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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.1 A sphinx moth feeding on orchid nectar

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.2 Evolutionary convergence in fast swimmers (a) Tuna (b) Shark (c) Penguin (d) Dolphin (e) Seal

4 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.3 Contact with the environment Diffusion (a) Single cell Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Diffusion (b) Two cell layers

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals External environment FoodCO 2 O2O2 Mouth Animal body Respiratory system Circulatory system Nutrients Excretory system Digestive system Heart Blood Cells Interstitial fluid Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (urine) The lining of the small intestine, a diges- tive organ, is elaborated with fingerlike projections that expand the surface area for nutrient absorption (cross-section, SEM). A microscopic view of the lung reveals that it is much more spongelike than balloonlike. This construction provides an expansive wet surface for gas exchange with the environment (SEM). Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopic tubules that exhange chemicals with blood flowing through a web of tiny vessels called capillaries (SEM). 0.5 cm 10 µm 50 µm

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 40.1 Organ Systems: Their Main Components and Functions in Mammals

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.6 Tissue layers of the stomach, a digestive organ Lumen of stomach Mucosa. The mucosa is an epithelial layer that lines the lumen. Submucosa. The submucosa is a matrix of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves. Muscularis. The muscularis consists mainly of smooth muscle tissue. 0.2 mm Serosa. External to the muscularis is the serosa, a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue.

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.8 Measuring metabolic rate (a) This photograph shows a ghost crab in a respirometer. Temperature is held constant in the chamber, with air of known O 2 concentration flow- ing through. The crab’s metabolic rate is calculated from the difference between the amount of O 2 entering and the amount of O 2 leaving the respirometer. This crab is on a treadmill, running at a constant speed as measurements are made. (b) Similarly, the metabolic rate of a man fitted with a breathing apparatus is being monitored while he works out on a stationary bike.

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Energy budgets for four animals Endotherms Ectotherm Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 800,000 Basal metabolic rate Reproduction Temperature regulation costs Growth Activity costs 60-kg female human from temperate climate Total annual energy expenditures (a) 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4, kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female python from Australia Energy expenditure per unit mass (kcal/kgday) 438 Deer mouse 233 Adélie penguin 36.5 Human 5.5 Python Energy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kgday) (b)

10 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure A nonliving example of negative feedback: control of room temperature Response No heat produced Room temperature decreases Heater turned off Set point Too hot Set point Control center: thermostat Room temperature increases Heater turned on Too cold Response Heat produced Set point

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The relationship between body temperature and environmental temperature in an aquatic endotherm and ectotherm River otter (endotherm) Largemouth bass (ectotherm) Ambient (environmental) temperature (°C) Body temperature (°C)

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Heat exchange between an organism and its environment Radiation is the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Radiation can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact, as when a lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun. Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas. Evaporation of water from a lizard’s moist surfaces that are exposed to the environment has a strong cooling effect. Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface, as when a breeze contributes to heat loss from a lizard’s dry skin, or blood moves heat from the body core to the extremities. Conduction is the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other, as when a lizard sits on a hot rock.

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Mammalian integumentary system Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle Blood vessels Adipose tissue Hypodermis Dermis Epidermis

14 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure A terrestrial mammal bathing, an adaptation that enhances evaporative cooling

15 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The thermostat function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms. Sweat glands secrete sweat that evaporates, cooling the body. Blood vessels in skin dilate: capillaries fill with warm blood; heat radiates from skin surface. Body temperature decreases; thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms. Increased body temperature (such as when exercising or in hot surroundings) Homeostasis: Internal body temperature of approximately 36–38  C Body temperature increases; thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms. Decreased body temperature (such as when in cold surroundings) Blood vessels in skin constrict, diverting blood from skin to deeper tissues and reducing heat loss from skin surface. Skeletal muscles rapidly contract, causing shivering, which generates heat. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms.


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