulusPhototactic Response = movement in response to lightGeotactic Response = movement in response to gravity***Movements are described as positive (towards stimuli) or negative (against or away from stimuli)
63Lab Groups (3-4…no more!!!!)Design your controlled Animal Behavior experimentComplete Experimental OrganizerDUE TODAY must be able to gather all materials and have a thorough procedure written before tomorrow’s lab
67Mini-Poster Requirements TitleAbstract (one paragraph to sum up the entire lab experiment)Introduction with primary question, background context, and hypothesisMethodology (procedure)Results, including graphs, tables, charts, & statistical analysesConclusions/Discussion, or your interpretations of your results based on your hypothesisLiterature cited
69Homework Lab 12 tomorrow!!! Work on Mini-Poster ***Quiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental Design
70Agenda: Friday, 8/30/13 Complete AP Lab 12, work on mini-poster ***Quiz 1 will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental DesignComplete AP Lab 12, work on mini-poster
71HomeworkReview for Quiz 1 which will be next WEDNESDAY (9/4/13)Covers review materials: Study of Life Review, Lab Safety, Scientific Method, Designing a Controlled Experiment/Experimental DesignTuesday you will have 15 minutes in class to complete Lab 12 Mini- Posters, work on for homework