Presentation on theme: "Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function"— Presentation transcript:
1 Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Chapter 40:Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function
2 Figure 40.1 A sphinx moth feeding on orchid nectar
3 Figure 40.2 Evolutionary convergence in fast swimmers (a) Tuna(b) Shark(c) Penguin(d) Dolphin(e) Seal
4 Figure 40.3 Contact with the environment Diffusion(a) Single cellMouthGastrovascularcavity(b) Two cell layers
5 Figure 40.4 Internal exchange surfaces of complex animals External environmentFoodCO2O2MouthAnimalbodyRespiratorysystemCirculatoryNutrientsExcretoryDigestiveHeartBloodCellsInterstitialfluidAnusUnabsorbedmatter (feces)Metabolic wasteproducts (urine)The lining of the small intestine, a diges-tive organ, is elaborated with fingerlikeprojections that expand the surface areafor nutrient absorption (cross-section, SEM).A microscopic view of the lung revealsthat it is much more spongelike thanballoonlike. This construction providesan expansive wet surface for gasexchange with the environment (SEM).Inside a kidney is a mass of microscopictubules that exhange chemicals withblood flowing through a web of tinyvessels called capillaries (SEM).0.5 cm10 µm50 µm
6 Table 40.1 Organ Systems: Their Main Components and Functions in Mammals
7 Figure 40.6 Tissue layers of the stomach, a digestive organ Lumen ofstomachMucosa. The mucosa is anepithelial layer that linesthe lumen.Submucosa. The submucosa isa matrix of connective tissuethat contains blood vesselsand nerves.Muscularis. The muscularis consists mainly of smooth muscle tissue.0.2 mmSerosa. External to the muscularis is the serosa, a thin layer of connective and epithelial tissue.
8 Figure 40.8 Measuring metabolic rate (a) This photograph shows a ghost crab in a respirometer. Temperature is held constant in the chamber, with air of known O2 concentration flow- ing through. The crab’s metabolic rate is calculated from the difference between the amount of O2 entering and the amount of O2 leaving the respirometer. This crab is on a treadmill, running at a constant speed as measurements are made.(b) Similarly, the metabolic rate of a man fitted with a breathing apparatus is being monitored while he works out on a stationary bike.
9 Figure 40.10 Energy budgets for four animals EndothermsEctothermAnnual energy expenditure (kcal/yr)800,000BasalmetabolicrateReproductionTemperatureregulation costsGrowthActivitycosts60-kg female humanfrom temperate climateTotal annual energy expenditures(a)340,0004-kg male Adélie penguinfrom Antarctica (brooding)4,0000.025-kg female deer mousefrom temperateNorth America8,0004-kg female pythonfrom AustraliaEnergy expenditure per unit mass(kcal/kg•day)438Deer mouse233Adélie penguin36.5Human5.5PythonEnergy expenditures per unit mass (kcal/kg•day)(b)
10 Figure 40.11 A nonliving example of negative feedback: control of room temperature ResponseNo heatproducedRoomtemperaturedecreasesHeaterturnedoffSet pointToohotSetpointControl center:thermostatincreasesoncoldHeat
11 Figure 40.12 The relationship between body temperature and environmental temperature in an aquatic endotherm and ectothermRiver otter (endotherm)Largemouth bass (ectotherm)Ambient (environmental) temperature (°C)Body temperature (°C)40302010
12 Figure 40.13 Heat exchange between an organism and its environment Radiation is the emission of electromagneticwaves by all objects warmer than absolutezero. Radiation can transfer heat betweenobjects that are not in direct contact, as whena lizard absorbs heat radiating from the sun.Evaporation is the removal of heat from the surface of aliquid that is losing some of its molecules as gas.Evaporation of water from a lizard’s moist surfaces thatare exposed to the environment has a strong cooling effect.Convection is the transfer of heat by themovement of air or liquid past a surface,as when a breeze contributes to heat lossfrom a lizard’s dry skin, or blood movesheat from the body core to the extremities.Conduction is the direct transfer of thermal motion (heat)between molecules of objects in direct contact with eachother, as when a lizard sits on a hot rock.
14 Figure 40.18 A terrestrial mammal bathing, an adaptation that enhances evaporative cooling
15 Internal body temperature Figure 40.21 The thermostat function of the hypothalamus in human thermoregulationThermostat inhypothalamusactivates coolingmechanisms.Sweat glands secretesweat that evaporates,cooling the body.Blood vesselsin skin dilate:capillaries fillwith warm blood;heat radiates fromskin surface.Body temperaturedecreases;thermostatshuts off coolingIncreased bodytemperature (suchas when exercisingor in hotsurroundings)Homeostasis:Internal body temperatureof approximately 36–38Cincreases;shuts off warmingDecreased bodytemperature(such as whenin coldBlood vessels in skinconstrict, diverting bloodfrom skin to deeper tissuesand reducing heat lossfrom skin surface.Skeletal muscles rapidlycontract, causing shivering,which generates heat.activateswarming