2 Unit Nine: Energy in the Earth System Chapter 25 Measuring Heat25.1 Measuring Heat25.2 Flow of Heat25.3 Heat Transfer
3 Chapter 25 Learning Goals Measure temperature.Convert between the Celsius and Fahrenheit temperature scales.Understand and demonstrate physical changes due to temperature.Develop a mathematical relationship that describes how much the temperature of water increases when heat is added to the water.Discuss the relationship of heat and energy.Calculate the efficiency in a heating system.Explain three methods of heat transfer and describe applications of each.Analyze how energy can be transferred through convection.Describe the motion of liquid due to temperature differences within the system.
4 Chapter 25 Vocabulary Terms British thermal unit (Btu)calorieCelsius scaleconvectionFahrenheit scalefirst law of thermodynamicsheat conductionheat specificheat-temperature rulejoulelatent heatthermal energyradiation thermal equilibriumtemperaturethermal conductorthermal insulatorthermometerthermostat
5 25.1 Measuring HeatYou have probably used a thermometer to find the temperature outside.Temperature is the measurement we use to quantify the sensations of hot and cold.
6 25.1 Measuring HeatTemperature is a measure of average kinetic energy of the molecules of an object.As temperature increases, so does the average kinetic energy of the molecules.
7 25.1 Measuring HeatIt is difficult to measure the speed of individual molecules in an object since they are much too small to see.We commonly use indirect measurement to find an object’s temperature.The expansion of liquid in a thermometer is directly proportional to the increase in temperature.
8 25.1 Temperature ScalesFahrenheit scale was developed in 1714 by Gabriel Fahrenheit( ), a German physicist.In 1742, Anders Celsius ( ), a Swedish astronomer, invented a temperature scale in which there were 100 degrees between freezing and boiling.
9 25.1 Thermal Energy and Heat Thermal energy is the sum of all the kinetic energy of the molecules of a material.If two containers of soup are at the same temperature, a large pot contains more thermal energy because it takes more energy to heat it.
10 25.1 Measuring HeatHeat is the flow of thermal energy due to a temperature difference between two objects.In the scientific sense, heat occurs only when there is a difference in temperature.
11 25.1 Measuring Heat How is temperature measured? Key Question: *Read text section BEFORE Investigation 25.1
12 25.2 Flow of HeatIf you double the mass of the object you are going to heat, you need twice as much energy to increase the temperature.
13 25.2 Specific Heat Specific heat is a property of a substance. The specific heat of a substance is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of one gram by one degree Celsius.One unit used to measure heat is the calorie.
14 25.2 Flow of HeatScottish chemist Joseph Black ( ) developed the theory of specific heat in 1760.Heat added to boiling water causes water to turn to gas, but it does not raise the temperature.Black called the heat used to boil or melt substances latent heat because it could not be sensed with a thermometer.Latent means "hidden".
19 25.2 1st Law of Thermodynamics In an isolated system, the total amount of thermal energy remains constant.When hot water and ice are placed in a closed system:The energy lost by the hot water is equal toThe energy gained by the ice.Eventually, the contents reach thermal equilibrium.
20 25.2 Flow of Heat Key Question: How efficient is an immersion heater? *Read text section BEFORE Investigation 25.2
21 25.3 Heat TransferThermal energy flows from a material at a higher temperature to a material at a lower temperature.This general process is called heat transfer.Conduction and convection both require matter for the energy to transfer.
28 25.3 Convection in liquidsThe hot water at the bottom of the pot rises to the top of the pot, and is replaced by the cooler water.Next the cooler water is heated.If this did not happen, we would have to rely on the slower method of conduction to boil a pot of water.
29 25.3 RadiationRadiation is the direct transfer of energy by electromagnetic waves.When electromagnetic waves from the sun strike Earth, some are absorbed and others are reflected.