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Efficiency, Buildings, and Green Design Kevin Schwartzenberg June 2014.

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Presentation on theme: "Efficiency, Buildings, and Green Design Kevin Schwartzenberg June 2014."— Presentation transcript:

1 Efficiency, Buildings, and Green Design Kevin Schwartzenberg June 2014

2 What is Energy Efficiency? “A measure of the amount of energy required to produce a product or provide a service” -Amount of natural gas to keep a house heated to a given temperature -Amount of gasoline to drive a given distance -Amount of electricity to produce a given amount of aluminum

3 Energy Conservation Energy Conservation: reducing the amount of energy used Energy Conservation Energy Efficiency Reduced Consumption To lower the amount of energy used, we can either a)use less products and services b)increase the efficiency of providing those products and services

4 Distinction from Classical Efficiency Typically, we talk about efficiency in terms of energy conversion efficiency -Amount of mechanical energy from an engine produced by a given amount of chemical energy from gasoline -Amount of electrical energy from a solar panel produced by a given amount of incident solar energy from the sun Improving conversion efficiency is one way to improve energy efficiency… …but there are other ways -Reducing weight -Increasing or decreasing resistance to heat transfer -Manufacturing process improvements

5 The “First” Fuel Two March 2014 studies on the cost of electricity saved by efficiency programs

6 LBNL also looked at the cost of natural gas efficiency savings The “First” Fuel Average cost of natural gas in Chicago for December 2014

7 Which technological developments do you expect to have the most impact in your power market?

8 Buildings 36% of total energy use in US 65% of total electricity use in US 30% of GHG emissions, waste streams, raw material use 12% of water consumption

9 Energy Use: Residential Buildings Source: DOE Buildings Energy Data Book

10 Energy Use: Commercial Buildings Source: DOE Buildings Energy Data Book

11 Residential Building Efficiency Energy Efficient Illinois

12 Blower Door Test Source: DOE

13 Identification of Leaks Smoke Test IR Camera Survey

14 Blower Door Test Heat Recovery Ventilation System

15 Typical Findings Thermal Resistance, R Overall Heat Transfer Coefficient

16 Windows Efficient Windows Collaborative


18 Source: FujiFilm Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance

19 Low e window coating detail

20 Electrochromic Smart Windows Electrochromic – changes color in response to current flow Can allow visible light through while reflecting near infrared radiation (heat)

21 Conventional (Tank Storage) Hot Water Heater Characteristics affecting efficiency: Tank insulating material Heating element/ combustion efficiency

22 Efficient Hot Water Heater Designs Tankless (Demand)SolarHeat Pump Uses heating element to heat water on demand Eliminates losses due to standby heating Pumps water through loop from tank to collector and back Reduces fuel use by utilizing solar radiation Pulls hot air from surroundings into heater Reduces electricity use by utilizing hot air (e.g. furnace room)

23 Passive Solar Heating

24 LEED Buildings Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design  Green building program that provides a framework for implementing practical solutions for green building design, construction, operations, and maintenance. Source: USGBC

25 LEED New Building Rating System Sustainable sites Water efficiency Energy & atmosphere Materials & resources Indoor environmental quality Category Points Possible Activity Points Possible Optimize energy consumption over baseline building Generate renewable energy on site Use enhanced commissioning process Enhanced refrigerant management Create measurement and verification plan Purchase 35% electricity from green sources Water efficiency Energy & atmosphere Materials & resources Indoor environmental quality Total

26 LEED Certification Levels (Out of 100 points) LEED Building Benefits: Lower operational costs Higher lease-up rates Better work environment (higher productivity) Reflects company values Source: USGBC

27 LEED ND Primary focus on location and land use Looks beyond individual buildings Different credit categories Source: USGBC

28 Hierarchy of Efficiency DevicesBehaviors Data & Controls Efficient Systems

29 Heirarchy of Efficiency DevicesBehaviors Data & Controls Efficient Systems

30 Improving Efficiency of Devices Efficiency standards New technologies Market Forces

31 Household Devices Steady incremental improvement with occasional step changes ODYSSEE, Enerdata, October 2010 update.

32 Home Appliances

33 Lighting Source: The Climate Group

34 Case Study: Refrigerators


36 Efficient Devices can have a big impact

37 Consumer/Operator behaviors matter too However…

38 Approximately 1 million LED christmas lights

39 Behavior Case Study: Thermostats Heat loss (gain) is proportional to the difference between inside and outside temperature. Small changes in thermostat setpoint can have large effects on energy use. Setback schedules can also capture savings Source: City of Edmond, OK

40 Source: Michael Blasknik via Thermostat Setbacks

41 Energy efficient behaviors are slow to catch on “The programmable thermostat is the VCR of our day.” - Deirdre Sullivan, for LBNL survey found 90% of respondents have rarely or never programmed their thermostat because they don’t know how.

42 One Solution: Automation!

43 Automation: Nest Thermostat Remote control via app Learns your patterns Results – 11% reduction in AC energy cost in Southern CA study

44 Auto Schedule Auto Away

45 More & Better Data Meter data resolution up 6 orders of magnitude Access to data easier than ever 1 data point per 30 days 1 data point per second vs

46 Analysis of 1Hz Smart Meter Data

47 Framing the message:Benchmarking

48 Framing the Message: Results

49 Framing the Message: The Call to Action vs

50 What is Green Design? “A product design philosophy that treats environmental impacts as design objectives rather than as constraints” In other words, it seeks to minimize any of the following impacts of the product: Common air pollutants GHG emissions Lead Eutrophication Water use/consumption Solid waste generation Land use

51 Principles of Green Design 1.Inherent Rather Than Circumstantial 2.Prevention Instead of Treatment 3.Design for Separation 4.Maximize Efficiency 5.Output-Pulled Versus Input- Pushed 6.Conserve Complexity 7.Durability Rather Than Immortality 8.Meet Need, Minimize Excess 9.Minimize Material Diversity 10.Integrate Material and Energy Flows 11.Design for Commercial "Afterlife" 12.Renewable Rather Than Depleting * Anastas, P.T., and Zimmerman, J.B., "Design through the Twelve Principles of Green Engineering", Env. Sci. and Tech., 37, 5, 94A-101A, 2003.

52 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) The most valuable tool for green design! Raw Material Acquisition Material Processing Manufacturing Use Disposal or Recycling Energy Materials Emissions Waste Co-products Adapted from Masanet

53 System Diagram - Bread Flour Milling Wheat Farming Fertilizer Production Baking Other Ingredient Production Packaging Material Production On-site Storage Energy Flour Emissions Disposal Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions/Waste Energy Emissions Wheat Fertilizer Bread Use System Boundary Transportation Functional Unit: 1 kg of bread

54 Life Cycle Inventory

55 Economic Input/Output LCA EIO LCA takes an aggregate approach Basic assumption: To produce $1 of goods in a given sector of the economy, it will require $X i of goods or services from each sector of the economy, i. (The U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis prepares this data every few years) Steel Petroleum Refining Vehicle Manufacturing Thus, if we want to understand the impact of producing $100,000 of vehicles, we can determine the $ amount of steel, petroleum, etc that is required.

56 EIO LCA Environmental Factors Advantages of EIO methodology Don’t need to draw a boundary Less expensive to carry out Can be completed more quickly Final Step: Calculate the direct environmental impact for a given amount of sector demand Example: $1 of steel = 0.1 tons of CO 2 e $1 of refined petroleum = 0.3 tons of CO 2 e $1 of vehicles = 0.02 tons of CO 2 e  Add up impacts based on the economic outputs of each sector for total impact

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