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How is your body like a machine?

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Presentation on theme: "How is your body like a machine?"— Presentation transcript:

1 How is your body like a machine?
Body Systems How is your body like a machine?

2 Let’s think back…. Why do all the body systems work together?
See if the students know the answer…You may point out a few systems and see if they know the major functions of them.

3 To maintain homeostasis!
Review homeostasis - maintaining an internal balance in living organisms. All body systems must work together for this to happen.

4 SKELETAL SYSTEM What are the functions? -movement -structural support
-produces red and white blood cells -movement -structural support -provide minerals What other systems are involved? You have to click to bring in each text box. Ask the function question first, see what responses you get. Red and white blood cells are found in the marrow. Movement is done with muscles. Our skeleton is internal. Are all “skeletons” internal? Other system involved – muscular (movement), immune (red and white blood cells), -muscular -immune

5 MUSCULAR SYSTEM What are the functions?
-movement (body parts, digestion, circulation) What other systems does it involve? You might ask them again what organic compound you find in large amounts in muscles. – protein Other systems involved – skeletal (movement), digestive (movement of food), circulatory (moving oxygen to muscles) -Skeletal -Nervous -Digestive -Circulatory

The names of the muscle types come in individually when you hit return. Go through with the students how to identify the different types. (Ex: skeletal is striated and multi-nucleated) SKELETAL SMOOTH CARDIAC

7 How do you bend your elbow?
To what are muscles attached? The bicep muscle contracts, causing the elbow to bend. The tricep muscle contracts, causing the elbow to straighten. Muscles are attached to bone by ligaments. Show where the bicep and tricep muscles are in an arm. This works similar to a simple machine – lever. This works similar to what simple machine?

8 LYMPHATIC SYSTEM What are the functions? protect body from disease
contains white blood cells, antibodies and lymph Do not need to go into much detail here – will do that during microorganism unit.

9 INTEGUMENTARY SYSTEM Function System Protection/Barrier Immune
Protect Against Dehydration Excretory Cutaneous Sensation Nervous Each function comes in individually when you hit return. This slide correlates with a question on the Scavenger Hunt/Making Bodies. This is showing how the functions of the integumentary correlate with other systems. Regulate Body Temp Excretory Excrete Sweat, Gases Excretory

10 Integumentary Parts of the integumentary system. Each part comes in individually when you hit return.

11 How does skin vary in different organisms?
Skin variations – hair, fur, scales, thick, thin, moist, dry Ask the skin type of each of each organism. How is their structure related to their function?

12 NERVOUS SYSTEM What are the functions?
Respond to internal and external stimuli How does the nervous system work? Arrows on diagram show the direction of a nerve impulse being transmitted What other systems are involved? all

13 The Brain Medulla oblongata Brain Stem Cerebrum Hypothalamus
Parts of the brain. Discuss functions. Hypothalamus Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Brain Stem

14 EXCRETORY What are the functions? Detoxifies blood
Urea, water, salts, excess glucose, excess protein, CO2 What other systems are involved? What substance is made from detoxified blood? Circulatory Endocrine Nervous

15 Excretory Kidney Ureter Bladder Urethra Blood Urine
The arrows follow the path of blood through the kidneys, then urine. Bladder Urethra

16 REPRODUCTIVE What are the functions? What other systems are involved?
produce gametes produce hormones secondary sex characteristics What other systems are involved? Keep the discussion of the parts of this system to a minimum – ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, testes. Endocrine

17 Reproductive Vagina Penis Ovary Fallopian Tube Uterus Testes
Parts of the reproductive system. Discuss the hormones that are produced. Testes Penis

18 ENDOCRINE What are the functions? -produce hormones
-deliver chemical messages through the body What other systems are involved? Discuss the generalized function of the endocrine system, not specifics. nervous circulatory

19 Endocrine Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Pancreas Ovary Testes
On each gland, or part of the brain, discuss in general what it does. Review fight-or-flight and diabetes (on Scavenger Hunt/Making Bodies) Testes

20 CIRCULATORY What are the functions?
transport: -gases -fluids -waste products -nutrients -hormones What other systems are involved? Do not need to know the pathway of blood through the heart. Need to know the function of gas exchange. Excretory Respiratory Endocrine

21 Circulatory Capillary Aorta (Artery) Heart Vein
Parts of the circulatory system. Discuss the difference between arteries of veins, only referring to gases. Discuss function of capillaries. Vein

22 RESPIRATORY What are the functions?
-exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the blood, air and tissues What other systems are involved? Relate circulatory to respiratory system. Circulatory

23 Respiratory Where does gas exchange take place? Alveoli Trachea
Bronchi/ Bronchioles Lungs Parts of the respiratory system. Discuss surface area of alveoli during gas exchange. Diaphragm

24 DIGESTIVE What are the functions?
to break down food into smaller particles with the help of enzymes so it can be absorbed and used by cells. What other systems are involved? Discuss the function of the system. Circulatory Nervous

25 Digestive Salivary Glands Mouth Esophagus Stomach Liver Pancreas
Parts of the digestive system. Include peristalsis here. Liver Pancreas Small Intestine Large Intestine Rectum

26 Digestive What substances help break down the food that you eat?
ENZYMES Compound Enzyme Monomer Starch Amylase Monosaccharide Fatty Acids/ Glycerol Lipids Bile/Lipase Discussion of enzymes. Proteins Protease Amino Acids

27 Digestive Follow the path of food during digestion.
Where is food mechanically digested? Chemically digested? Go through the pathway of food. Enter to show each arrow.

28 What do we call the maintenance of an internal environment?
Homeostasis As the question and see if they can come up with homeostasis. Remember, we briefly went over homeostasis in several other units so this should be a review.

29 4 Major Themes in Maintaining Balance
These 4 major themes are interrelated to help your body maintain homeostasis: Feedback loops Structure and function Division of labor Interdependence of organ systems These are the 4 main concepts that will be studied in this powerpoint. All of these things help your body maintain homeostasis.

30 Feedback Loops Room temperature falls Thermostat activates heater
Thermostat shuts off heater Warm air is produced Thermostat feedback loop Tell the students to see how close they came. Explain that this is a loop that continues to happen whenever the temperature goes up or down from the set temperature. Room temperature rises

31 Feedback Loops What happens to your body when you run outside in 100o temperature? Again, let them discuss this at their desk. Tell them to think about the responses their body would have to being very hot. Then go to the next slide for the answer.

32 Feedback Loops How does this happen? This is a stimulus-response
Sensors in the brain and skin detect a change in body temperature Hormone message sent Blood vessels in skin dilate Sweat glands release more sweat response Click to add each box. Ask the students how this is similar to the thermostat. Your body must keep its temperature in a normal range. You have an internal thermostat that does this – your brain. Body temperature regulates

33 Feedback Loops So….What are some of the things that feedback regulates? Feedback systems regulate: Blood sugar (glucose) Salt content in blood Hormone production Blood pressure Ion content in blood Water content in blood This is a list of some of the things feedback loops control. They should not be tested on this.

34 Structure and Function
How is the structure of your thumb related to its function? Talk about how an opposable thumb has a structure that aids in the function of your hand.

35 Structure and Function
TRY THIS! Put a rubber band around your hand so that the thumb cannot be used. Pick up your textbook and hand it to the student next to you. Now - pick up a penny without going to the edge of the desk or putting the penny up against something. This slide and the next have 4 examples of students using their hand without the use of their thumb. You can go in and change these to things you have available.

36 Structure and Function
What is the function of plant leaves? Maple leaf Conifer Get responses to the first question before moving on to the second question. The function of a leaf is to do photosynthesis and it must collect energy. The maple leaf is flat and thin because it has a supply of water so it does not need to conserve water. The cactus leaf is thick to conserve water because its environment is dry.The conifer leaf is dense because it lives in a colder environment and this helps it conserve water. They are needle shaped to help them shed water efficiently so they do not get a lot of frozen water on them to weigh them down. The point of this slide is to show that even though the function of each leaf is the same, its structure matches the environment they live in. Again, show surface area as a part of structure and function. Why are these leaves shaped differently? Cactus

37 Structure and Function
Fish – Queen snapper Mammal - dolphin The dolphin and the fish are unrelated organisms. Why do they have similar structures? html These two unrelated organisms have the same basic structure because they live in the same basic environment. Their bodies function in a similar manner.

38 Division of Labor How many people does it take to build a building?
Ask the question. Let them tell you all the people they think ae necessary to build a building.

39 Division of Labor You would need: Architect Construction workers
Foreman Plumbers Electricians Painters Why do you need all of these people? This is a list of some of the people needed to build a building. Ask why you need all of these people. The idea is to get the students to tell you that each person has a special job. You would not want the painter to put in the electricity. The building would not be built properly if only one of these people is missing.

40 Division of Labor Why do you need so many different parts to digest your food? Let them give responses. See if they know what some of the parts of the digestive system specialize in.

41 Division of Labor Your body systems are divided into different parts.
Each part has its own special function. This is called a Division of Labor. Summarize division of labor. You can go back over the digestion example.

42 Interdependence of Body Systems
All the body systems work together to maintain homeostasis.

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