Presentation on theme: "MIS Management Information Systems Syllabus"— Presentation transcript:
1MIS Management Information Systems Syllabus What I expect you to do!
211 LabsYou must go to all 11.2% penalty for first lab missed5% for 2nd10% for 3rdAutomatic course failure if you miss a 4th lab.Remember you can drop the course and take it in a semester where you are less busy.
3Lab Pre-lab quiz 20% In-lab activity 50% (hard to makeup) Post-lab question/activity 30%If you miss a lab, you still have to make it up before the next lab period, otherwise you get a penalty and a zero.
4Pop Quizzes & IS Speaker Series About 10 pop quizzes on reading and the IS Speaker SeriesYou can use your notesshould be easy to get 100’sTake notes while readingTake notes while listening to IS Speaker SeriesAttend IS Speaker Series talksVideos will be available in the library
5Lecture Eventually, I will stop using PowerPoint. 70% of exam questions are answered in lectureYou can’t do well in this course unless you come to lecture
6ExamsExams 1 and 2 given in classCumulative final exam
7Group ProjectPropose an idea for how to improve a business using technologyResearch the business and technologyLog your hours via Google SpreadsheetMake an ePortfolio (individual)Make a group Wiki (to share your research)Make a group presentation about your idea
8Summary Attend 11 labs Attend lecture Actual work One miss won’t kill youAttend lecture2-3 misses won’t kill youActual work11 pre-labs10 post-labs writeups10 pop quizzes1 group project (with individual component)2 in-class exams1 final exam
9MIS Management Information Systems The Fundamentals Stuff that is not in the book
10Management Information Systems (MIS) What does this term really mean?Managementa major at Siena,a good occupation.the act of managing; handling, directing, controlling.A well-known manager on TV
11MIS applies to many fields More than just Information Systems used by Managers?The study of systems that help with the management of informationThe information could be forAccountingFinanceMarketingScientific ResearchComputer GamingMadden 12 Football Player Management
12MIS helps build understanding We will study the principles of transforming data into information and then beyondCorrectnessWisdomPeopleUnderstanding and developing principles and conceptsKnowledgeComputers and SystemsUnderstanding patternsInformationAdding value, context, relationships, and patternsDataUnderstanding
13A better course title for MIS I would call this course… Computer Systems for Managing InformationComputer being used to manage information poorly.
14Why do you have to take MIS? Chapter 1 answers this question (read it).Your ability to manage information using technology will determine your success in any business field.Contrary to media portrayals, high school-aged students are not masters of technology, but often clueless consumers of new technology?
15IT vs. ISFirst, does anyone know the difference between INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY and INFORMATION SYSTEMS ?
16INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY INFORMATION SYSTEMS VS. Innovations in storing, transmitting, and sharing informationhardware devices like:TelephoneComputer PrinterWireless Network RouterAlso includes software, languages, and protocols:Photoshop, Java, Flash, HTML, HTTP, etc.1. Computer hardware and 2. Software,but also includes:3. People4. Processes, and5. DataFamiliar Information SystemsTwitteriTunesBlackboard
17Software is always part of bigger systems Consider these examplesTwitterPointless without people?iTunesLittle value without data (music, movies, etc.)BlackboardUseless without procedures
18Hardware is always part of bigger systems Consider these examplesiPhonePointless without peopleSolid State Hard DriveNo value without data (files, movies, etc.)Xbox KinectDifficult to use without procedures
19Information Technology is part of Information Systems ITPeople users, administrators, owners, etc.Hardware PC, iPad, Android Phone, RFID Scanner, Laser Printer, etc.Data numbers, words, images, video, etc; computerized (digital) or on paperSoftware Excel, Access, Blackboard, iTunes Chrome, Windows 7, OracleProcedures often documented in writing
20IT is practically freeCost of labor and natural resources keep rising.But, every 18 months, the cost of information technology decreases by nearly 50%See Figure 1-1 in the bookData communication and storage are so cheap that CEO’s consider it free.Businesses leverage this free commodity.And, consumers are happy to pay for it.
21Leveraging Technology In 1992, I bought Metallica’s Black Album for $ at store called Record Town.Today, you can download new albums on iTunes for $9.99.Information Technology makes delivering music cheaperright or wrong?This is great for the consumer
22How Leveraging Technology Works Those who purchase “cheap” songs on iTunes oftenPay $60-$100/month for their iPhone servicePay $ every three years for a MacBook
23How Leveraging Technology Works Consumers pay for Apple’s store (iTunes) by buying Apple hardwareApple Corporation can sell music withoutmoving stuff in trucksbuilding a store in your townhiring clerksBTW: If you own a PC, Microsoft leverages consumers in many other ways.
24Famous quote“Instead of learning how to program computers kids minds are being programmed by computers.”Who said it? When?We rely so much on technology that it changes the way we think and behave.This change is good if you are a master of technologyits bad if you area grunt user/employeeclueless consumer of technology
25Why I care?I teach Computer Science (CS) majors how to blow up your business job!In CS, we build software systems that replace costly human labor to help businesses become more profitableunless you have ideas on how to use information systems to improve business, you might not have a “thinking” career in business.
26What lab might look like if I were handsome and smiled How will I help you?By making you do lab activities where you willUse computer systems to solve problems and manage informationLabs are important becauseYou get to actually do stuffThen, you think about what you didThen, I tell you why it was importantWhat lab might look like if I were handsome and smiled
27Why you should care about labs. You need to knowHow to use information systems in non-routine ways.How information systems can helpSolve problemsMake better decisionsCreate strategic advantagesWhat better way to learn this than to actually do it on computer?
28Will doing the labs make me a master of technology? You have to do 5 other thingsBut, these things will also help youget an A in the course andavoid a grunt-like career with no job securityDo you want to know the 5 things?
29#1 Read Abstract Reasoning Reading hones your abstract thinking skill Pictures & video are nice, but written wordshelp you imaginehelp you build your own mental model of the worldIf you rely on others to build a model for you,You will not understand things as deeplyand, you’ll struggle to solve problems on your ownRead the text bookRead the lab instructionsRead your own writing before you submit itIf you don’t understand what you are reading, read it again 2 more times!And, if someone still has to explain it to you, read it a 3rd time again so you understand your misunderstanding
30#2 Look at the world as a system 1. Goal2. ObserveInputOutput3. ActionIdentify goalsMake honest observations about the world around you, and connect inputs with outputsTake action to achieve your goal
31#2 Look at the world as a system InputOutputConnect input and outputsGoal: I want to get an A.Observations:Studied 2 hours for exam1 and got a B.Studied 4 hours for exam2 and got a A-.Input: hours studiedOutput: gradeWhy this helpsSome systems are poorly designed and unfair, some are fair and consistent.Regardless, understanding how a system works is the key to controlling the system and achieving goals.
32#3 Share ideas and be open to criticism McDonald’s Grunt:Goal: To be a managerObservation: We cook too many fries at once. By the time we sell them all, the last order is cold.Idea: We should cook half as many fries, but twice as often.Idiot Night Manager:Criticism: Dude, we are going to have to work harder to fill the fryer twice as often.Grunt:Openness: You are right, but my goal is to make crispy, tasty fries and I’m not afraid to work harder.
33#4 Experiment (test what works the best) Grunt:Filling the fryer at 50% capacity but twice as often is too much work.but filling it at 66% capacity but 1.5 times as often works out greatAlso we can change the % based on how busy we are.Idiot Night Manager:Good job, nerd!District Manager:Since we hired Grunt, we are selling more friescustomers say the fries are fresher and crispierOutcome:Grunt gets promoted to “thinking” positionIdiot Manager has to follow Grunt’s nerdy fry cooking process any way.
34#5 Identify bad ideas and do the right thing. Student #1 goalMy goal is to minimize the amount of work to do on this project.Student #1 ideaI will just copy text from Wikipedia.Student #2 identifies bad ideaThat’s plagiarism and it might lead to you having to do more work.Outcome:Student #1 getsa zero on project,fails the coursemust take the course againmust redo project next semester anywayStudent #2 ends up doing a lot less work on the project than student #1.
35How these steps apply to MIS NOTTo leverage information technology and systems in your future career/business, you must oftenuse technology and systems in new/innovative ways,do things you’ve never done before with very little help.This is NOT easy.It requires: reading, making systematic observations, collaborating, experimenting, and eventually doing the right thing.
36How can I help to make it easy? My job as your teacher is NOT to show you what buttons to press.My job is to teach you non-routine skills, i.e., strategies for how to press the right buttons.
37Technology & Non-routine skills Abstract Reasoningreading is essential in developing thoughts and ideastechnology cannot put thoughts in your mind like reading canSystems Thinkingbusiness itself is a system with input and outputbusiness systems are rich with technologyCollaborationsharing your ideas and handling criticism positively makes for better ideastechnology impacts how people collaborate
38Technology & Non-routine skills 4. Experimentationtry things, take risks, be curiousdon‘t just use technology, experiment with it5. Ethics & Integritydoing the right thing will eventually pay off.Technology makes it easier to cheat, but also easier to catch cheats
39Don’t be afraid to “press new buttons” But, before you press a button, read and thinkWhat is your goal?Goals are often formalized in writing.What does the button do?Buttons are often described in documentation (i.e., writing).After you press the button, think and reflectDid the button do what is was supposed to?Did pressing it get you closer to your goal?
40Chapter 1 take away Non-routine skills that are valued in MIS? AbstractionSystem ThinkingCollaborationExperimentationEthics & Integrity (this one is mine)
41Good Information Systems vs. Bad ones Dr. Breimer’s Goal: I want information about you on a roster cheat sheet so I can get to know you all better.My system (a bad one):Students make documents (Word)Student upload them (Blackboard)I download them and grade them (Blackboard)I mash them up (Word)
42My bad system People: Instructor and 30 students Software: Word and BlackboardHardware: Your computers and mineProcesses: The pre-lab instructions (written) my process (in my head)Data: Your names, majors, pictures, interesting facts about you, your goals
43My bad system Input: Information entered into 30 Word documents Processing: A lot of cutting, pasting, screen capturing your photos, cropping them.Output: My roster cheat sheetFeedback: I keep track of how long it takes; it takes me about 1.5 hours to make my cheat sheet.
44Why is it bad?on your computeron blackboardon my computer
46Major take-awayA better system can reduce the amount of work, but not necessarily for everyone involved.In your career, do not think a system is bad just because it makes *you* do more work.Companies care more about the aggregate work and you may be on the wrong end of the pyramid of success.
47A bad systemYou and your partner are working collaboratively on a Word documentGoal: To share document with partnerInformation System:Software:
48Emailing attachments: a bad system on your computeryour sent mail/inboxpartner’s inbox/sent mailpartner’s computerV1V1V1V1V2V2V2V2V3V3V3V3
49Using WinSCP a better system? your z: drivepartner’s z: driveV1V1V2V2V3V3
50Take-aways from Intro Lab WinSCP is great way for you to access your lab work from home and copy a file for your partner.ScreenHunter is a nice way to “take a picture” of your computer screen.Google, when used thoughtfully, is perhaps the greatest software component ever created.All of these are software components that can be part of bigger systems.
51Take-aways from Intro Lab The software and hardware you decide to use greatly impacts how a system works.Software is often designed with a goal in mind.The software designer’s goal and your goal in using it may be differentwas not designed to help people collaboratively edit a documentNeither was WinSCPGoogle Docs wasBut, to innovate/improvise with the tools you have is key.
52Chapter 1 Key TopicWhat are the 5 Components of an Information System?
53Components of an Information System ActorsInstructionsBridgeHardwareSoftwareDataProceduresPeopleComputer SideHuman SideAutomation: Move work from human side to computer sideMore difficult to change
54Components of an Information System The benefits of automation is not just to do things automatically.What are the real benefits of automation?Automation: Move work from human side to computer sideMore difficult to changeHardwareSoftwareDataProceduresPeopleComputer SideHuman Side
552 big motivations behind IS automation AgilityGrowthPeople are oftenslow to changeOften hard to retrainReplacing people with computers (hardware) helps businesses become more agile.Business processes can be changed easier if they are implement with hardware or software.Procedures are oftenambiguousnot formally definedtediousdifficult to followReplacing procedures with programs (software) helps business to growBusiness processes can be scaled –up easier if they are implemented with software or hardware.
56iTunes as a System Hardware Software Data Procedures People Examples?
57iTunes as a System Hardware Software Data Procedures People User devices:iPhoneiPodiPadMacBookMP3 PlayerPCApple side:Media ServerInfrastructure:NetworkRoutersUser devices:iTunes itselfMac OSApple side:Media Content Management SystemMedia itselfMusicMoviesTV ShowsAppsGamesUser:Create accountLoginBuy songApple Side:Add new songOrganize songsAdvertise new songsContent Providers:Upload songGet moneyUser: Consumer who buys songs,Apple :System adminsProgrammersCSRMarketersContent Providers:Artists, Record Studios, App Developers, Colleges
58Blackboard as a System Hardware Software Data Procedures People Examples?Examples?Examples?Examples?Examples?
59Blackboard as a System Hardware Software Data Procedures People User devices:PC LaptopAdmin side:Web ServerDatabase ServerInfrastructure:NetworkRoutersUser devices:Web Browser ExcelAdmin side:Blackboard system itselfDatabase toolsStudent GradesPowerPoint filesWord DocumentsAssignmentsProject DescriptionsMessagesCalendar itemsStudent:LoginSubmit assignmentCheck gradesFaculty:Enter gradesUpload project descriptionAdmin side: Create coursesEnroll studentsStudentsFacultySystem Admins
60Information System View General System ViewInformation System ViewVS.Concrete & Real (i.e., not abstract)5 components:HardwareSoftwareData (bridge/center)ProceduresPeopleConceptual View (i.e., abstract)8 properties:StakeholderGoalSystem BoundariesInputProcessingOutputFeedbackkey in understanding systemsControl
61iTunes Stakeholder Goal Input Processing Output Customer Musician/ Artist
62iTunes Stakeholder Goal Input Processing Output Customer wants to buy a cheap songSong selection, credit card number (money)Check to see if card is valid,Start download of songDecoded audio file, can be copied on up to 8 devices (song)Musician/ ArtistWants to sell their musicArtist account information, encoded audio file (song)Create artist account, song added to systemElectronic funds added to account for each song sold (money)
63iTunes: Customer Feedback StakeholderGoalInputProcessingOutputCustomerwants to buy a cheap songSong selection, credit card number (money)Check to see if card is valid,Start download of songDecoded audio file, can be copied on up to 8 devices (song)Examples of Feedback:Message: “Lagy Gada not found, did you mean Lady Gaga.”Message: “you have $4.99 left on your gift card.”Message: “this song is authorized on 5 devices.”Message: “5 minutes left to download song.”
64Feedback from a user/customer perspective Messages that let you know what is happeningInformation about your usage of the systemIs your input good?Is your output on the way?Helps youcorrect mistakesenter inputunderstand the output
65iTunes: Artist (content provider) Feedback StakeholderGoalInputProcessingOutputMusician/ ArtistWants to sell their musicArtist account information, encoded audio file (song)Create artist account, song added to systemElectronic funds added to account for each song sold (money)Examples of Feedback:Message: “Your song X has been purchased 74 times.”Message: “County is not a valid category for song X.”Message: “You have not uploaded an image for your band.”Message: “5 minutes left to upload song Y.”
66Feedback from an artist perspective Messages that let you know what is happeningInformation about your usage of the systemIs your input good?Is your output on the way?Helps youcorrect mistakesenter inputunderstand the output
67Key Concept: Feedback is relative to the stakeholder/goal. Notice how similar the feedback is for customers and artists.Why?They are both the same kind of stakeholder.Both users of iTunes.Symmetric goalsBuy songSell songBut, iTunes has another stakeholder! Who?
68iTunes: System Owners perspective StakeholderGoalInputProcessingOutputApple CorporationSell media (music, apps, movies, etc.)Provide content to add value to iPhone, iPads, etc.New featuresNew types of mediaCreate new user accounts Add new mediaPromote mediaIncreased usage, exposure, market shareIncreasedsales (money)Examples of Feedback:Top selling songs, shows, apps, etc.Login/usage report including top devices used (i.e., iPhone, iPod Touch, iPad, MacBook, PC, etc.)Sales by media type (music, movies, etc.)
69Feedback from the system owner’s perspective Messages that tell youif the system is workinghow well it’s workinghow close you are to achieving a goalApple did NOT create iTunes to generate a sales report?The sales report is feedback, not output.
70Pop Quiz #1 Information Systems have 5 components. What 2 are part of the human side?What 2 are part of the computer side?Which one is the bridge?Describe Moore’s law?
71Why IT matters? Aeronautical Technology Information Technology Jet liners today are actuallySlower than ones from the 80’sMore expensive to buildHigher total cost of ownershipComputer of today are1000 times faster than the ones from the 80’s1/4th the costCost less than the electricity to power them
73System Boundaries & Data Flow 1. Goal: Make a profit off the selling of music2. Stakeholder: Apple Corp.3. Information System Boundaries8. Control:New FeaturesPeople:CustomersMusiciansHardware:Media ServerUser devices7. Feedback:Usage ReportsSoftware:iTunesData:SongsAccount InfoProcedures:Buy songSell song4. Input:More musicians5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, organize musicians, promote6. Output: Electronic Funds
743. Information System Boundaries Lady Gaga Perspective1. Goal: Sell my music2. Stakeholder: Lady Gaga3. Information System Boundaries8. Control:promote new songPeople:CustomersAdminHardware:Media ServerUser devices7. Feedback: Top Selling SongsSoftware:iTunesData:SongsAccount InfoProcedures:Categorizesong4. Input:New songs5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote6. Output: Electronic Funds
75Dissatisfied Customer Perspective 1. Goal: Buy my favorite music2. Stakeholder: iTunes Customer3. Information System Boundaries7. Feedback: “AC/DC not found”8. Control:Pick a new songOr stop using iTunesPeople:Admin MusicianHardware:Media ServerUser devicesSoftware:iTunesData:SongsAccount InfoProcedures:Create new account4. Input:Song Selection5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote6. Output: A digital song
76Satisfied Customer Perspective 1. Goal: Buy my favorite music2. Stakeholder: iTunes Customer8. Control:Buy an iPod so I can enjoy Buckethead on the go3. Information System Boundaries7. Feedback: “Buckethead album on sale”People:Admin BucketheadHardware:Media ServerUser devicesSoftware:iTunesData:SongsAccount InfoProcedures:Create new account4. Input:Credit Card #Song Selection5. Processing: Charge customers, distribute songs, promote6. Output: A digital song
77Key Concept: Feedback is not output “you have $4.99 left on your gift card.”Consumers do NOT login to iTunes to find out how much money they have left on a gift card.They spend the gift card“County is not a valid category for your song.”Artists to NOT login to iTunes to figure out how to spell “Country.”These messages are forms of feedback, not output!
78FeedbackOutputVS.All feedback is a form of output because it comes out of the systemBut, feedback is specific output thathelps stakeholders use a systemtells owners if a system is workingis more directly connected to the goal or purpose of a system. If you want to buy a song from a system, the output is the song. What if the goal of a system is to generate a sales report?
79Great Examples Facebook Cash Register System Goal: In the 1980’s McDonalds wanted to track sales in real time so they invest in a computerized cash register system. Real time sales reporting will help them improve their supply chain. Sales Report Output or feedback?Goal: In 2008, McDonalds wanted to use social networking to distribute coupons to better promote its new menu items. Hopefully sales for the new items will improve once the coupons are on Facebook? Sales Report Output or feedback?
80Great Examples Blackboard Blackboard Goal: Professor wants to share grades with students. Problem: Students keep asking for their grades in class Investigation: Professor notices that students have never logged in. Solution: Professor shows students how to login. Student Login Report Output or feedback?Goal: Professor wants to track if students are clicking on the assigned case studies Input: Case Studies (Word Documents) Processing: Students login, navigate to case studies, click on document, Blackboard tracks the clicks. Student Click Report Output or feedback?
81Input vs. Control Input is what you put into the system. It is typically processed in some way, which directly or indirectly helps to produce output.You input fuel into a car and the car produces forward movementFrom Apple’s perspective, you put musicians and customers in iTunes and money comes out.Input is usually a noun: Fuel, a song, a grade, money, raw data, potatoes, a musician.Control is how you might change the systemControl is usually a verb.
82Examples of System Control Deep Fat Fryer: Raise the cooking temperatureFacebook: Restrict wall posting to only close friendsBlackboard: Show only my active coursesAssembly Line: Increase production by 20%iTunes: Block artists from uploading Microsoft file formatsFurnace: Limit the output to 71 degrees
83System Control Systems have variables that can be changed Variable: And parameters that cannot be changeVariable:Assembly line can be set to output between 0 and 20 cars per minuteOutput is set to 10Parameter:20 cars per minute is the maximum
84Critical Thinking Question Setting the thermostat to 68 degreesIs this an example of input, output, processing, control or feedback.
85Analysis Technique Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees First ask two questions:Who is the stakeholder?What is their goal?
86Analysis Technique Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees Who is the stakeholder? MeWhat is their goal? To keep the room temperature at 68 degrees
87Analysis Technique Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees “setting” is a verbCould be processing or controlControl can change/invoke processing but may not produce output.Processing directly leads to output.What if there is no fuel?What if the temp is already 68 degrees?“Burning fuel” is the process“Heat” is the output.
88Analysis Technique Setting the thermostat to 68 degrees “68 degrees” is a noun, a number, a temp valueCould be input, output, or feedback.Are you putting this value into the system our does the system spit out this number?Does this tell you if the system is meeting the goal?
89Special TopicHow are Information Systems used in throughout businesses?Are there different types or categories?
90Information Systems support all levels of a business’s hierarchy StrategicDecision MakingExecutive LevelTactical Decision MakingManagement LevelBusiness Processes Operations Level
91Information Systems Support all types of employees CEOPresidentStrategicDecision MakingExecutive LevelVP FinanceResearchDirectorDistrict ManagerTactical Decision MakingManagement LevelDeanProduction ManagerDesignerNight ManagerAccount SupervisorGraphic ArtistTeacherBusiness Processes Operations LevelAssembly Line WorkerCashier
92Abstract Thinking & Experimentation Be aware of your company’s goal in using Information SystemsDon’t mistaken your ignorance for a stupid system.Read the system’s instructions, help documents, and manual if available.And, use the web to find answersDon’t be afraid to experiment with systemsIf you fail, backtrack and try againTry to find the best process to achieve your goal.Don’t just settle on a process that works
93Computer Information Systems first supported the Management Level Early 1980’sStrategicDecision MakingExecutive LevelPaper ReportsSpreadsheet ProgramData ImportStore Information in Computer Files instead of Paper FilesRaw Data EntryBusiness Processes Operations Level
94Management demanded specialize systems and pushed data entry to Operational Level Late 80’sStrategicDecision MakingExecutive LevelPaper ReportsAccounting Information SystemElectronic ReportsRaw Data EntryData Entry System
95Each manager wanted their own custom system for their Functional Area Late 1980’s to early 90’sStrategicDecision MakingExecutive LevelFinancial Information SystemAccounting Information SystemProduction Information SystemAccount Data Entry SystemFinance Data Entry SystemInventory Data Entry SystemAssembly LineControl System
96Executives wanted integrated, real-time information (no more paper reports) Mid 1990’sExecutive Information SystemFinancial Information SystemAccounting Information SystemProduction Information SystemAccount Data Entry SystemFinance Data Entry SystemInventory Data Entry SystemAssembly LineControl System
97Functional SystemsIn in the early 1990’s, Information Systems were focused on the narrow needs of specific Functional AreasAccounting – Inventory ControlFinance – Investment ReportingOperations - Production ControlHuman Resources – Benefit ManagementMarketing – Sales Management
98Enterprise Systems Could Accounting and Finance use the same system? Executives notice thatfast, accurate information gave their company a strategic advantage.Money was being spent on very similar systems for each Functional AreaCould Accounting and Finance use the same system?Could all the systems be integrated?
99Studying SystemsLarge companies had so many information systems that you could actually study them like animals.Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, etc.Different familiesDifferent speciesThis is called a taxonomyhelps you understand similarity and differenceInformation Systems also have a taxonomy.
100Operations & Production Large companies replaced many “functional systems” with one large “enterprise system”Late 90’s and 2000’sExecutive PortalEnterpriseSystem(central database)HRReportsFinancial ReportsMarketingReportsAccountingReportsProduction ReportsData Entry FrameworkFinanceAccountingOperations & ProductionMarketingHR
102Enterprise Collaboration Systems CMCC ECSEnterprise Collaboration SystemsCompanies had many independent systems in different departments(Outlook Express)Scheduling (r25 system)Video & Teleconferencing (Cisco system)Companies now value having one unified systemOutlook ( , scheduling, task management)Lotus Notes (same)Google Apps
103CMCC Lab & Group Project What you needed to do in lab..Worklog complete and shared with meGoogle Calendar complete with your scheduleReoccuring group meeting (5 of you should be free)One meeting with me in March (2 of you should be free)About Us page on Google Site with links to each group member’s ePortfolio
104CMCC Post Lab! Ignore the Post-lab on Blackboard! Project Proposal We are doing a special post-labProject ProposalEach team member will list companies, technologies, and one idea.Due next Monday/TuesdayThen, meet with your team and agree on the “best” idea.Preliminary research and final “idea” are due by February 29th
105Taxonomy of SystemsLarge companies had so many information systems that you could actually study them like animals.Mammals, Birds, Reptiles, Fish, etc.Different familiesDifferent speciesThis is called a taxonomy and it helps you better understand the similarity and difference between animals.Information Systems also have a taxonomy.
106Classic Taxonomy of Information Systems All Information SystemsOperational Systems:Systems that Support OperationsManagement Systems:Systems that Support ManagementEISExecutive InformationSystemsDSSDecision SupportSystemsMISManagement InformationSystemsECSEnterprise CollaborationSystemsTPSTransaction ProcessingSystemsPCSProcess ControlSystems
107Functional vs. Enterprise An attribute of a system, not a category in taxonomy.Analogy: Some lizards are Herbivores, some Carnivore, and some Omnivores.Some DSS’s can be Functional, some Enterprise, and some Cross-Functional.FunctionalTailored to the goals of one functional business unit (Accounting, Marketing, HR, etc.)EnterpriseTailored to the goals of the entire company; typically used by all unitsCross-functionalTailored to two or more functional business units, but not all.
108Another Taxonomy All Information Systems Cross-Functional Systems: Two or more area, but not allEnterprise Systems:Integrates all functional areasFunctional Systems:Focused on one functional areaEISExecutive InformationSystemsECSEnterprise CollaborationSystemsMISManagement InformationSystemsDSSDecision SupportSystemsTPSTransaction ProcessingSystemsPCSProcess ControlSystems
109Transaction Processing System (TPS) Transaction Processing System (TPS)Helps to manage transactionsATM Machine SystemBanking TransactionsCash Register SystemPoint of Sale TransactionsAccounting System – Checking Account TransactionsEven Pay-per-view or OnDemand is a TPSWhat functional areas use TPS?Accounting, Finance, Operations, Marketing, Human Resources.
110Process Control Systems (PCS) Monitors and Controls Production Processes (duh)Often Industrial/Manufacturing ProcessesExamples:Petroleum RefiningPower GenerationAutomobile ManufacturingMaking French Fries
111Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS) Enterprise Collaboration Systems (ECS)Supports Operations (Surprised?)Teamwork, communication, and collaborationExamples:ChatVideo ConferencingCalendaringJournalingWorkflowFile Sharing
112Management Information System (MIS) Management Information System (MIS)Supports Management (duh?)Analysis & ReportingCharts, Graphs, Summary ToolsUsually connected to TPS and PCS systems.Examples:Banner – Manages College Information (Siena uses it)Spreadsheet (Excel) – One of the first and most basicNow considered a tool that is part of a systemOracle's Corporate Performance Management
113Decision Support System (DSS) What-if Analysis, Decision Modeling, Scenario Building, Highly interactive, ad hoc.Most DSS’s are custom developed for specific companies; very few out-of-the-box products.One Example:Enterprise Decision Manager 2.0 Fair Isaac Corporation
114Executive Information Systems (EIS) Executive Information Systems (EIS)Supports high-level strategic managementUses critical data from other systems (MIS and DSS).Portal Concept: one place with links to all informationEIS’s integrate external information such as economic developments and news about related markets and competitors. Helps strategic decision making, not just tactical.Tactical – doing things the right way rightStrategic – doing the right things
115Information Flow System Information Flow Executive Information SystemExecutivesEnterprise Collaboration SystemDSSManagersSystem Information FlowMISInformation Exchange/ CommunicationTPSPCSOperational Systems and Staff
116Information Flow Executives Enterprise Collaboration System Management ExecutivesEnterprise Collaboration SystemManagementExecutive Information SystemManagersDSSMISOperationsTPSPCSOperational Systems and Staff
117Processes vs. Transactions Are transactions a type of business process or are processes a type of business transaction?Do transactions involve processing?Do processes involve transactions?Confused?
118Example of a Business Process Toyota manufactures a Sienna Minivan
119Example of a Business Process Exxon-Mobile refines crude oil into gasoline
120Process Control Systems (PCS) PCS’s help tocontrol processes (duh!)automate processesspeed up processesmake processes more cost effectivegenerate feedback to better understand processes
121Business Processes involving Computers and Information Siena College registers students for classesTimes Union Center checks tickets at doorDoctor’s Office schedules patient visit
122The transaction component of information processing Siena College bills a student for classesTimes Union Center sells tickets to customersDoctor’s Office cashes check from patient
123Is this a process or a transaction? Lakisha says, “I want a Big Mac without Mayo!”Mason enters order into McDonald’s Point-of-Sale Terminal, which he thinks is a stupid system.Mason says, “duh, umm, that’ll be $3.75.”Lakisha hands Mason a $5 billMason hands Lakisha $1 and one quarter17 minutes later… Mason hands Lakisha an undercooked Big Mac with Mayo.
124Here is the real business process: Lakisha says, “I want a Big Mac! with no mayo” and Mason enters this order into an Information System and then goes back to picking his nose.2 minutes later… Aiden stops thinking about Madden 2012, reads the order monitor and places beef patty on grill. After undercooking the burger, he moves it to a processing area3 minutes later… Hailey stops texting, reads her order screen but ignores “no mayo.” She places burger on bun with lettuce, tomato, and lots of mayo, and moves it to a receiving area, but forgets to press the “order complete” button so no one knows its ready.12 minutes later… Lakisha says, “Where the **** is my Big Mac?” and Mason hands Lakisha a Big Mac with lots of mayo that is undercooked and has been in the receiving area for 12 minutes.
125Process vs. Transaction McDonald’s “makes” a hamburgerMcDonald’s takes customer’s money and gives customer a hamburger.
126Process vs. Transaction A ProcessA TransactionThe steps involved intransforming raw materials into a productproviding a serviceFYI: taking a customer’s money is not a serviceInformation Processing: Transforming Raw Data into useful InformationUsually involves two entitiescustomer and business (or C2C, B2B, etc)Things of value are exchangedmoney for a productmoney for a service
127Process vs. Transaction While a transaction is part of a bigger business process, the transaction does not produce the product or serviceExample: Handing a cashier money does NOT produce a hamburger.What are the key processes in making a hamburger?
128Process or transaction? Customer use a credit card to buy their 40 year old brother a $120 StarWars light-saber from Amazon.com.
129Process or transaction? Placing 10 lbs of sliced potatoes into a deep-fat fryer in order to cook French fries.
130Process or transaction? Time Warner mails a customer a cable TV bill
131Process or transaction? Toyota printing 1000 payroll checks for the assembly line workers at a plant in Ohio.
132Process or transaction? Siena department headsdevelop a schedule of classes andassign professors to teach the classes.Students register for classes.These processes were hell before information systems could help
133Process Control Systems (PCS) Information Systems that help control processes, not transactions.Is a cash register a PCS?
134What is a cash register these days? Functionality/CapabilitiesStore money in a drawerSwipe/read a credit cardConnect to VISA/MC/AEScan a product’s bar code to get priceCalculate the amount of changeThese capabilitiesHave nothing to do with making products or servicesHave everything to do with transaction of the product.
135Bored? Offended?The examples I’m giving you are intentionally simple to eliminate confusion.Soon we will look at very complex systems and you will be challenged.
136PCS + TPS + MIS is commonIBM sells McDonalds a system which combines aCash Register System (example of TPS) with anOrder Processing System (example of PCS).Together the TPS and PCS send data to aSupply Chain Management System (example of MIS)helps McDonalds streamline its distribution of raw materials (buns, burgers, potatoes).
137Critical Thinking Question Observation: The new deep fat fryer at McDonalds has a wireless network adapter.Question: Is this the stupidest thing you’ve ever heard of or what?Real Question: Why would you ever connect a deep fat frying to the Internet?
138Deep Fat Fryer as a Hardware Device Goals: Fresher fries, less wasteFryer as PCS Data SourceAmount of Fries cooked is input to other systemsHelps you determine when to change the fryer oil more consistentlyCompare to fries sold (from TPS) and you get feedbackIf fries sold << fries cooked then we are cooking too many fries.Fryer as a processing control deviceFryer tells you exactly how far to fill it.Instead of cooking fries on demand, you always cook fries, but vary the “load” based on historical sales (from TPS).
139Control vs. Processing revisited Comparing fries cooked to fries sold to calculate % waste is information processingCooking the fries is physical processing, not information processing.% waste is feedbackNot necessary to cook fries but indicates if you are meeting your goal.Looking at yesterdays data might not be enough to make good estimates.Changing the system so it looks at the average for all weekdays is information system control.Computing this average is information processing.
140Human ReactionImagine if you’ve been working at McDonalds for 10 years and now a device tells you exactly how many pounds of potatoes to put in the fryer.How might you react?How should you react?
141SummaryInformation Systems include IT (Hardware and Software) but also People, Data, and Procedures to follow.Understanding General System requires identifying 8 key components: Goals, Stakeholders, System Boundaries, Input, Processing, Output, Feedback, and Control.
142SummaryHistorically, system have been designed for the 5 core functional units of business.6 different types of systems emerged: PCS, TPS, ECS, MIS, DSS, and EIS.More recently, enterprise systems have been developed to integrate systems in all the units.
143Summary The output of one system could be the input to another. The output of one system could be feedback to another.Feedback is information that helps youImprove a systemChange a systemControl a system
144SummaryIf you clearly define a system’s goals, boundaries, and stakeholder than it is easier to separate input, processing, output, feedback and control.Just understanding the input and the output of a system is often enough to “figure it out” and “leverage it” to gain advantages.Leveraging system or designing good systems requires understanding good and bad systems.