# Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2Lesson 2Thermal Energy Transfers Lesson 3Lesson 3Using.

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Chapter Menu Chapter Introduction Lesson 1Lesson 1Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat Lesson 2Lesson 2Thermal Energy Transfers Lesson 3Lesson 3Using Thermal Energy Chapter Wrap-Up

Chapter Introduction How can thermal energy be used?

Chapter Introduction What do you think? Before you begin, decide if you agree or disagree with each of these statements. As you view this presentation, see if you change your mind about any of the statements.

Chapter Introduction 1.Temperature is the same as thermal energy. 2.Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a hotter object to a cooler object. 3.It takes a large amount of energy to significantly change the temperature of an object with a low specific heat. Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Introduction 4.The thermal energy of an object can never be increased or decreased. 5.Car engines create energy. 6.Refrigerators cool food by moving thermal energy from inside the refrigerator to the outside. Do you agree or disagree?

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - KC How are temperature and kinetic energy related? How do heat and thermal energy differ? Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat

Lesson 1 Reading Guide - Vocab thermal energy temperature heat Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat

Lesson 1-1 Potential energy is stored energy due to the interaction between two objects. The potential energy plus the kinetic energy of an object is the mechanical energy of the object. Kinetic and Potential Energy

Lesson 1-2 Every solid, liquid, and gas is *. Because particles are in motion, they have kinetic energy. The faster particles move, the more kinetic energy they have. What is thermal energy?

Lesson 1-2 The greater the average distance between particles, the greater the potential energy of the particles. Thermal energy is the *.Thermal energy What is thermal energy? (cont.)

Lesson 1-2 The potential energy of the soccer ball depends on the distance between the ball and Earth. The potential energy of the particles of matter depends on their distance from one another.

Lesson 1-2 Mechanical energy describes the energy of one object. Thermal energy describes the energy of the particles that make up a solid, liquid, or gas. What is thermal energy? (cont.)

Lesson 1-3 Scientists define temperature in terms of kinetic energy. Temperature *Temperature What is temperature?

Lesson 1-3 What is temperature? (cont.) temperature from Latin temperatura, means “moderating, tempering”

Lesson 1-3 The greater the average kinetic energy of particles, the *. The particles in warmer air move at a greater average speed than the particles in colder air. What is temperature? (cont.)

Lesson 1-3 What is temperature? (cont.) How are temperature and kinetic energy related?

Lesson 1-3 Temperature and thermal energy are related, but they are not the same. The particles that make up liquid and solid water *. What is temperature? (cont.)

Lesson 1-3 Thermometers are used to measure temperature. Common temperature scales are Celsius (°C), Kelvin (K), and Fahrenheit (°F). What is temperature? (cont.)

Lesson 1-4 * is called heat.heat All objects have thermal energy; however, you heat something when thermal energy transfers from one object to another. The rate at which heating occurs depends on the difference in temperatures between the objects. What is heat?

Lesson 1-4 What is heat? (cont.) How do heat and thermal energy differ?

Lesson 1 - VS The greater the distance between two particles or two objects, the greater the potential energy. Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a warmer object to a cooler object.

Lesson 1 - VS When thermal energy moves between a material and its environment, the material’s temperature changes.

Lesson 1 - Now 1.Temperature is the same as thermal energy. 2.Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a hotter object to a cooler object. Do you agree or disagree?

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - KC What is the effect of having a small specific heat? What happens to a material when it is heated? In what ways can thermal energy be transferred? Thermal Energy Transfers

Lesson 2 Reading Guide - Vocab radiation conduction thermal conductor thermal insulator specific heat Thermal Energy Transfers thermal expansionthermal expansion thermal contractionthermal contraction convection convection currentconvection current

Lesson 2-1 Thermal energy is transferred in three ways. * * * How is thermal energy transferred?

Lesson 2-2 * is called radiation.radiation Radiation is the only way thermal energy can travel from the Sun to Earth, because space is a vacuum. Radiation also transfers thermal energy through solids, liquids, and gases. Radiation

Lesson 2-2 Radiation (cont.) vacuum Science Use a space that contains little or no matter Common Use a device for cleaning carpets and rugs that uses suction

Lesson 2-3 When particles with different kinetic energies collide, the particles with higher kinetic energy transfer energy to particles with lower kinetic energy. * is called conduction.conduction Conduction continues until the thermal energy of all particles in contact is equal. Conduction

Lesson 2-3 The hot air transfers thermal energy to, or heats, the cool lemonade by conduction. Eventually the kinetic thermal energy and temperature of the air and the lemonade will be equal. Conduction (cont.)

Lesson 2-3 A thermal conductor is a *thermal conductor A thermal insulator is a *thermal insulator Conduction (cont.)

Lesson 2-3 * is called specific heat.specific heat Water’s high specific heat helps prevent your body from overheating. Changing the temperature of a material with a low specific heat is easier than to change the temperature of a material with a high specific heat. Conduction (cont.)

Lesson 2-3 In a hot car, the temperature of thermal conductors, such as the safety-belt buckles, increases more quickly than the temperature of thermal insulators, such as the seat material.

Lesson 2-3 Conduction (cont.) What does it mean if a material has a low specific heat?

Lesson 2-4 Thermal contraction is a *Thermal contraction Thermal expansion is an *Thermal expansion Thermal expansion and contraction are most noticeable in gases, less noticeable in liquids, and the least noticeable in solids. Thermal Expansion and Contraction

Lesson 2-4 Thermal Expansion and Contraction (cont.) What happens to the volume of a gas when it is heated?

Lesson 2-5 Convection is the *.Convection Convection only occurs in fluids. Convection convection from Greek convectionem, means “the act of carrying”

Lesson 2-5 This cycle of cooler water sinking and forcing warmer water upward is an example of convection.

Lesson 2-5 Convection (cont.) What are the three processes that transfer thermal energy?

Lesson 2-5 * is a convection current.convection current Convection currents circulate the water in Earth’s oceans and other bodies of water. Convection (cont.)

Lesson 2-5 Convection Currents in Earth’s Atmosphere

Lesson 2 - VS When a material has a low specific heat, transferring a small amount of energy to the material increases its temperature significantly.

Lesson 2 - VS Thermal energy can be transferred through radiation, conduction, or convection.

Lesson 2 - VS When a material is heated, the thermal energy of the material increases and the material expands.

Lesson 2 - Now 3.It takes a large amount of energy to significantly change the temperature of an object with a low specific heat. 4.The thermal energy of an object can never be increased or decreased. Do you agree or disagree?

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - KC How does a thermostat work? How does a refrigerator keep food cold? What are the energy transformations in a car engine? Using Thermal Energy

Lesson 3 Reading Guide - Vocab heating appliance thermostat refrigerator heat engine Using Thermal Energy

Lesson 3-1 Thermostats transform thermal energy into mechanical energy that switch heaters on and off. Even though many devices transform energy from one form to another or transfer energy from one place to another, the total amount of energy does not change. Thermal Energy Transformations

Lesson 3-2 * is a heating appliance.heating appliance Curling irons, coffeemakers, and clothes irons are some examples of heating appliances. Heating Appliances

Lesson 3-3 A thermostat is a *.thermostat Thermostats thermostat from Greek therme, meaning “heat”; and statos, meaning “a standing”

Lesson 3-3 Most thermostats contain a bimetallic coil made of two types of metal joined together and bent into a coil. The metal on the inside of the coil expands and contracts more than the metal on the outside of the coil. When a room warms or cools, the thermal energy causes the bimetallic coil to uncurl slightly or tighten, which turns the furnace off or on. Thermostats (cont.)

Lesson 3-3 Thermostats (cont.) How does the bimetallic coil in a thermostat respond to heating and cooling?

Lesson 3-4 * is called a refrigerator.refrigerator In a refrigerator, a coolant is pumped through pipes on the inside and the outside of the refrigerator. Refrigerators

Lesson 3-4 Coolant in a refrigerator moves thermal energy from inside to outside the refrigerator.

Lesson 3-4 The coolant, which begins as a liquid, passes through an expansion valve and cools.

Lesson 3-4 As the cold gas flows through pipes inside the refrigerator, it absorbs thermal energy from the refrigerator compartment and vaporizes.

Lesson 3-4 Refrigerators (cont.) How does a refrigerator keep food cold?

Lesson 3-5 A heat engine is a *heat engine When a heat engine converts thermal energy into mechanical energy, the mechanical energy moves the vehicle. Most cars, buses, boats, trucks, and lawn mowers use a type of heat engine called an internal combustion engine. Heat Engines

Lesson 3-5 Internal Combustion Engine

Lesson 3-5 Internal Combustion Engine

Lesson 3-5 Heat Engines (cont.) What is one form of energy that is output from a heat engine?

Lesson 3 - VS A bimetallic coil inside a thermostat controls a switch that turns a heating or cooling device on or off.

Lesson 3 - VS A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal energy from the inside of the refrigerator out to the refrigerator’s surroundings.

Lesson 3 - VS In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is transformed into thermal energy. Some of this thermal energy is then transformed into mechanical energy.

Lesson 3 - Now 5.Car engines create energy. 6.Refrigerators cool food by moving thermal energy from inside the refrigerator to the outside. Do you agree or disagree?

Chapter Review Menu Key Concept Summary Interactive Concept Map Chapter Review Standardized Test Practice

The BIG Idea Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, radiation, and convection. Thermal energy also can be transformed into other forms of energy and used in devices such as thermostats, refrigerators, and automobile engines.

Key Concepts 1 The temperature of a material is the average kinetic energy of the particles that make up the material. Heat is the movement of thermal energy from a material or area with a higher temperature to a material or area with a lower temperature. When a material is heated, the material’s temperature changes. Lesson 1: Thermal Energy, Temperature, and Heat

Key Concepts 2 Lesson 2: Thermal Energy Transfers When a material has a low specific heat, transferring a small amount of energy to the material increases its temperature significantly. When a material is heated, the thermal energy of the material increases and the material expands. Thermal energy can be transferred by conduction, radiation, or convection.

Key Concepts 3 The two different metals in a bimetallic coil inside a thermostat expand and contract at different rates. The bimetallic coil curs and uncurls, depending on the thermal energy of the air, pushing a switch that turns a heating or cooling device on or off. A refrigerator keeps food cold by moving thermal energy from inside the refrigerator out to the refrigerator’s surroundings. In a car engine, chemical energy in fuel is transformed into thermal energy. Some of this thermal energy is then transformed into mechanical energy. Lesson 3: Using Thermal Energy

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