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Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 11 The Psychology.

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Presentation on theme: "Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 11 The Psychology."— Presentation transcript:

1 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 1 © Imran Hussain | UMT Imran Hussain University of Management and Technology (UMT) Lecture 11 The Psychology of Actions Virtual University Human-Computer Interaction

2 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 2 © Imran Hussain | UMT In the Last Lecture Learning Thinking –Reasoning –Problem-solving Skill acquisition

3 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 3 © Imran Hussain | UMT Computer + Press Key += Key CHAOS!

4 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 4 © Imran Hussain | UMT London Stock Exchange London, 1986 Inexperienced operator presses wrong key Chaos at stock exchange Systems staff work throughout night at stockbrokers Greenwell Montagu

5 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 5 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture Falsely Blaming Mental Models –How mental models are formed? –Examples –Applying mental model –Mental model development –Mental model perception Blaming the Wrong Cause Reasons for self-blaming

6 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 6 © Imran Hussain | UMT In Today’s Lecture Nature of Goals Structure of Actions –Cycle of action –Stages of execution –Stages of evaluation –7 Stages of an Action Errors Emotions

7 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 7 © Imran Hussain | UMT Falsely Blaming the User A person kept making mistakes when using a computer Investigation showed others had same problem User Designer Why did you make that error? Didn’t you read the manual? My fault

8 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 8 © Imran Hussain | UMT People are Explanatory Creatures Interact with world Human tendency to form explanations

9 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 9 © Imran Hussain | UMT Mental Model Human (uses) understanding (conceptual model) of the way –Objects work –Events take place –People behave Object User Designer Uses object Design object Design Perceive Conceptual Model Mental Model

10 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 10 © Imran Hussain | UMT Defining Mental Models Human (uses) understanding (conceptual model) of the way –Objects work –Events take place –People behave Models people have of themselves, others, environment and things they interact with Theories people have to explain what they have observed Internal constructions (in the human mind) of some aspect of the external world Knowledge of: –Learning how to use a system –Learning how the system works

11 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 11 © Imran Hussain | UMT How Are Mental Models Formed? Mental model of a device is formed by interpreting perceived actions and visible structure

12 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 12 © Imran Hussain | UMT Manipulating Mental Models How do things work ? develop Core set of abstractionsEveryday Objects apply These could be correct or erroneous

13 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 13 © Imran Hussain | UMT Manipulating Mental Models Mental models are manipulated –Enabling prediction –Making inferences possible –This process is called ”fleshing out” or “running ” of the mental model Can involve both unconscious and conscious mental model

14 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 14 © Imran Hussain | UMT How Are Faulty Mental Models Formed? Object Fragmentary Evidence (incomplete info) Poor Understanding Naïve Psychology Causes Mechanisms Relationships Mental Model Faulty

15 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 15 © Imran Hussain | UMT Effect of Faulty Mental Models Faulty Mental Model Frustration If design of an object does not give information (external info) about how it works

16 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 16 © Imran Hussain | UMT Effect of Faulty Mental Models Computer screen freezes  bash keyboard TV not working  bang TV top

17 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 17 © Imran Hussain | UMT Mental Model - Examples Thermostat used to control temperature (oven, room, AC) Folk (name) theories about thermostat –Timer theory Thermostat controls relative properties of time that device stays on. Setting –Midway : device is on about half rime –All way : device is on full time –Valve theory Thermostat controls how much heat or cold comes out of device Setting –Midway : half cooling –All way : full cooling Reality about thermostat –Thermostat is On-Off switch

18 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 18 © Imran Hussain | UMT Mental Model - Examples Electricity and electrical appliances TV Car brakes Spreadsheet –User : sheet that scrolls with cells containing information –Reality : data structure of values, with pointers between them, from which the program synthesizes a new image to display in real-time Screen is the heart of computer (not CPU) –Perception by normal user

19 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 19 © Imran Hussain | UMT Evolution of Mental Models More greater use of system, the more their mental model develops Example: TV –Engineers Mental model : “deep” So they can fix –Average citizen’s mental model : “shallow ” So they cannot fix, only use

20 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 20 © Imran Hussain | UMT Mental Models and Perception Action (A) Result (R) Causal Relationship (does not exist!) perform see Perceive

21 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 21 © Imran Hussain | UMT Mental Models and Perception - Example Connect to internet to see website ‘x’ [Action] Suddenly computer goes dead [Result] Perceive: ActionResult

22 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 22 © Imran Hussain | UMT Using a Complex Device How am I stupid! La..La..!!

23 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 23 © Imran Hussain | UMT Using a Complex Device How am I stupid How am I stupid !

24 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 24 © Imran Hussain | UMT Blaming the Wrong Cause When things go wrong –Own misfortuneEnvironment –Other’s misfortunePersonalities When things go right –Own fortuneOneself –Other’s fortuneEnvironment blame Credit

25 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 25 © Imran Hussain | UMT Reasons for Self-blame Learned Helplessness –Failure to perform a task numerous times feeling of helplessness Depression Taught Helplessness –Lack of understanding at one stage hinders progress at another stage Fail at A task Blame Self Believe can’t do Some task next Time round Do not Try Self –fulfilling prophecy

26 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 26 © Imran Hussain | UMT Nature of Human Thought and Explanation Not easy to see where blame should be placed –3-Mile Island Accident –Lockheed L-1011 Flight

27 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 27 © Imran Hussain | UMT 3-Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Control Panel Push button Valve Nuclear Core 28 March 1979, Pennsylvania, USA

28 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 28 © Imran Hussain | UMT 3-Mile Island Nuclear Power Plant Normal State Button (Not Pushed) Valve Open Excess water escapes From nuclear core Action State Button Pushed Valve Closes Excess water escapes From nuclear core Accident Button Pushed Valve Open Excess water escapes From nuclear core Button light (OFF) Button light (ON) Button light (ON) Operator knew that Valve was leaky but Thought it wouldn’t affect main operation

29 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 29 © Imran Hussain | UMT Lockheed L-1011 Flight Miami, FloridaNassau, Bahamas 110 miles

30 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 30 © Imran Hussain | UMT Lockheed L-1011 Flight Engine 1Engine 2Engine 3 Low oil pressure light Engine turned off Pilot 8 minute later Oil Pressure = 0 Oil Quantity = 0 Pilots concluded = Not likely that all 3 should fail

31 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 31 © Imran Hussain | UMT Nature of Goals For everyday life, goal and intentions are not well-specified: Opportunistic vs. Planned Shop Friend Library Visit a website Using a software feature

32 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 32 © Imran Hussain | UMT Structure of an Action Action Goal ExecuteEvaluate (Vague) (Use Intentions - specific)

33 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 33 © Imran Hussain | UMT Structure of an Action Example –Nighttime sitting in chair, reading a book. Need light Goal Intention Get more Light translate Push switch button to ON lamp (Some thing to be achieved) (Specific action taken to get the goal) Move Body Stretch Extend finger translate

34 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 34 © Imran Hussain | UMT Action Cycle Goals Execution Evaluation THE WORLD What we do to The world Comparing what Happened with what We wanted to happen What we want to happen

35 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 35 © Imran Hussain | UMT Stages of Execution Goals An intention to act So as to achieve the goal The actual sequence of actions That we plan to do The physical execution of That action sequence THE WORLD

36 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 36 © Imran Hussain | UMT Stages of Evaluation Goals Evaluation of the interpretations With what we expected to happen Interpreting the perception according to our expectations Perceiving the state of the world THE WORLD

37 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 37 © Imran Hussain | UMT 7 Stages of Action Goals Intention to act sequence of actions execution of The action sequence THE WORLD Evaluation of the Interpretations Interpreting the perception Perceiving the state of the world

38 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 38 © Imran Hussain | UMT “To Err is Human”

39 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 39 © Imran Hussain | UMT Errors People routinely make mistakes –E.g., corrections made during conversation –Devices do not have tolerance for things that go wrong –Push the wrong button chaos

40 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 40 © Imran Hussain | UMT Errors Developers should design for errors –Must assume errors will occur –Minimize errors –Errors should be easy to detect –Effects of errors should be minimal –Effects of errors should be reversible

41 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 41 © Imran Hussain | UMT Errors SlipsMistakes Automatic behavior Conscious deliberations

42 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 42 © Imran Hussain | UMT Errors are Based On Goals Correct Goal Slip (easy to discover) Wrong Execution (due to lack of attention) Incorrect Goal Mistake (harder to discover) Wrong/Right Execution

43 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 43 © Imran Hussain | UMT Errors are Based On Goals Most everyday errors are slips Study of slips –Study of the psychology of everyday errors –“Psychopathology of everyday life” – Freud –Example You went to fetch a book, but fetched a pen instead Slips show up in skilled behavior We can do more than one thing if we do them automatically

44 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 44 © Imran Hussain | UMT Precise Behavior from Imprecise Knowledge Differentiating between coins

45 Virtual University - Human Computer Interaction 45 © Imran Hussain | UMT Word of Advice Don’t press the wrong key!


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