Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/27-08-2013 NAIROBI.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/27-08-2013 NAIROBI."— Presentation transcript:

1 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

2 ► History ► Scope ► Objectives and covered risks ► Safety general principles ► Terminology ► The circuits ► Grade of Insulation ► Quantification of insulation ► Heating ► Resistance to fire ► Fault conditions ► Television receivers ► Philosophy of CEI

3 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

4 IEC 60065:1952 (ed 1.0) Safety requirements for electric mains operated radio receiving apparatus IEC 60950:1986 (ed 1.0) Safety of information technology equipment including electrical business equipment IEC 60065:1965 (ed 2.0) Safety requirements for mains operated electronic and related equipment for domestic and similar general use IEC 60950:1991 (ed 2.0) + A1: A2: A3: A4:1996 GUIDE IEC 112:1998 (ed 1.0) by ACOS Guide on the safety of multimedia equipment ACOS = Advisory Committee On Safety IEC 60065:1998 (ed 6.0) Audio, video and similar electronic apparatus – Safety requirements

5 IEC 60065:2001 (ed 7.0) Audio, video and similar electronic apparatus – Safety requirements TC92 IEC :2001 (ed 3) Information technology equipment – Safety – Part 1: General requirements TC Evolution of apparatus functionalities High density of electronic components ==> Increase and mixing of functionalities IEC 60065:2001 +A1:2005 TC108 IEC :2005 TC108 CEI :2010 TC108 TC 108 = (TC92 + TC 74)

6 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

7 Electronics apparatus for » reception, generation, recording » Record and reproduction of audio, video and associated signals » Combination of the above apparatus Household and similar general use Places of public assembly » School, theatres, » Workplace

8 Supplied by: » Mains » External power supply module » Battery » Remote power feeding At a rated voltage of » 250 V (single phase) or » 433 V (other than single phase) May be connected to telecommunication network or Cable distribution network of antenna signal

9 Sound and /or image receiver and amplifier (radio, television set, Citizen Band radio etc..) ; Supply apparatus intended to supply other apparatus in this standard scope; Audio and/or video educational apparatus (record player, tape reader, tape walkman and video player, etc..) ; Multimedia apparatus; Beamer; Video recorder and associated monitors (camera, camcorder, etc..) ; Electronic gaming and scoring machines; Juke boxes;

10 Electronic light effect apparatus; cable head-end receivers; Antenna signal converters and amplifiers; Antenna positioners; Alarm systems apparatus; Record and optical disc players; Professional sound/video systems; Electronic flash apparatus for photographic purposes; Etc…

11 Film, slide and overhead projectors » IEC gaming and scoring machines for commercial use » IEC

12 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

13 Standard requirements allow A protection against: Hazardous current through human body (electrical choc) Excessive temperature value Fire ignition and propagation Mechanical instability Injury from mechanical parts Hazardous radiations Implosion and explosion effects Design of a reliable apparatus

14 Current flow through human body Observed physiological effects depend on: » Intensity of the current  Applied voltage and frequency  Body impedance (contact surface, humidity) » Duration of the passage » Current path in the body

15 High intensity : directs effects » Burning » Ventricular fibrillation Low intensity : involuntary reaction » Downfall » Injury » Etc.…

16 Direct contact in normal condition » Parts at hazardous voltage Insulation failure; in fault condition » Rupture of the electric envelope » Contact current

17 Short-circuit between high current energy source connectors » Arcing » Emission of molten metal » Burning Possible risks with low voltage circuits » Battery

18 Excessive heating » In normal use » In single fault situation Overload, Insulation failure Ignition, fire » Releasing of connection » Inflammation of liquid

19 Instability » On inclined plane » In full deployment situation Sharp edges and corners Moving parts Projection of particles » Implosion of cathode ray tube (CRT) » Explosion of battery

20 Radiations Lasers and LED Sound frequencies Radio frequencies

21 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

22 Safety integration Remove or lower the risk at the design phase Protect for risks which cannot be removed at the design phase Inform the user about the residual risks Marking/Training Goal: cancel all risk during the foreseeable life time of the apparatus : transportation, installation, usage, shutdown and disposal

23 Avoid risks  in normal operation conditions  but also:  In fault condition  In foreseeable unexpected usage  Under external environmental influences (temperature, humidity, altitude, pollution, overvoltage etc…) Avoid risks  in normal operation conditions  but also:  In fault condition  In foreseeable unexpected usage  Under external environmental influences (temperature, humidity, altitude, pollution, overvoltage etc…)

24  Choose material and components in such a way that they can:  Operate without being hazard source, during the apparatus life time  Be compatible with the other components  Operate correctly in their ratings  Avoid hazard in single fault condition  Choose material and components in such a way that they can:  Operate without being hazard source, during the apparatus life time  Be compatible with the other components  Operate correctly in their ratings  Avoid hazard in single fault condition

25 Identify type of circuits in the apparatus (Primary, Secondary, Low voltage, Extra-low voltage, Safety Extra low voltage, current limited, Telecommunication network voltage, cable distribution of antenna signal). Determine insulation between: - circuits taken by pairs, - each circuit and accessible part (basic, supplementary, double, reinforced) Verify conformity to standard requirements (creepage distance, clearance, solid insulation, dielectric strength )

26 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

27 Mains » power source with voltage > 35 V (peak) a.c. or d.c. Rated voltage; rated current consumption; rated power consumption; rated frequency; » Values in normal operating condition » Expected to be marked on the apparatus » As an alternative, rated current consumption and rated power consumption may be given in the instruction manual. » “/” for user selectable ratings (120/240 V) » “-” for rating range ( V) Tolerance = +10%, -10%

28 Class I » Basic insulation + earth connection of conductive accessible parts Class II » Double insulation or reinforced insulation Class III: Not defined in IEC Defined in IEC and CEI » Apparatus supplied by a SELV circuit or Energy Source class 1 (ES1) and » No internal hazardous voltage or Energy Source class 3 (ES3)

29 Direct connection to the mains Conductive connection to the mains Permanently connected apparatus » Needs a tool » Cannot be loosened by hand Remote power feeding » supply of power to apparatus via a cable network (e.g.: Telecommunication) Apparatus ≥ 0,7 mA Mains 2000 Ω Apparatus ≥ 9 A Mains fuse

30 Pluggable equipment Type A » connection to a mains supply via a non-industrial plug and socket-outlet or a non-industrial appliance coupler, or both Pluggable equipment Type B » connection to a mains supply via a industrial plug and socket-outlet or an appliance coupler, or both, complying with IEC Protective earthing terminal » TERMINAL to which parts are connected and which is required to be connected to earth for safety reasons

31 Enclosure » housing affording the type and degree of protection suitable for the intended application Safeguard against the spread of fire from inside to outside of the product Safeguard against mechanically-caused injury Safeguard against electrically-caused injury Minimize the spread of fire or flames from within Reduce the risk of injury due to mechanical and other physical hazards Limit access to parts that may be at hazardous voltage or Hazardous energy level Fire enclosure Mechanical enclosure Electrical enclosure

32 The enclosure may be only for one protection The same enclosure can provide all the three protections. Decorative enclosure » Is outside the mechanical enclosure of the apparatus » Has no safeguard function

33 Noise signal » random signal having normal probability distribution of instantaneous values. Pink noise » Energy per unit bandwidth inverse, proportional to frequency Rated load impedance » Output circuit load specified by the manufacturer (4 Ω, 2x8 Ω, 32 Ω etc..)

34 Source transducer » Convert the energy of a non electrical signal to electrical energy Load transducer » convert the energy of an electrical signal into another form of energy Non-clipped output power » 1000 Hz sine-wave power dissipated at the onset of clipping on either one, or both peaks.

35 Pollution degree 1 » No pollution or dry pollution, non-conductive, Pollution degree 2 » Normal, non-conductive, possibility of temporary conductivity due to condensation Pollution degree 3 » Conductive pollution area, or non-conductive pollution which could become conductive due » to expected condensation

36 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

37 Primary Secondary Hazardous live voltage Hazardous energy Low Voltage  Extra Low Voltage  Safety Extra Low Voltage Limited current Telecommunication network Cable distribution network

38 Primary circuit: conductively connected to the mains; may content the following components: » Cables » Primary winding of transformer » Filters components (mainly for EMC reasons) » Motors » Relay » Fan » Fuse » Etc.… Secondary circuit: not conductively connected to the mains » Separated from primary circuit » Supplied by isolation means: transformer, converter etc…

39 Hazardous live voltage » > 35 V peak or 60 V d.c. » > 120 V rms for professional audio apparatus signal » > 71 V rms. for non professional audio apparatus signal Hazardous energy » Stored charge > 45 µC for charging voltage U: 60 V < U ≤ 15kV peak or d.c. » For charging voltage U > 15 kV peak or d.c., then discharged energy > 350 mJ Extra Low Voltage (ELV) » ≤ 35 V peak or ≤ 60 V d.c. in normal condition » Hazardous voltage in single fault condition

40 Safety Extra Low Voltage (SELV) » ≤ 35 V peak or ≤ 60 V d.c. in normal condition » ≤ 70 V peak or ≤ 120 V d.c. in single fault condition » Separated from hazardous voltage by 3 methods M1: double insulation or reinforced insulation M2: basic insulation with screen connected to the earth M3: basic insulation with secondary circuit connected to the earth » Separated from TNV2 and TNV3 circuit by basic insulation

41 Current limited circuits: by construction, the current never become dangerous, regardless the voltage level. » IEC 60065: current (using measuring network), between  any part of the circuit and accessible part (Touch Current) » IEC : current (measured through non inductive 2000 Ohms load or using measuring network) between:  any two parts of the circuit,  any part of the circuit and earth  any part of the circuit and accessible part

42 Current limited circuits: measuring network Current limits and measured values in normal conditions  0,7 mA peak for sinusoidal or mixed signals U 2 = 0,35 V peak a.c.  2 mA d.c. U 1 = 1 V d.c.  70 mA peak for frequency >100kHz U 1 = 35 V peak a.c. ! Under tropical climate, current limits are multiplied by 2

43 Current limited circuits measuring network Current limits and measured values under single fault  2,8 mA peak for sinusoidal or mixed signals U 2 = 1,4 V peak a.c.  8 mA d.c. U 1 = 4 V d.c.  140 mA peak for frequency >100kHz U 1 = 70 V peak a.c.

44 Leakage current: equivalent to « Touch Current » in the protective earthing connection

45 Telecommunication network » Metallic wire ended transmission means for communication between two apparatus » May be submitted to atmospheric overvoltage Telecommunication Network Voltage circuit (TNV) » Located inside the apparatus » Not conductively connected to the mains » Has limited accessible surface » Voltage level limited in normal and in single fault conditions » 4 types: TNV0, TNV1, TNV2 et TNV3

46 TNV0 and TNV1 limits same SELV SELV < (TNV2 and or TNV3) < TNV limits TNV limits

47 Summary table for TNV circuits

48 PABX digital TNV-0 PABX Analogic interface TNV-2 TNV-1 TNV-3

49 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

50 Insulation » Conceptual separation between two circuits or between a circuit and an accessible part. » Basic, supplementary, double or reinforced (electrical choc protection). » Functional Special case of functional insulation » Not provides protection against electrical choc » Can be used to lower ignition risk (between SELV and protective Earth) » Can be used for EMC reasons (Electro-Magnetic Compatibility )

51 Insulation F B S D R E (earth) Level of protection

52 PRINCIPLE: always 2 levels of protection = Basic + Supplementary = Basic + Earth connection = Double = Reinforced Suitable protection against electrical choc

53 Outlet Data output connector: RS Mains connection Primary SELV Hazardous voltage TNV SELV Telecommunication lines Current limited DRDR B B B B ou S S/R F Metallic enclosure connected to earth Example

54 + 5 V 120 V a.c V d.c; 1 mA + 18 V 85 V Exercise (To find circuit type and insulation grade) Connection to the mains Metallic enclosure

55 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

56 Creepage distance (CR) » Shortest distance between two conductive parts, measured on the surface of the insulating material Clearance (CL) » Shortest distance between two conductive parts, measured in the air See Annex E of IEC 60065:2011 for all possible situations

57 Distance through the isolation » Thickness of solid insulation Insulation resistance » Measurement on any insulation type Dielectric strength » On any insulation type » On thin sheet materials » May be required in addition to CR and CL. » On any insulation as validation test after environmental treatment (heating, cooling, humidity, vibration, choc etc…)

58 Creepage distance Tables 8, 9, 10 et 12 » Supply voltage » Pollution degree » Grade of insulation » Working voltage » Overvoltage category » Material group and comparative tracking index Clearance: Tables 11 et 12 » Supply voltage » Pollution degree » Grade of insulation » Overvoltage category » Working voltage

59 Distance through insulation: §8.8 » Grade of insulation Insulation resistance: Table 5 » Grade of insulation Dielectric strength: Table 5 » Supply voltage » Working voltage » Grade of insulation

60 Working voltage: Maximum voltage value between 2 circuits separated by an insulation (expressed in rms, peak or d.c.) » Value including non-periodic superimposed pulses with a half-value time longer than 50 ns » Unearthed accessible conductive parts shall be assumed to be connected to an earth terminal » Floating circuit assumed to be connected to an earth terminal at the point which results in the highest working voltage being obtained; » Double insulation: short-circuit across on of the insulation when measuring the second one and vice versa.

61 Working voltage: » Between two transformer windings: TS = highest voltage between any two ends of the windings » Between transformer winding and other parts of the apparatus: TS = highest voltage between any end of the winding and the other part

62 Overvoltage category: Define the level of overvoltage on the mains according to 4 identified areas IV: Outdoor power lines and cables III: Building installation II: Equipments, apparatus I: parts of apparatus connected to secondary circuit IVIIIIII

63 Table from IEC

64 Material group: characterisation of resistance against spread of arching on insulation material surface » CTI = Comparative Tracking Index » 4 groups  I 600 ≤ CTI  II400 ≤ CTI < 600  IIIa175 ≤ CTI< 400  IIIb100 ≤ CTI < 175 » If CTI not known, group IIIb is used.

65 Thin sheet material : no insulation thickness required if: » Basic and supplementary insulation  2 layers of sheet material, each withstand the dielectric strength test  3 layers of sheet material with any 2 by 2 combination withstand the dielectric strength test » Reinforced insulation  2 layers of sheet material withstand the dielectric strength test  3 layers of sheet material with any 2 by 2 combination withstand the dielectric strength test

66 Thin sheet material : Dielectric strength test instrument

67 Printed board » CR and CL between 2 conductors, one may be conductively connected to the mains : Figure 10 d d lacquer = ignored » type B coated printed board (type 2) shall comply with the requirements of IEC

68 Jointed insulation » Uncemented joints: normal CR et CL » Cemented joints : no CR et CL; but  3 samples submitted to 10 times the following thermal cycling test 68 h at (X ± 2)°C 1 h at (25 ± 2)°C 2 h at (0 ± 2)°C 1 h at (25 ± 2)°C  1 sample submitted to dielectric strength with test level x 1,6 and after humidity treatment  2 samples submitted to dielectric strength with test level x 1,6 without humidity treatment  No insulation breakdown X= (Max temperature max during heating test + 10K), with minimum 85°C

69 Enclosed and sealed parts (§13.7) » Not directly connected to the mains » CR and CL in Table 12  3 samples submitted to 10 times thermal cycling test 68 h at (X ± 2)°C 1 h at (25 ± 2)°C 2 h at (0 ± 2)°C 1 h at (25 ± 2)°C X= (Max temperature max during heating test + 10K), with minimum 85°C  Dielectric strength test  No failure allowed.

70 Enclosed, filled and sealed parts (§13.8) Insulating compound fills all internal void spaces » No CR and CL; but » 3 samples submitted to 10 times thermal cycling test as above. » Dielectric strength test » After test, visual verification:  no cracks in the encapsulating, impregnating or other material,  coatings not loosened or shrunk  no significant voids in the material after sectioning the component

71 Insulation resistance » Measured with 500 V d.c. Dielectric strength » Direct current voltage or alternative current voltage at mains frequency » The measurement equipment shall be able to source 200mA when its output is short-circuited » Internal overcurrent limited to 100 mA during test » Application of half of the maximum test voltage, increase quickly the voltage level to the maximum value and maintain it for 1 minute.

72

73

74 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

75 Test conditions » Maximum load configuration » Apparatus positioned in accordance with the instructions for use » If position not specified, 5 cm behind the front edge of an open-fronted wooden test box with 1 cm free space along the sides and top and 5 cm depth behind the apparatus » Apparatus supplied at maximum ranges of rated supply voltages with tolerance values added » Measurement after thermal stability (in general after 4 hours of operating) » Test environment air shall be quiet and not ventilated

76 Measurement method » By thermocouples (refer to IECEE document reference CTL-OP 108) » By resistor variation  Motor  Transformer  Inductance  Not used for switching mode power supply transformer

77 Permissible temperature rise: tableau 3 Maximum values in single fault condition Permissible value can be exceeded in the following situations: » Short-circuit of insulation which withstand dielectric strength test » Short-circuit or disconnection of a component in conformity of requirements of the standard clause 14

78 Maximum values in single fault condition Permissible value can be exceeded in the following situation: » operation of replaceable or resettable protective devices t Heating test t 1 min Measurement of dielectric strength 2 min °C Permissible Temperature rise Heating test

79 Maximum values in single fault condition Permissible values can be exceeded: » on printed circuit board: by 100K for 5min » for class V-0 printed circuit board on one or more small surfaces with total value no more than 2 mm 2 in case of no electrical choc. Conductors can be interrupted, peeled or loosened during the test providing that: » The printed board is classified V-0 » The interruption is not a potential fire source » CL and Cr are not reduced » Protective earthing connection is maintained

80 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

81 Objective: Prevent » Ignition (Potential ignition source : V > 50 V d.c. or peak and P > 15 VA) » Spread of fire Solutions » Good design practice in order to prevent potential ignition sources  Thermal cut-out  Electronic circuit for protection (IC current limiter) » Choice of appropriate components  Flammability categories as per IEC  Their position in the apparatus » Implementation of fire enclosure

82 Flammability categories » From HB, outer decorative part, to 5V metallic enclosure » Wood and wood-based material of thickness > 6 mm ===  V-1 HB V-2 V-1 V-0 5V

83 No Flammability class required Ventilation opening < 1 mm Envelop > V-0 -components -Metallic parts < 4g Capacitors volume < 1750 mm 3 Printed board V-1 Small electrical components

84

85

86 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

87 Implementation conditions » Apparatus in normal working situation » Only one single fault each time » Multiple faults can result from the applied single fault » Possibility of non operation of the apparatus after the fault test

88 Which fault to simulate? » Open and short-circuit » Overload of the output of linear or switch mode power supply transformer » Continuous dissipation of apparatus designed for non- continuous dissipation » Excessive dissipation of integrated circuit » Isolation breakdown between primary circuit and any accessible parts:  conductive accessible parts  earthed metallic screen  SELV  Limited current circuit

89 Which fault to simulate? » Unexpected impedance value loaded on power output terminal » Short-circuit of protection components (thermostats, temperature limiter) or of component bridging these protections if the apparatus is used without surveillance » Opening of component in regulation circuit loop » Overload of motors (blocked rotor) » neutralisation des timers » simulation of cooling liquid leakage

90 Evaluation during fault conditions » No excessive heating » No hazardous voltage or energy on accessible parts » No loosening of protective earth connection » Moving parts shall not become dangerous » In case of ignition, no spread of fire outside of the enclosure (flame shall stop in less than 10 s)

91 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

92 Surge test (§10.1) » Between :  TERMINALS for the connection of antenna AND  MAINS supply TERMINALS » Between  MAINS supply TERMINALS AND  any other TERMINAL of apparatus providing supply to antenna apparatus » 50 discharges at a maximum rate of 12/min, from a capacitor of 1 nF charged to 10 kV (tested apparatus is not supplied) » Expected result: dielectric strength test OK

93 Surge test (§10.1) Test circuit

94 Surge test (§10.1) Example of switch S

95 Antenna coaxial sockets (§12.5) » 3 tests in the following order:  Endurance: 100 insertion and withdrawal  Impact: 3 spring-operated hammer impact of 0,5 J  Torque: 10 times 50 N force applied during 10 s » Followed by a dielectric strength test » No damage in the sense of this standard:  No access to hazardous voltage  No damage to any isolation

96 Antenna coaxial sockets Test plug for endurance test and its dimensions

97 Mechanical strength of picture tubes (§18) » Protective film required if maximum face dimension > 16 cm » Intrinsically protected tubes: IEC tested » No Intrinsically protected tubes : implosion test  Scratch on the side or on the face of the tube  Repeatedly cooling with liquid nitrogen (-273°C + 77 K = -196 °C) up to fracture » Expected result:  No particle exceeding 2 g shall have passed a 25 cm high barrier, placed 50 cm from the tube  No particle, regardless its size, shall have passed a similar barrier at 2 m.

98 Mechanical strength of glass (§19.5) » Excluded: picture tubes; laminated glass with surface area > 0,1 m 2 or major dimension > 450 mm » Test: 3 shocks of 0,5 J using impact hammer » If the glass breaks or cracks: fragmentation test § » Expected result:  number of particles counted in a square of 50 mm > 45  or no loose of particles in the square (particles are kept together)

99

100

101

102

103 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI

104 Three block model for pain and injury Energy source Energy transfer Body part 1- Pain, injury or property damage occurs during transfer of energy from an energy source to a body part or to property 2- Safety = interposition of safeguard in order to reduce the likelihood of the transfer of the energy and/or the hazard level PRINCIPLE

105 Energy source Safeguard Body Energy source Safeguard Fuel material Three blocks model for safety Models for protection against fire Energy source Safeguard Fuel material

106 Equipment safeguard » basic » supplementary » double » reinforced Installation safeguard » supplementary Specified by the manufacturer Implementation not controlled by the manufacturer Personal safeguard » basic » supplementary » reinforced

107 Instructional safeguards » basic » supplementary » reinforced Precautionary safeguard » for class 2 Energy Source » provided by skilled person to instructed person training experiences supervision Skilled safeguards » for class 2 and class 3 Energy Source » supplementary » related to skilled person

108 Identify and classify the Energy Source for each type of hazard (SE1, SE2, SE3). Require the appropriate Protection for each Energy Source (basic, supplementary, double, reinforced) Verify conformity to standard requirement

109 IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/ NAIROBI


Download ppt "IEC SYSTEM OF CONFORMITY ASSESSMENT SCHEMES FOR ELECTROTECHNICAL EQUIPMENT AND COMPONENTS Jean LANZO Certification Officer AFSEC 26/27-08-2013 NAIROBI."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google