3*no sacrifice to future generations* Easter IslandEaster Island– flourishing population of 10,000+ used up islands trees faster than they could regenerate. Without trees, islanders couldn’t build canoes, fish, build homes, etc.People starved and within 300 years, only 2000 remainedSustainability- A system/process can continue indefinitely without depleting resources used.*no sacrifice to future generations*
4You may be asked to set up an experiment. (Need large trial groups) Scientific MethodYou may be asked to set up an experiment.1. Define the problem (?) One that is testable.2. Research3. Hypothesis4. Experiment-Variable (s)- Independent- (tested) * only one.- Dependent (measured)Valid – measures what it was intended to.Reliable- repeatable5. Collect DataQuantitative- numbers-Qualitative- appearance6. Conclusion7. Report(Need large trial groups)10 +
6Levels of organization of matter EcosystemsLevels of organization of matterUniverseEcosphere/biosphereEcosystemsCommunitiesPopulationsOrganismsCellsAtoms
7EcosystemsPlants and animals interacting with their abiotic environment. Ecosystems exist in biomes.Climate – av. temperature over time*Weather – daily variations in temp and precipitationMicroclimate and Other Abiotic Factors* Light intensity* Soil type* Topography
9Biomass and Biomass Pyramid All biomass gets its energy from the sunOnly 10% of energy from one trophic level moves to the next trophic levelEnergy released is high potential energy molecules (like glucose) then converted to low potential energy molecules (like carbon dioxide)* concept of eating lower on the biomass pyramid
10Ecosystem Diversity Biodiversity depends on: latitude (tropical is most diverse, polar is lowest .Depth in aquatic systems – diversity increases to ~ 2000m, then declines (in aquatic, diversity declines w/pollution)
11SpeciesGeneralist species (R-species) have broad niches, and can survive in many places, a Specialist pecies (K-species)has a narrow niche, and can only survive under certain conditions.Keystone Species -species are more important than biomass suggests (ex: flying foxes/bat pollinate plants, elephants uproot trees creating forest openings, beaver dams) = stabilizing effect on ecosystemLoss can lead to domino effect – loss of more and more speciesIndicator Species- indicates environmental changes.* frogs- water pollution.Invasive Species-(non-native) – Cane toad.
12Competitive interactions RelationshipsMutualism* Flowers & insectsCommensalismParasitismPredator/preyHost/ ParasiteCompetitionhabitat vs. nicheCompetitive interactionsIntraspecific competition – b/t members of the same speciesInterspecific competition – b/t 2 or more different species for food, space, etc.Interference competition – one may limit another’s access to some resourceExplotative competition - one species can use a resource faster (exploit it) – humans do this often
13Limiting Factors –Biotic & Abiotic Temperature, light, oxygen,carbon dioxide, precipitationOptimum levelsZones of stressLimits of ToleranceRange of Tolerance* Pond Water GizmoSynergistic effects – The interaction of two or more factors is greater than the sum of the effects when each acts alone. Example: pollution and disease
15Major Terrestrial Biomes: ecological communities adapted to climate of the region (most have ECOTONES).Desert – near equator. hot & coldGrassland– enough rain for grass to live, but not enough for big trees,-can be:Tropical (savanna) – biggest in Africa = warm all year, 2 long dry seasons has lots of grazing animals)Temperate (in the plains in N.&S. America =.cold winter, hot/dry summers, not much rain, so deep fertile soil, prairie grass) **often used to grow crops, can lead to erosion of soil.Chaparral– temperate shrubland along coastal areas, naturally maintained w/periodic fires (people in this area – like CA, experience fire loss often)
16Tundra (v. cold, no trees, ice/snow, reindeer/caribou (don’t hibernate instead have thick coats), has spongy mat of short plants which grow during 6-8 weeks of sun) **contains permafrost – stays frozen year round and prevent liquid water from getting deep underground = marshy in the summertime. * MeltingAlpine tundra – above limit of tree growth, similar to arctic tundra, has no permafrostForest – mod. to high precipitation, lots of trees/smaller vegetationTropical Rainforest= lots of biodiversity (50-80% of terrestrial species), dead decompose quickly, little leaf litter, large canopyTemperate (deciduous forest = avg. rain and change significantly during the seasons, deciduous forests (*lose leaves in winter) including: oak, hickory, maple, poplar, many plants at ground level – have been cleared to make tree plantationsEvergreen Coniferous (called boreal or taiga) = v. cold winters, short, mild summers, cone-bearing trees (*have leaves year-round, needle-shaped, waxy – ex: spruce, fir, cedar, hemlock, pine), low plant diversity, slow decomposition of leaf litter.
20Aquatic Biomes: Oceans Euphotic zone (lighted upper zone w/photosynthesis, high DO, low nutrients, predatory fish),Bathyal zone (dimly lit middle zone, zooplankton/smaller fish).Abyssal zone (dark lower zone/little DO/lots of nutrientsDownwelling/OxygenUpwelling / Nutrients
21Lakeslittoral zone (shallow sunlit water near shore/to depth plants stop growing),limnetic zone (open sunlit surface layer away from shore/produces food for the lake),profundal zone (deep ocean water/too dark for photosynthesis),benthic zone (bottom of lake inhabited by organisms that tolerate low DO and temp.)
22Oligotrophic lake – nutrient poor lake Eutrophic lake – nutrient rich lake – sometimes caused by runoff of fertilizer (nitrates/phosphates into lake – cultural eutrophication
23Freshwater streams/rivers Source zone (turbulent headwaters, lots DO, fish w/flattened bodies).Transition zone (headwaters merge = wider, deeper streams = more producers, lower DO)Floodplain zone (streams join into rivers that meander across valleys, higher temp, less DO, empty into ocean)
24Energy flow - * very important / energy is most often stored in glucose. Photosynthesis: CO2 + water + solar energy glucose + O2Very inefficient (Only 1% of the energy from the sun is used)Cellular respirationAerobic resp.: Glucose + oxygen CO2 + water + energyAnaerobic respiration: breaking down glucose in the absence of oxygen – products are methane (CH4), ethyl alcohol, acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) * pew
25Ecological succession – gradual change in species composition of a given area. Primary succession (can take thousands of years)Secondary succession ( years) –
26Fires in EcosystemMaintain balance of species and energy in ecosystems over the long run.Beneficial b/c provide nutrients for soil. * grasslandsWe avoid natural fires, but the problems like Crown Fires- (not natural) kill the whole tree1988 Yellowstone fires changed climax ecosystems of white bark pine trees to huckle berries * Grizzlies eat both.
27Carbon CycleCarbon Cycle – based on CO2 gas which makes up % of our troposphere, important because it is a major component of the earth’s thermostat Movement of Carbon in the sea:Soluble in water, so can stay dissolved in the seaREMEMBER: the warmer the water, the LESS gas the water can hold, so as water warms, more CO2 returns to the atmosphere. * Colder water holds more O 2Some removed by photosynthesis producersSome reacts with seawater to form carbonate ions (CO3-2) – which later can react with Ca ions to form CaCO3 hardened shells of many sea creatures (when the organism dies, the shells can then be converted to limestone over time), plants in the sea can also die and over the years form fossil fuels.
29Movement of Carbon on land: Autotrophs – absorb CO 2Aerobic respiration –gives of CO 2Buried dead plants (over millions of years) are compressed, form fossil fuels (like coal/oil) when burned give of CO 2
30Nitrogen cycle Main reserve in the atmosphere Living things must get N from ammonium (NH4) or nitrate (NO3)N from the atmosphere must be fixedChange N2 into ammonium or nitrateRhizobium (bacteria living in roots of legumes) ----LightningBurning fossil fuels* Industrial
32Phosphorus cycle No gas phase, only solid and liquid. * Rocks Man-made fertilizers contain organic phosphatesBecause P is a limiting factor in aquatic systems, it leads to eutrophication.The rain forest is very good at recycling P, except when we cut it down…
34Carbon C Nitrogen N Phos-phorous P Element Main living reservoir Main nonliving reservoirMain living reservoirOther nonliving reservoirHuman-induced problemCarbonCAtmosphereCO2Carbohydrates (CH2O)nAnd all organic moleculesHydroCarbonate (CO3-2)Bicarbonate (HCO3-)Litho mineralsGlobal warmingCarbon from fossil fuels underground are burned and released into the air as CO2NitrogenNN2Proteins and other N- containing organic moleculesAmmoniumNH4+NitrateNO3-Nitrite NO2-EutrophicationFertilizers contain human-made nitrates that end up in the waterPhos-phorousPLithosphererocks as PO4-3*no gas phaseDNAATPphospholipidsPhosphatePO4- 3Fertilizers contain human-made phosphates that end up in the waterCutting down rainforest stops recycling of P
35Only silly apes in college study past midnight. Diversity ?Top 6 most abundant elements in living things(not in order)* NCHOPSTop 8 elements in the earths crust (in order)* O, Si, Al, Fe (iron), Ca, Na (sodium), P, MgOnly silly apes in college study past midnight.
36Evolutionary Change Vocabulary that you need to know * DNA * Chromosome* Gene* AlleleCentral Dogma: DNA- blueprintRNA- carpenterProtein- house, wood
37Geological time scaleYou are here.Cambrian Explosion- “Life”
38Why do species change? Environmental resistance and biotic potential. Selective pressure on mutations.Speciation* creation of a new species based on reproductive isolation.
39Evolution– the change in a population’s genetic makeup through successive generations -Microevolution – small genetic changes that occur in a population.Occurs in species with genetic variation, one genetic variation is more adapted to survive, that genetic variation reproduces more, becomes more common (example: peppered moth) natural selection-Macroevolution – long-term, large-scale evolutionary changes, leads to a new species forming and the other species being lost to extinction.-Co-evolution – occurs when two populations of two different species interact over a long period of time, changes occur in the gene pool of one species lead to changes in the otherUsually occurs with carnivores: Owls that have better eyesight can catch more mice, so they thrive mice that run faster avoid being eaten by the owls.
40Mutations Mutations (changes) are naturally random events. * Normal variation- diversity of organisms* Chemical* UV* Radiation* Genetic Trait- only passed down if an organism reproduces. “Survival of the Fittest”
41Natural Selection–Directional – changing environmental conditions cause individuals at one end average to become more common than mid-range – “it pays to be different”-Stabilizing – eliminates individuals on either end of genetic spectrum, favors individuals w/avg. genetic makeup – “pays to be average”-Diversifying – environmental conditions favor individuals at both extremes – “it does not pay to be normal”
43Water FactsThe primary use for fresh water in U.S. is for agriculture.In our homes, we use the most fresh water to wash, clean and flush.The typical person in an industrialized nation uses gallons per week!
44World Fresh Water Supply Largest lake 20 %. of fresh water.Lake Baikal , Russia4000Miles
45Water cycle – powered by the sun and gravity, a natural cycle that acts to purify water **only cycle that does NOT involve a chemical reaction (only a physical change of state) Evaporation (liquid water to water vapor)Transpiration (liquid water on leaves/roots into water vapor)Condensation (water vapor to liquid water – clouds/fog)Precipitation (rain/sleet/hail/snow)Infiltration (liquid water into the soil)Percolation (downward flow of water into the soil and aquifers)Runoff (down slope surface movement of water back to the sea to resume the cycle)
51Mono LakeExcellent example of human interference with the water supply.The water in the lake was diverted from the lake to the city of Los Angeles. It became a salt bed.↑ Salt concentration due to evaporation
52Three Gorges Dam in China China needs to meet the growing demand for energyHuge environmental impactHundreds of thousands of people will be displaced (not to mention the ecosystems which will be flooded)