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1. If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal.

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Presentation on theme: "1. If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal."— Presentation transcript:

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2 If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system Ardi Rizal 2 years old Musi Banyuasin, Indonesia May

3 If you get excited, the nervous system works with the circulatory system by increasing your heart rate. 3

4 AIDS destroys the Immune System As a result you may get: 1. pneumonia (respiratory ), 2.yeast infection (reproductive ), 3.Candida affecting esophagus (digestive) 4. Kaposi’s sarcoma (integumentary). 4

5 How does the body get the systems to work together? To answer this question, we need to recall the organizational structure of multicellular organisms. 5

6 Levels Of Organization ATOMS CELLS TISSUES ORGANS ORGAN SYSTEM ORGANISM 6

7 The Human Body has 4 Main Types of Tissues 7

8 A group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions. 8

9 A group of organs that work together to perform a single function. 9

10 There are 11 organ systems in the human body 1. Integumentary System 2. Skeletal System 3. Muscular System 4. Nervous System 5. Endocrine System 6. Cardiovascular System 7. Lymphatic & Immune System 8. Respiratory System 9. Digestive System 10. Urinary System 11. Reproductive System 10

11 Your skeleton has five major functions. It provides shape and support Enables you to move Protects your internal organs Produces blood cells Stores certain materials until your body needs them 11

12 Major Organs of the Skeletal System Bones Tendons connect bones to muscles. Ligaments connect bone to bone. Cartilage cushions places where bones connect and offers flexibility. 12

13 Your muscles control all movements of the body tissues, organs and bones. 13

14 Your body has three types of Muscle tissue. skeletal muscle smooth muscle cardiac muscle 14

15 The main functions is to transport Oxygen Nutrients Waste throughout the body 15

16 The main parts of the Circulatory System are: Heart Blood Vessels Blood 16

17 Your respiratory system moves oxygen from the outside environment into your body. It also removes carbon dioxide and water from your body. 17

18 Nose Mouth Trachea Lungs Diaphragm 18

19 The main functions of the digestive system Breaks down food into molecules the body can absorb. Passes these molecules into the blood to be carried throughout the body. Eliminates solid wastes from the body. 19

20 The Main Parts of the Digestive System are: 20

21 Your excretory system collects wastes produced by cells and removes these wastes from your body. The removal process is known as excretion. Each kidney is about 4 ½ inches long Weight is 4 – 6 ounces The urine output varies from 1 to 2 liters per day. 21

22 The Main Parts of the Excretory System 22

23 Your Skin has many important functions: Covers body and prevents water loss. Protects body from injury and infection. Helps regulate body temperature. Eliminate wastes Gathers information about the environment Produce vitamin D 23

24 Skin Hair Nails 24

25 It’s role is to protect you from foreign invaders. Special cells react to each kind of pathogen with defensive tactics targeted specifically at that type of pathogen. A pathogen is a bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease. 25

26 White blood cells that target specific pathogens are called lymphocytes. T-cells and B-cells are two major types of lymphocytes. Each type has a specific job. T- Cells B- Cells 26

27 Antibodies are special proteins that recognize and defeat invading pathogens. Antibodies are made by the B-cells. Once a pathogen is encountered by the B-cells it memorizes it and next time it encounters the pathogen it will have antibodies ready to fight the pathogen. 27

28 An antigen is any substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibody immune response. Antigens include:  Toxins  Bacteria  Foreign blood cells  Cells of transplanted organs. 28

29 Immunity is a state in which the body has sufficient defenses to fight infection, disease or invasion by pathogens. Non- Specific Immunity refers to the defenses that are in place at all times and are not specific to the pathogen to which the system is responding. Skin, mucous membranes, hairs in nose and ears, enzymes in mouth and tears in eyes. 29

30 Specific Immunity is a specific antibody response to the pathogen and has been acquired in one of several ways. Antibodies were transferred from mother to fetus across the placenta. Antibodies were transferred through breast milk from mother to child. Antibodies were built up due to prior exposure to the pathogen. Antibodies were be built up through a vaccination process. 30

31 Most vaccines contain a little bit of a disease germ that is weak or dead. Vaccines do NOT contain the type of germ that makes you sick. Having this little bit of the germ inside your body makes your body's immune system build antibodies to it. Vaccines can be administered by a needle, mouth and some thorough a nasal spray. In the US children are vaccinated before they can enter school for: Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, and Tetanus 31

32 The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections. It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces certain white blood cells and generates antibodies 32

33 It is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph — a clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances — throughout the body. It works closely with the immune system and the circulatory system. The Spleen stores many of the white blood cells needed for the immune response. 33

34 Regents Practice Question A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus (2) an increase in milk production in the mother (3) gamete production to increase (4) an infection in the fetus 34

35 Regents Practice Question A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause (1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus (2) an increase in milk production in the mother (3) gamete production to increase (4) an infection in the fetus 35

36 Regents Practice Question It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce (1) antigens to fight the flu virus (2) antibodies against the flu virus (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus 36

37 Regents Practice Question It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce (1) antigens to fight the flu virus (2) antibodies against the flu virus (3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus (4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus 37

38 1. The endocrine system is a collection of ductless glands that secrete special proteins called hormones. 2. The glands release the hormones into the bloodstream and they travel to the target cells or organs. 3. The main function of the endocrine system is to maintain a stable environment within the body or homeostasis. 4. The hormones also help the body to regulate:  Growth  Sexual development  Metabolism  Sugar, salt and fluid levels in the blood 38

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40 40 GlandHormone ProducedEffects HypothalamusAntidiuretic hormoneActs on the kidney to regulate fluid balance Pituitary9 different hormonesGrowth and regulates other glands ThyroidThyroxineMetabolism PancreasInsulin & glucagonBlood sugar AdrenalEpinephrineHeart rate & blood pressure TestesTestosteroneSperm & male characteristics OvariesEstrogen & progesteroneEggs & female characteristics

41 The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is received by other cells. If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target cells will (1) produce their own chemical messages (2) not respond with appropriate actions (3) develop different receptors (4) no longer be produced in the organism 41

42 The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is received by other cells. If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target cells will (1) produce their own chemical messages (2) not respond with appropriate actions (3) develop different receptors (4) no longer be produced in the organism 42

43 Feedback Mechanisms  Homeostasis is maintained by the endocrine system through the use of various feedback mechanisms.  A feedback mechanism is in use when the biological reaction is actually being controlled by the end products of that reaction.  Negative feedback loop are most common. original stimulus reversed most feedback systems in the body are negative used for conditions that need frequent adjustment 43

44 Receptor Structures that monitor a controlled condition and detect changes Control center determines next action Effector receives directions from the control center produces a response that restores the controlled condition 44

45 Thermostat detects a temperature lower than the desired value. Thermostat detects a temperature higher than the desired value. Furnace Turns On Furnace Turns Off 45

46 Brain senses a drop in body temperature Brain detects increase in body temperature Impulses sent to muscles to begin shivering Impulses sent to muscles to stop shivering 46

47 47 Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram Which title would be appropriate for the diagram? (1)Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels

48 48 Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram Which title would be appropriate for the diagram? (1)Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels

49 49 1.What happens to a person’s blood glucose level after eating? 2.What 2 hormones does the pancreas secrete? 3.Which hormone lowers glucose levels? 4. Which hormone raises glucose levels?

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54 Osteoporosis is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to break. If not prevented or if left untreated, osteoporosis can progress painlessly until a bone breaks. 54


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