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Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment WSU EH&S Statewide 10/07.

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Presentation on theme: "Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment WSU EH&S Statewide 10/07."— Presentation transcript:

1 Heat-Related Illness in the Outdoor Environment WSU EH&S Statewide 10/07

2 Heat-Related Illness  Heat illness can effect anyone  Heat illness is dangerous  Heat illness can kill Why is it important to know about heat illness?  Heat illness is preventable

3  What is a heat-related illness  Types of heat-related illness  Signs & symptoms  Contributing risk-factors  Prevention  Emergency response procedures Presentation Outline

4 Heat-Related I llness  Heat stress is the buildup in the body of heat generated by the muscles during work, plus heat coming from warm and hot environments.  When the body becomes overheated, less blood goes to the active muscles, the brain and other internal organs. Workers get weaker, become tired sooner, may be less alert, and less able to use good judgment.  As the stress from heat becomes more severe, there can be a rapid rise in body temperature and heart rate.  Heat exhaustion and heat stroke result when the body is subjected to more heat than it can cope with, causing decreased mental performance, organ damage, convulsions, and death.  During hot weather, heat-illness can be the underlying cause of other injuries, such as heart attacks on-the-job, falls, and equipment accidents arising from poor judgment.

5 Types of Heat-Related Illnesses  Heat Rash  Heat Cramps  Heat Fatigue  Heat Exhaustion  Heat Stroke

6 What to look for:  Red blister-like eruptions  Itching or prickling What to do:  Get out of the sun to somewhere cool  Keep skin dry  Monitor for infection  Consult physician Heat Rash

7 Heat Cramps  A heat cramp is an involuntarily and forcibly contracted muscle or fibers of a muscle that don’t relax ( i.e., a muscle spasm that doesn’t relax).  Heat cramps usually occur in the arm, leg or stomach muscles, and are very painful.  Heat cramps can last a few seconds, 15 minutes, or more, and can occur multiple times, and without warning.

8 Heat Cramps are Painful!  Pain from heat cramps distract a worker, and may create serious consequences.  A person’s automatic reaction is to bend over in pain, fall down in pain, or reach for area in pain without thought of the result of moving quickly.  This can be dangerous, if a person is operating machinery, driving, on a roof, etc. when a heat cramp occurs; a serious accident may result.

9 Treatment of Heat Cramps  Get out of the heat to a cool place.  Rest!  Drink electrolyte-containing fluids.  Gently stretch the cramped muscle and hold the stretch for ~ 20 seconds, then gently massage the muscle. Repeat if necessary.  Don’t return to work in the heat this day.

10 Heat Fatigue  What to look for:  Impaired mental or sensorimotor performance  Fainting Heat Fatigue signals a person is in trouble, and potentially headed towards heat exhaustion.  What to do:  ASAP: Stop work, get out of the heat, drink fluids, and seek medical aid before heat fatigue progresses to heat exhaustion.

11 Heat Exhaustion HHeat exhaustion is a more serious and advanced stage of heat-related illness than heat fatigue. Beware! UUntreated heat exhaustion can quickly progress to heat stroke.

12 Heat Stroke Can Be Fatal! Danger! Heat Fatigue & Dehydration Heat Exhaustion Heat Stroke

13 Heat Stroke IS A MEDICAL EMERGENCY  The body becomes so stressed that it can no longer regulate its on own temperature & it over- heats.  Potentially, when the body can’t cool itself, body temp can reach 106° in minutes.  The body literally cooks itself.

14 To prevent injury, learn to recognize the signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion and heat stroke. Prevent Heat-Related I llness

15 Signs & Symptoms Heat Exhaustion & Heat Stroke Both heat exhaustion and stroke may exhibit:  Red Face  Mood changes, irritability, agitation, or confusion  Nausea/Vomiting  Unsteady gait  Fainting  Erratic behavior  Rapid pulse  Fatigue and weakness  Dizzy or light-headed

16 Knowing the Difference Can Save a Life! HEAT EXHAUSTIONHEAT STROKE  Extreme sweating or pale, clammy skin  Normal to slightly elevated temperature HHot, dry skin/face that is flushed, but not sweating HHigh temperature (>104° F) Only in Heat Stroke CChills/Shivering CConvulsions and/or seizures LLoss of consciousness CComa MMay resemble a heart attack

17 Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke Stop work, get out of the heat, drink electrolyte-containing fluids, and seek medical aid

18 How The Body Stays Cool!  The body’s thermostat is the Hypothalamus gland, which is located in the brain, and controls body heat.  The hypothalamus signals blood to flow to surface of the skin to cool itself.  The body sweats.  Sweat evaporates off skin and has a cooling effect on the blood and thus the body.  Many things can interfere with the body’s cooling processes or contribute to body heat production.

19 Contributing Factors to Heat-Related Illness Heat + Humidity + Other (Internal & External) Factors = Total Heat Burden on the Body

20 Humidity and Heat Inhibit Body Cooling  Humidity (moisture in the air) interferes with sweat evaporating from the skin thus interferes with the cooling of the body.  The more humid it is, the less sweat can evaporate, and the less body cooling occurs, and the more chance of heat-related illness  The hotter the temperature, the harder the body has to work to produce enough sweat to stay cool.  Heat and humidity together greatly increase the potential for heat-related illness.

21 Monitor Heat and Humidity To help keep the body’s cooling mechanisms working properly, it is important to monitor heat and humidity values throughout each workday in hot and/or humid weather, and adjust tasks accordingly.

22 Heat Index Used to Monitor Heat + Humidity  Heat + humidity values = Heat Index  The higher the temperature and humidity the higher the Heat Index.  The Heat Index gives an “Apparent” Temperature.  The Apparent Temperature is a higher value than temperature alone as it factors in humidity.  Monitor the Heat Index on- line and/or by using a Heat Index Chart (see next slide).

23 Heat Index Chart Heat + Humidity = Heat Index Source: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Implement controls at 90 ° or before May feel effects at 80 °

24 Heat Index Warnings Heat + Humidity = Heat Index Heat Index General Effect of Heat + Humidity with Prolonged Exposure & Physical Activity Extreme Danger 130 or higher Heat stroke highly likely Danger Heat stroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion likely, and heat stroke possible Extreme Caution Heat stroke, heat cramps, and heat exhaustion possible Caution Fatigue possible Implement controls at 90 ° or before May feel effects at 80 °

25 Other Risk Factors Learn to recognize risk factors and how to mitigate them to avoid heat- related illness. Heat + Humidity + Other Factors = Total Heat Burden

26 Risk Factors: Direct Sun  The more direct sun, the hotter the environment.  Shield yourself or stay out of the direct sun as much as possible.  Sunlight is at its peak between 10AM-2PM daily; a good time to stay out of the sun.

27 Radiant heat is the transfer of heat energy through the air from sun and other sources such as, asphalt, engines, and dark surfaces. Radiant heat can add 15° to Heat Index Risk Factors: Radiant Heat

28 Conductive heat transfers heat to worker by direct contact with heat sources such as tools, equipment, and machinery. Risk Factors: Conductive Heat

29 Risk Factors: Limited Air Movement  Limited air movement, such when there is little or no wind, creates a hotter environment as the less the air moves, the less cooling of the body can occur.  For example, there is limited air movement while working in a trench, a partially enclosed area, vehicle cab, or on the leeward side of a structure.

30 Risk Factors: Physical Exertion  The harder and longer you work, the hotter you become.  Physical exertion increases the chance of dehydration.

31 Wearing PPE such as non-breathable spray suits, gloves, boots, rain gear or respirators can hold heat to the body and inhibit cooling. Risk Factors: Protective Clothing

32  Age: the young and over-50 are more susceptible to heat-related illness  Poor fitness: use more physical exertion and energy to do a job  Over-weight: the body holds heat more easily and is stressed by extra weight Risk Factors: Personal

33 Risk Factors: Certain Medications Some medications can make a person more sensitive to the effects of heat and many contribute to body dehydration; examples are: AAllergy medicines (antihistamines) CCough/cold medicines BBlood pressure/heart medicines IIrritable bladder/bowel medicines LLaxatives MMental health medicines SSeizure medicines TThyroid pills WWater pills (diuretics) Consult health care provider or pharmacist for information

34  Hangover  Heart conditions, diabetes, high blood pressure, etc.  Illness or fever Risk Factors: Medical Conditions or Illnesses

35  No heavy foods  Harder to digest & increases metabolic heat  No alcohol or sugary drinks  Dehydrate the body  No caffeinated drinks  Diuretic  No carbonated drinks Gas bubbles limit fluid intake  No nicotine  Constricts blood vessels Before working in the heat: Risk Factors: DIET MATTERS!

36 Risk Factors: Attitude Ditch that “Macho” Attitude! Slow down, pace yourself, and take breaks, especially on hot days!

37 Risk Factors: Attitude Type-A’s : Slow the Pace to Keep from Over-Heating! Slow down, pace yourself, and take breaks on hot days!

38 Risk Factors: Attitude  “I’m tough ~ I don’t need a water break”  “I’m not thirsty ~ I don’t need to drink”  “I’ll lose pay, if I take a water break”  “I’ll be letting my team down, if I take a break”  “I’m new here ~ I need to prove myself” Don’t Be a Super-Hero! These actions lead to dehydration and heat stress:

39 Heat Illness Regulations An average of 500 people die each year in the United States by effects from heat (EPA) In 2007, the State of Washington put in place regulations to address heat related illness: WAC

40 Heat Illness Regulations WAC Requires:  Employers with one or more employees performing work in an outdoor environment to implement workplace practices designed to reduce or eliminate risk of heat-related illness.  Practices must be in writing, and must include:  Accessibility to drinking water in sufficient quantity to provide at least one quart per employee per hour  Procedures to remove employees experiencing signs and symptoms of heat-related illness from duty, to provide sufficient means to reduce body temperature, and to determine if medical attention is needed  Employee training must be provided initially and annually.

41 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Monitoring the work-day weather & heat index Scheduling tasks to minimize physical exertion Advising employees to pace themselves Encouraging frequent breaks on hot days Providing radio, pager, or cell phone to keep in contact with base and each other Rotating job tasks Supervisors prevent heat-related illness by:

42 Preventing Heat-Related Illness  By providing annual heat-related illness awareness training  By providing CPR and First Aid training  By providing easy access to water via water bottles, coolers, hydration packs, and transportation to base water supply Supervisors prevent heat-related illness :

43 Preventing Heat-Related Illness  Providing appropriate PPE  Cooling vests & bandanas  Hats  UVA/UVB rated sun glasses  Providing sun screen (SPF 15 or greater & UVA/UVB effective) Supervisors prevent heat-related illness by:

44 Work Smart Learn how to Keep Cool!

45 Stay Cool! Remove PPE & excess clothing during breaks Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart Clothing traps body heat and inhibits perspiration Especially:  Personal protective equipment (PPE)  Heavy clothing  Multiple clothing layers  Dark-colored clothing absorbs heat

46 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart Wear appropriate clothing:  Light-colored  Light-weight  Natural fibers  Hat with a brim  Cooling vest or bandanas may be helpful in some cases  Apply appropriate sunscreen to exposed skin

47 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Acclimatize Acclimatization is Extremely Important!  People can collapse, become easily fatigued, make mistakes, get into accidents, or develop heat- related illnesses, if not properly acclimatized  Many of us travel across the state, nation, or over seas for our work  Take special care, if you are used to a cooler climate and are going to a hot/humid climate Go Prepared!

48  Plan in extra time (several days) to adjust to hot working conditions  Gradually build up exposure time, and adjust work routines, to increase heat tolerance Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Acclimatize

49 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Acclimatize  New  Just returning from work from being sick  Are absent for more than 2 weeks  Just moved from a cooler climate  During heat-wave events Supervisors and co-workers pay special attention to employees that are:

50 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Physical Exertion Produces Internal Heat in the Body Consider:  What kind of work will be performed?  How hard is the work?  How long is the work task/period? Photo credit:

51 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart  Alternate heavy work with light work  Schedule the hardest work for cooler parts of the day  Pace yourself  Increase frequency of breaks when:  Conditions are very hot  Work requires high exertion levels  Protective clothing limits evaporative cooling  Work in the shade or out of direct sun

52  When dehydrated the amount of sweat that can be produced decreases, and the body can’t cool itself  Drink water throughout the day to replace body fluid lost by sweating Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Stay Hydrated Proper hydration is key to preventing heat illness  Do not wait for thirst before drinking water  It is also important to incorporate electrolyte- containing drinks in your daily fluid intake  Drink 8-16 ounces of water before work to pre-hydrate

53 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Stay Hydrated  This is to replace the 2 quarts of sweat per hour the body can produce in hot environments ~1 cup every 15 minutes  Drink 1 quart or more of water over the course of an hour when the work environment is hot, and a person sweats more than usual Persons who are on restricted fluids, or with medical conditions that heat or bright light effect consult a physician before working in the heat

54 Drinking water sources:  Be closeable & have a tap  Clearly marked  Suitably cool  Individual cups provided  Bottled water  Hydration packs called camelbacks -users sip water through a tube Photo credit: UC Davis Worker wearing hydration pack Hydration pack Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart: Stay Hydrated

55 Preventing Heat-Related Illness Work Smart Keep an on co-workers for symptoms of heat illness such as crankiness and denial ESTABLISH A BUDDY SYSTEM!

56 Having Trouble in the Heat? If you become:  Light-headed  Weak  Have a pounding heart  In a cool place  Drink fluids  Loosen or shed unnecessary clothing  Lie down All Activity  Confused  Faint  Trouble breathing Notify Supervisor Take a Break and Rest

57 If a Co-Worker Is Having Trouble in the Heat  Transport the person to base, or to a cooler, shaded area so the person can rest and lay down.  Get help on the way: call 911, or have base call 911, and then alert the supervisor.  Do not leave person alone!  Loosen and remove heavy clothing that restricts evaporation and cooling.  If person is alert and not nauseated, provide fluids such as cool water, juice, sports drinks, or non-caffeinated soft drinks.  Fan the person, spray or mist with cool water, apply wet cloth to skin.  Do not further expose the person to heat any more that day.

58 Call when a person does not feel better in about 15 minutes. Call sooner if they show any signs of heat stroke! Get Help on the Way! SECONDS COUNT! Call 911!

59 If You Suspect Heat Stroke WHILE WAITING FOR MEDICAL HELP TO ARRIVE  Apply ice packs under arms & to the groin area  Place the person in a cool shower  Spray them with cool water from a hose  Sponge the person with cool water  If the humidity is low, wrap person in a cool wet sheet and fan them vigorously  Immerse the person in a tub of cool water Cool the person using whatever methods available Do not try to give unconscious persons fluids to drink.

60 If You Suspect Heat Stroke If emergency 911 medical personnel are delayed, call the hospital emergency room for further instruction

61 In Summary: Work Smart! Know the signs and symptoms of heat related illnesses and take them seriously Stay hydrated - Drink water/fluids frequently Consider sports drinks when sweating a lot Monitor Heat Index Photo credit: Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, and heavy meals before or during work

62 In Summary: Work Smart! Plan work tasks for heat relief Pace yourself Acclimatize Wear appropriate clothing Keep an eye on your buddy Take breaks

63 Stay Cool! Proceed to quiz

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