Presentation on theme: "Efficiency, Buildings, and Green Design Kevin Schwartzenberg June 2014."— Presentation transcript:
Efficiency, Buildings, and Green Design Kevin Schwartzenberg June 2014
What is Energy Efficiency? “A measure of the amount of energy required to produce a product or provide a service” -Amount of natural gas to keep a house heated to a given temperature -Amount of gasoline to drive a given distance -Amount of electricity to produce a given amount of aluminum
Energy Conservation Energy Conservation: reducing the amount of energy used Energy Conservation Energy Efficiency Reduced Consumption To lower the amount of energy used, we can either a)use less products and services b)increase the efficiency of providing those products and services
Distinction from Classical Efficiency Typically, we talk about efficiency in terms of energy conversion efficiency -Amount of mechanical energy from an engine produced by a given amount of chemical energy from gasoline -Amount of electrical energy from a solar panel produced by a given amount of incident solar energy from the sun Improving conversion efficiency is one way to improve energy efficiency… …but there are other ways -Reducing weight -Increasing or decreasing resistance to heat transfer -Manufacturing process improvements
The “First” Fuel Two March 2014 studies on the cost of electricity saved by efficiency programs
LBNL also looked at the cost of natural gas efficiency savings The “First” Fuel Average cost of natural gas in Chicago for December 2014
Which technological developments do you expect to have the most impact in your power market?
Buildings 36% of total energy use in US 65% of total electricity use in US 30% of GHG emissions, waste streams, raw material use 12% of water consumption
Energy Use: Residential Buildings Source: DOE Buildings Energy Data Book
Energy Use: Commercial Buildings Source: DOE Buildings Energy Data Book
Residential Building Efficiency Energy Efficient Illinois
Electrochromic Smart Windows Electrochromic – changes color in response to current flow Can allow visible light through while reflecting near infrared radiation (heat)
Conventional (Tank Storage) Hot Water Heater Characteristics affecting efficiency: Tank insulating material Heating element/ combustion efficiency
Efficient Hot Water Heater Designs Tankless (Demand)SolarHeat Pump Uses heating element to heat water on demand Eliminates losses due to standby heating Pumps water through loop from tank to collector and back Reduces fuel use by utilizing solar radiation Pulls hot air from surroundings into heater Reduces electricity use by utilizing hot air (e.g. furnace room)
LEED Buildings Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design Green building program that provides a framework for implementing practical solutions for green building design, construction, operations, and maintenance. Source: USGBC
LEED New Building Rating System Sustainable sites Water efficiency Energy & atmosphere Materials & resources Indoor environmental quality Category 26 10 35 14 15 100 Points Possible Activity Points Possible Optimize energy consumption over baseline building Generate renewable energy on site Use enhanced commissioning process Enhanced refrigerant management Create measurement and verification plan Purchase 35% electricity from green sources Water efficiency Energy & atmosphere Materials & resources Indoor environmental quality 19 7 2 3 2 Total
LEED Certification Levels (Out of 100 points) LEED Building Benefits: Lower operational costs Higher lease-up rates Better work environment (higher productivity) Reflects company values Source: USGBC
LEED ND Primary focus on location and land use Looks beyond individual buildings Different credit categories Source: USGBC
Hierarchy of Efficiency DevicesBehaviors Data & Controls Efficient Systems
Heirarchy of Efficiency DevicesBehaviors Data & Controls Efficient Systems
Improving Efficiency of Devices Efficiency standards New technologies Market Forces
Household Devices Steady incremental improvement with occasional step changes ODYSSEE, Enerdata, October 2010 update.
Behavior Case Study: Thermostats Heat loss (gain) is proportional to the difference between inside and outside temperature. Small changes in thermostat setpoint can have large effects on energy use. Setback schedules can also capture savings Source: City of Edmond, OK
Source: Michael Blasknik via EnergyVanguard.com Thermostat Setbacks
Energy efficient behaviors are slow to catch on “The programmable thermostat is the VCR of our day.” - Deirdre Sullivan, for HouseLogic.com LBNL survey found 90% of respondents have rarely or never programmed their thermostat because they don’t know how.
What is Green Design? “A product design philosophy that treats environmental impacts as design objectives rather than as constraints” In other words, it seeks to minimize any of the following impacts of the product: Common air pollutants GHG emissions Lead Eutrophication Water use/consumption Solid waste generation Land use
Principles of Green Design 1.Inherent Rather Than Circumstantial 2.Prevention Instead of Treatment 3.Design for Separation 4.Maximize Efficiency 5.Output-Pulled Versus Input- Pushed 6.Conserve Complexity 7.Durability Rather Than Immortality 8.Meet Need, Minimize Excess 9.Minimize Material Diversity 10.Integrate Material and Energy Flows 11.Design for Commercial "Afterlife" 12.Renewable Rather Than Depleting * Anastas, P.T., and Zimmerman, J.B., "Design through the Twelve Principles of Green Engineering", Env. Sci. and Tech., 37, 5, 94A-101A, 2003.
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The most valuable tool for green design! Raw Material Acquisition Material Processing Manufacturing Use Disposal or Recycling Energy Materials Emissions Waste Co-products Adapted from Masanet
System Diagram - Bread Flour Milling Wheat Farming Fertilizer Production Baking Other Ingredient Production Packaging Material Production On-site Storage Energy Flour Emissions Disposal Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions Wheat Fertilizer Bread Use System Boundary Transportation Functional Unit: 1 kg of bread
Economic Input/Output LCA EIO LCA takes an aggregate approach Basic assumption: To produce $1 of goods in a given sector of the economy, it will require $X i of goods or services from each sector of the economy, i. (The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis prepares this data every few years) Steel Petroleum Refining Vehicle Manufacturing Thus, if we want to understand the impact of producing $100,000 of vehicles, we can determine the $ amount of steel, petroleum, etc that is required.
EIO LCA Environmental Factors Advantages of EIO methodology Don’t need to draw a boundary Less expensive to carry out Can be completed more quickly Final Step: Calculate the direct environmental impact for a given amount of sector demand Example: $1 of steel = 0.1 tons of CO 2 e $1 of refined petroleum = 0.3 tons of CO 2 e $1 of vehicles = 0.02 tons of CO 2 e Add up impacts based on the economic outputs of each sector for total impact