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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.1 A sphinx moth feeding on orchid nectar
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.2 Evolutionary convergence in fast swimmers (a) Tuna (b) Shark (c) Penguin (d) Dolphin (e) Seal
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.3 Contact with the environment Diffusion (a) Single cell Mouth Gastrovascular cavity Diffusion (b) Two cell layers
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals External environment FoodCO 2 O2O2 Mouth Animal body Respiratory system Circulatory system Nutrients Excretory system Digestive system Heart Blood Cells Interstitial fluid Anus Unabsorbed matter (feces) Metabolic waste products (urine) The lining of the small intestine, a diges- tive organ, is elaborated with fingerlike projections that expand the surface area for nutrient absorption (cross-section, SEM). A microscopic view of the lung reveals that it is much more spongelike than balloonlike. This construction provides an expansive wet surface for gas exchange with the environment (SEM). Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopic tubules that exhange chemicals with blood flowing through a web of tiny vessels called capillaries (SEM). 0.5 cm 10 µm 50 µm
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Table 40.1 Organ Systems: Their Main Components and Functions in Mammals
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.6 Tissue layers of the stomach, a digestive organ Lumen of stomach Mucosa. The mucosa is an epithelial layer that lines the lumen. Submucosa. The submucosa is a matrix of connective tissue that contains blood vessels and nerves. Muscularis. The muscularis consists mainly of smooth muscle tissue. 0.2 mm Serosa. External to the muscularis is the serosa, a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure 40.8 Measuring metabolic rate (a) This photograph shows a ghost crab in a respirometer. Temperature is held constant in the chamber, with air of known O 2 concentration flow- ing through. The crab’s metabolic rate is calculated from the difference between the amount of O 2 entering and the amount of O 2 leaving the respirometer. This crab is on a treadmill, running at a constant speed as measurements are made. (b) Similarly, the metabolic rate of a man fitted with a breathing apparatus is being monitored while he works out on a stationary bike.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Energy budgets for four animals Endotherms Ectotherm Annual energy expenditure (kcal/yr) 800,000 Basal metabolic rate Reproduction Temperature regulation costs Growth Activity costs 60-kg female human from temperate climate Total annual energy expenditures (a) 340,000 4-kg male Adélie penguin from Antarctica (brooding) 4, kg female deer mouse from temperate North America 8,000 4-kg female python from Australia Energy expenditure per unit mass (kcal/kgday) 438 Deer mouse 233 Adélie penguin 36.5 Human 5.5 Python Energy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kgday) (b)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure A nonliving example of negative feedback: control of room temperature Response No heat produced Room temperature decreases Heater turned off Set point Too hot Set point Control center: thermostat Room temperature increases Heater turned on Too cold Response Heat produced Set point
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The relationship between body temperature and environmental temperature in an aquatic endotherm and ectotherm River otter (endotherm) Largemouth bass (ectotherm) Ambient (environmental) temperature (°C) Body temperature (°C)
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Heat exchange between an organism and its environment Radiation is the emission of electromagnetic waves by all objects warmer than absolute zero. Radiation can transfer heat between objects that are not in direct contact, as when a lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun. Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of a liquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas. Evaporation of water from a lizard’s moist surfaces that are exposed to the environment has a strong cooling effect. Convection is the transfer of heat by the movement of air or liquid past a surface, as when a breeze contributes to heat loss from a lizard’s dry skin, or blood moves heat from the body core to the extremities. Conduction is the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat) between molecules of objects in direct contact with each other, as when a lizard sits on a hot rock.
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Mammalian integumentary system Hair Sweat pore Muscle Nerve Sweat gland Oil gland Hair follicle Blood vessels Adipose tissue Hypodermis Dermis Epidermis
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure A terrestrial mammal bathing, an adaptation that enhances evaporative cooling
Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure The thermostat function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulation Thermostat in hypothalamus activates cooling mechanisms. Sweat glands secrete sweat that evaporates, cooling the body. Blood vessels in skin dilate: capillaries fill with warm blood; heat radiates from skin surface. Body temperature decreases; thermostat shuts off cooling mechanisms. Increased body temperature (such as when exercising or in hot surroundings) Homeostasis: Internal body temperature of approximately 36–38 C Body temperature increases; thermostat shuts off warming mechanisms. Decreased body temperature (such as when in cold surroundings) Blood vessels in skin constrict, diverting blood from skin to deeper tissues and reducing heat loss from skin surface. Skeletal muscles rapidly contract, causing shivering, which generates heat. Thermostat in hypothalamus activates warming mechanisms.
Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell.
LO 2.9 The student is able to represent graphically or model quantitatively the exchange of molecules between an organism and its environment, and the.
Objectives The Excretory System in the Human Explain the role of the excretory system in homeostasis the ability and necessity to maintain constancy of.
Temperature regulation HBS3A. Homeostasis Maintenance of constant internal environment This involves continually replacing substances as they are used.
The Internal Environment: A Summary Chapter 42 AP Biology Spring 2011.
Human Systems Function and Interactions There are 11 organ systems in humans.
Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Overview of Anatomy and Physiology Anatomy: The study of structure Subdivisions: Gross or macroscopic (e.g., regional,
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Homeostasis Glossary Maintain – keep up. Maintain – keep up. Constant – the same. Constant – the same. Internal – inside the body. Internal – inside.
HOMEOSTASIS Ability of the body to maintain a relatively constant internal environment necessary for life.
Chapter 1 Characteristics and Maintenance of Life.
THERMOREGULATION Control of body temperature © 2008 Paul Billiet ODWSODWS.
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture by Edward J. Zalisko PowerPoint Lectures for Campbell Biology: Concepts & Connections, Seventh Edition Reece, Taylor,
B4 revision Homeostasis An accelerated revision resource A.Blackford.
PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College Copyright © 2009 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing.
Temperature Chapter 8 Temperature Average kinetic energy of a system Arguably the most important aspect of the physical environment for life –Influences.
Introduction to Physiology. Physiology Science of body functions Science of body functions Teleological vs Mechanistic views Teleological vs Mechanistic.
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Human Body Systems. Key Ideas of Homeostasis How do the skeletal and muscular systems help the body maintain homeostasis? How does the integumentary system.
REPTILE NOTES. REPTILES The lifestyles of most reptiles have major adaptations for living on land. For example, the chuckwalla, which is a lizard.
Thermal Energy Temperature and Thermal Energy Chapter 15.
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 14 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
Chapter 34 Nutrition and Digestion. Nutrients Nutrients - substances obtained from the environment that organisms need for growth and survival Six major.
ELAINE N. MARIEB EIGHTH EDITION 1 Copyright © 2006 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation by.
Why are we here? Obviously, to learn about human anatomy and physiology. But, what does that mean? Before we begin, we’ve got to figure a few things out:
© 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. PowerPoint ® Lecture Slides Prepared by Patty Bostwick-Taylor, Florence-Darlington Technical College C H A P T E R 1 The.
Heat Chapter 9 Thermal Energy. Kinetic and Potential Energy Kinetic energy- energy of motion potential energy – Is the certain amount of energy that Molecules.
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