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Energy Envirothon Learning Objective 1. Energy Capacity to do work Never created or destroyed First law of thermodynamics Referred to as Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "Energy Envirothon Learning Objective 1. Energy Capacity to do work Never created or destroyed First law of thermodynamics Referred to as Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Energy Envirothon Learning Objective 1

2 Energy Capacity to do work Never created or destroyed First law of thermodynamics Referred to as Conservation of Energy in the scientific community

3 Joule: the SI unit of work. The energy required to move 1 Newton 1 meter (F*d) Calorie: amount of heat energy required to increase temp of 1 gram of water 1°C (4.187j) British Thermal Unit (Btu): amount of heat energy required to increase temp of 1 lb of water 1°F (1054j) Kilowatt-hour (kWh): the common unit of electricity usage. Energy required to run 100 watt lightbulb for 10 hours. (3.6Mj) Common Units of Measurement

4 World Energy Demand total world primary energy demand grew by 54% Electricity is projected to almost double from 2004 to 2030 (  2.6% per year) –Two billion people have no access to electricity –UN predicts world population growth from 6.4 billion in 2004 to 8.1 billion by 2030

5 United States Population, Energy Production, and Energy Uses Number of People Year Energy (Q) Q=quadrillion BTU Energy Information Administration

6 Sources of Energy Non renewable –Fossil fuels Coal, gas, and oil Nuclear –Splitting atom nucleus in two parts Renewable Energy –Hydropower, biomass and biofuels, wind, solar, geothermal

7 United States Production, Imports, and Consumption of Energy Energy Information Administration

8 Michigan Energy Usage Stats

9 Problems with Energy Sources Fossil Fuels (http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/fossilfuels.htm) –Extensive formation time –Pollution –Efficiency Nuclear (http://www.umich.edu/~gs265/society/nuclear.htm) –Safety –Radioactive waste –Nuclear weapons

10 Problems with Energy Sources Hydropower –Damming of rivers –Churn up sediments –Increase water temp and decrease oxygen (behind dam) Biofuels –Increase in corn prices, dairy, etc –Currently relies heavily on government subsidies –Energy return on energy investment Wind –Flyways –Habitat fragmentation –Aesthetics

11 Problems with Energy Sources Solar power –Solar panel cost and fragility –Single panels are not efficient, need multiple panels Geothermal (internal heat of earth) –Many located in scenic, wild, and protected places –Many sites available are already in use

12 Energy Conservation Changing What You Use –Walk, ride a bicycle, or use mass transit instead of driving –Install compact fluorescent light bulbs –Air-dry your clothes on a laundry line instead of using a clothes dryer. –Install a programmable thermostat that automatically adjusts the temperature when you are in bed or away. –Buy energy-efficient appliances

13 Energy Conservation Changing What You Do –Set the thermostat to 68 °F in winter when you're home and down to 55° F when you go to bed or are away –Insulate the ceiling, walls, and floor of your home –Plant a tree next to a window for shade to reduce the need for air conditioning –Recycle items such as newspaper, aluminum cans, and plastic bottles –Wash clothes in cold water and only in full loads –Use energy-saving settings on washing machines, dishwashers, and clothes dryers

14 Energy Conservation Improving Your Housekeeping –Turn down the water heater thermostat to 120° F –Turn off lights when leaving a room –Close heating vents and close doors to unused rooms –Close drapes and windows during sunny summer days and after sunset in cooler weather –Stop air leaks around windows and doors with caulk or weather stripping. –Clean or change air filters on your air heating system in the winter and on air conditioning units in the summer so that they work more efficiently

15 Transportation Requirements Transportation now consumes more than 20% of the world's total primary energy and produces much of the world's air pollution In just 30 years, the number of cars in the world will soar from today's 400 million or so, to more than one billion Private transportation will then need 2-1/2 times more energy and produce 2-1/2 times more air pollution If global trends are projected to year 2100, the world will need 10 times more total energy, and transportation will consume 40% of this much larger pool In developed countries, passenger travel accounts for about 70% of the total energy consumed by transportation. The automobile is responsible for nearly 90% of the energy consumed for travel in the U.S., about 80% in Western Europe, and nearly 60% in Japan

16 Long Distance Transportation US Transportation Statistics Long-distance of more than 50 miles from home. > ½ long-distance trips are taken for pleasure, < 1/5 trips is for business

17 Vehicle Trends If driving habits remain unchanged, cars will have to become nearly three times more energy-efficient by 2030 just to maintain that sector's present consumption If energy use trends are projected to year 2100, transportation would then have to be twenty times more energy-efficient (400 mpg) By year 2010, –India is expected to have 36 times more cars than in –China will have 91 times more cars –Mexico will have 2-1/2 times more cars –Eastern Europe and the countries of the former U.S.S.R. will probably double their automobile population –The rest of the developing world will experience a 300% increase over the same period – the number of cars in the U.S., Canada, Western Europe, and Japan will have grown by only 12%-15%

18 Vehicle Emissions and Efficiency Motor vehicle emissions –30%-50% of hydrocarbon –80%-90% of carbon monoxide –40%-60% of nitrogen oxide emissions –Cars and light trucks are responsible for about 20% of the nation's carbon dioxide –developing countries will be emitting 16.6 billion tons of carbon dioxide annually by year 2025 (4x as much as developed nations) Today, automobiles operate at approximately 15% efficiency it may be possible to double automobile energy efficiency to about 30% before we run out of ideas

19 Fuel Alternatives Electric cars –produce significantly fewer harmful emissions, – save about 10% to 30% in primary energy (over the entire energy chain) Advanced fuel cell vehicles using methanol – 2-1/2 times more efficient than today's cars

20 Wind power potential in US


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