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Family Theories Advanced Family Relations October 31, 2000.

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Presentation on theme: "Family Theories Advanced Family Relations October 31, 2000."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Family Theories Advanced Family Relations October 31, 2000

3 Introduction Family Systems Theory is rather new! FST has three levels of analysis –Micro-environment (physical & social) –Macro-Environmental or Societal Systems (economic, socio-cultural, technological, & political – Macro-Environmental #2 or Natural/Structured (physical, human made, or biological)

4 Series of Interrelations between the personal system, family system, and the societal system All systems have two way interactions Political to family system Economic to family system Technological to family system Socio-cultural to family system All have goals or expectations to be fulfilled All have resources or support to be given

5 Each Individual Has Their Own Personal System Input into the Personal Systems includes both Demands and Resources  Demands are both External and Internal  Resources are both External and Internal  External  Family support, social support, Income & net worth are indirect  Family values, goals, claims, social norms, life events  Internal  Personal capabilities, qualities, life experiences, relationships  Personal Goal Orientations

6 Throughput in Personal Systems Developmental System Developing all of the personal capacities Cognitive Emotional Social Physical Spiritual Values System Evolving Values Intrinsic (Internally directed) vs. Extrinsic (Externally directed)

7 Outputs from Personal System Demand Responses Values/Goal Orientations Personality Dispositions Resource Changes Personal capacities/ qualities (Income and Net Worth)

8 Negative Feedback Loop Comparator Unit Thermostat Fuel Pump Furnace Building Indoor Temperature FEEDBACK

9 Another View of Throughput (Transformation) in the Family System Planning Implementing Controlling Communicating Sequencing Facilitating Using of Resources

10 Personal Systems Are Dynamic They are always relating to the environment They are generally influenced by feedback A crazy person is an individual who keeps doing the same thing every time and expects different results!

11 Self-Actualization Esteem Social Acceptance & Love Safety Basic or Physiological Needs

12 4 Types of Needs Physical -- to sustain life Social needs -- to enrich life Wealth needs -- goods & property Information needs -- to gain knowledge and explore the world

13 Content of the Family System is Similar to the Personal System The fundamental difference is the interaction between the different personal and managerial systems of those that compose a unique family. It is through the interpersonal communication that the difference in the individual systems are determined, affirmed or not allowed based on differences in power, authority, and responsibility.

14 All Family Systems Have: Boundaries Rules Communication Patterns Expectations of behavior Produce Self-Esteem Issues Have Feedback Systems Carry a History See a Future

15 The Intra-system Dynamics of each Family Is Related to Changes in: Functionality Cohesion Adaptability

16 V. Satir--Many Family Systems Inform People By Scripting Them: 4 Basic Types Placater: so others do not become mad or upset Blamer: so that other people will regard you as strong Computer: so you deal with threats as though they are harmless or unemotional Distracter: you ignore the threat by behaving as if it were not there.

17 People Become These Scripted Roles The Placater –Words -- agree (Whatever?) –Body language-- placates (I am helpless.) –Insides--”I feel like nothing, without him/her I am nothing. I am worthless! The Blamer Words -- disagree. (You never do anything right!) Body language-- constantly blaming (I am the boss around here.) Insides--(I am lonely and unsuccessful.

18 People Become These Scripted Roles The Computer Words: Ultra- reasonable. Body language: placates (I am helpless.) Insides: ”I feel like nothing, without him/her I am nothing. I am worthless!” The Distracter: Words: Irrelevant (they make no sense) Body language: angular and off somewhere else Insides (“Nobody cares. There is no place for me.”)

19 6 Steps in the Systems Management Process Identify the problem, need, want or goal Clarify Values Identify Resources Decide, plan, and Implement Accomplish Goals & Evaluate Feedback to the system (what worked--what did not work)

20 Characteristics of Open, Ongoing Systems 1. Conceptualized as a set of patterned, interactive processes 2. The processes have qualities that are emergent rather than summative 3. The processes have regularities that permit rules to be inferred

21 Characteristics of Open, Ongoing Systems 4. Rules are hierarchically structured 5. Rules include well-developed sets of guidelines for maintaining & regulating relationships among their component elements 6. Rules also include well-developed sets of guidelines for maintaining & regulating relationships between the system & its environment

22 Profile of a Dysfunctional Family System 1. A system in delusion & denial 2. Idealization of parents-fantasy bond 3. Control madness 4. Intergenerational Alliances 5. Approval must be earned 6. Rigid roles 7. Closed system

23 Profile of a Dysfunctional Family System 8. Rigid family boundary 9. Secrets - no talk rule 10. Compulsive/addictive 11. Perfectionist 12. Frozen feelings 13. Shaming/blaming 14. Punishing/permissive

24 Profile of a Dysfunctional Family System 15. Unhealthy competition 16. Roles assigned by system (each individual exists for family needs - no choice) 17. Rigid or enmeshed ego boundaries, cultural/boundaries, intra-family boundaries 18. Disabled will-loss of freedom

25 Characteristics of Successful Families Accord –Relationships promote conflict resolution –Most important early in the family life cycle when couples first get together and the child bearing years Celebrations –Acknowledging special events –Important across the life span

26 Characteristics of Successful Families Communication –Exchange information, share beliefs & feelings, demonstrate love & affections to create and maintain intimate relationships –Always important Financial Management –Develop decision-making skills in use of money –Most important through children’s teen years

27 Characteristics of Successful Families Hardiness –Emphasizes family members’ sense of control over their lives, commitment, & confidence of survival –Important across life span Health –The physical & psychological well-being of family members reduces stress & increases family health –Especially important at beginning & end of family life cycle

28 Family Systems Theory Wholeness Family Rules Boundaries Hierarchy Homeostasis Feedback Loops Circular Causality Equifinality Triangles Individuality

29 Family Systems Theory Definitions I Wholeness - the entity is greater than the sum of independent parts Family Rules - may be either overt, covert, or meta in nature Boundaries - rigid, clear, or diffuse; interpersonal relates to family boundaries

30 Family Systems Theory Definitions II Hierarchy - power and control determined by generations-cross generation coalitions are not healthy Homeostasis - stability in midst of change Feedback loops - positive & negative Morphogenesis - change within system

31 Negative Feedback Loop Comparator Unit Thermostat Fuel Pump Furnace Building Indoor Temperature FEEDBACK

32 Family Systems Theory Terms & Definitions Requisite Variety – In a crisis, fallback on a standard default response is common; As a system, we must have a wide variety of responses or requisite variety. When a response is not presented, morphogenesis kicks in. Morphogenesis - when the system tries a new response to see if it works; if it does work, a new “form” is created Boundaries - the “fence” around each subsystem which mediates the interaction between subsystems (permeability, closed, open)

33 Family Systems Theory Terms & Definitions Self-Regulation - process of maintaining balance used to re-establish equilibrium A.G.I.L. - this integrated model is used to keep everyone happy--(too simplistic) Cybernetic system - process of feedback, control, & self-regulation Negentrophy - living systems become more & more different

34 Family Systems Theory Terms & Definitions Distance regulation - buffering links between bonding Channeling - creates/maintains distance between one another Paradoxical - conflict between the real message & the metamessage

35 Family Systems Theory Terms & Definitions Transactional patterns - repeated sequences of interaction Spillover - when two environments overlap Holism - for every action there is a reaction, the whole is greater than the sum of it’s parts

36 Models & Characteristics of Adult Development _________________________________ Mechanistic Metamodel Environment Individual passively reacts to events Organismic Metamodel Individual is active with goals Environment and strategies to attain ends Contextual Metamodel Individual continuously acts Environment on and responds to the environmental, as well as, social, historical, biological, and cultural contexts

37 Overview of the Three Life-Span Models of Adult Development person/ environment transactions qualitative changes in internal structures quantitative changes in observable behavior What should be the focus of developmental psychology? active environment: active person passive environment: active person active environment: passive person What is the relationship between person and environment? historical eventcell, embryomachine What is the underlying metaphor? ContextualOrganismicMechanistic Issues and Questions Surrounding Models

38 Degree of Emphasis on Different Characteristics of Human Development MediumLowMedium Reversibility of Change HighLowMedium Multidirectionality of Change MediumHighLow Continuity of Change MediumHighLow Stages of Change MediumHighLow Qualitative Change ContextualOrganismicMechanistic Degree of Emphasis on Different Characteristics of Human Development


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